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2.
Eur J Intern Med ; 104: 73-79, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation has been reported following vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the real extent remains unknown. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidence of VZV reactivation or infection following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Episodes after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were also identified. Related articles were identified in PubMed and EMBASE databases till December 31, 2021 using the terms "varicella zoster" and "COVID-19″. PROSPERO Register Number: CRD42021289399. RESULTS: The search revealed 314 articles, of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. VZV manifestations were documented in 179 (82.1%) subjects following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and in 39 (17.9%) patients with COVID-19. Among the vaccinated, median (IQR) age was 56.5 (42-70) years, and 56.8% were female. Twenty-one (16.8%) were immunosuppressed. The median (IQR) latency time after vaccination was 6 (3-10) days, and 84.4% received mRNA vaccines. VZV reactivation occurred following a first dose (68.2%), a second dose (12.8%) or a booster (0.6%). The most important VZV manifestation was dermatome herpes zoster rash, which accounted for 86.4% of events in vaccinated subjects. Twenty patients (11.3%) presented serious VZV events after vaccination, with Herpes Zoster ophthalmicus (5.6%) and post-herpetic neuralgia (3.4%) predominating. No VZV pneumonia or deaths were recorded. Antiviral prescriptions were made in 96.2% of vaccinated subjects. No significant differences between vaccinated and infected subjects were found. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the occurrence of VZV reactivation is clinically relevant. However, our findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccination is safe, and remains strongly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 3, Human/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Clin Med ; 11(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917550

ABSTRACT

After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a global pandemic, vaccines were rapidly developed to control the spread of the virus. Although they were effective in most of the cases at protecting people from becoming seriously ill and being hospitalized, they showed side effects, too. Among other adverse vaccine reactions, cutaneous eruptions following SARS-CoV-2 have been described in the literature, but they are not well-characterized yet. We described the morphology and timing of the spectrum of cutaneous reactions following most of the COVID-19 vaccines available in Italy, which were observed in outpatients referred to our non-invasive diagnostic clinic. Most of these reactions appeared after the second or third COVID-19 vaccine dose (most of them after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines). Our data support that cutaneous reactions to COVID-19 vaccination are generally self-limited; in addition, history of allergic reaction to a specific food, medicine or vaccine should not discourage vaccination in the general population, although patients with immune dysregulation should be accurately selected and monitored. Further research is necessary to better assess the true prevalence and preventive measures of skin reactions to COVID-19 vaccination.

6.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114419, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636503

ABSTRACT

The new virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCov-2) causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread quickly in several countries and it has become pandemic. Different types of clinical manifestations are attributed to this infection. Some mechanisms related to the infection regarding the immune response are not still elucidated. Herein we reported a case of a 66-years-old patient affected by myelodysplasia who was referred to our hospital because of clinical and radiological manifestations of viral pneumonia. The clinical course has become complicated due to bacterial secondary over-infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during stay in internal medicine unit whilst a persistent positive oral and naso-pharyngeal swab test was reported up to 100 days of admission. The patient had a fast clinical and radiological worsening that led her to be admitted to an intensive care unit. Despite intubation and mechanical ventilation she died in a few days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies
7.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(4): 1339-1346, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625816

ABSTRACT

Emerging literature evidence shows that the manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, encompass alterations of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurological system. Moreover, hematologic and dermatologic manifestations have been documented. The aim of this review is to summarize the dermatologic manifestations of COVID-19 involving the hair and nails in a narrative way. A total of 1136 patients have been reported to have de novo hair loss following COVID-19. Notably, 958 patients experienced telogen effluvium (TE) (female/male ratio = 3,86:1), two female patients experienced anagen effluvium, and 176 people had alopecia areata (female/male ratio of 19:3). Ten patients were reported to have ungual changes following the infection with the novel coronavirus: The individuals affected were 6 women and 4 men. COVID-19 can be associated with hair and ungual manifestations. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the hair and ungual manifestations of COVID-19, which could be harnessed to better understand the clinical implications and pathophysiology of this disease that has been burdening society globally since December 2019.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 , Alopecia/complications , Alopecia Areata/epidemiology , Alopecia Areata/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hair , Humans , Male , Nails , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 presents with a wide range of clinical neurological manifestations. It has been recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects both the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to smell and taste disturbances; acute ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease; encephalopathies and seizures; and causes most surviving patients to have long lasting neurological symptoms. Despite this, typical neuropathological features associated with the infection have still not been identified. Studies of post-mortem examinations of the cerebral cortex are obtained with difficulty due to laboratory safety concerns. In addition, they represent cases with different neurological symptoms, age or comorbidities, thus a larger number of brain autoptic data from multiple institutions would be crucial. Histopathological findings described here are aimed to increase the current knowledge on neuropathology of COVID-19 patients. We report post-mortem neuropathological findings of ten COVID-19 patients. A wide range of neuropathological lesions were seen. The cerebral cortex of all patients showed vascular changes, hyperemia of the meninges and perivascular inflammation in the cerebral parenchyma with hypoxic neuronal injury. Perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of predominantly CD8-positive T cells mixed with CD68-positive macrophages, targeting the disrupted vascular wall in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and pons were seen. Our findings support recent reports highlighting a role of microvascular injury in COVID-19 neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Cerebral Cortex/virology , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/virology , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 20(8): 2378-2379, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269752
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