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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334295

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: This study analysed secondary attack rates (SARs), comparing alpha variants, delta variants and non-variants of concern (non-VOCs), using clinical and close-contact tracing data.MethodsWe analysed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case data from a database and contact tracing data between July and October 2020 (Cohort 1) and April 2021 (Cohort 2) and between July and August 2021 (Cohort 3) in a city in Toyama prefecture, Japan. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the N501Y (alpha variant) and L452R (delta variant) mutations. We calculated the SARs considering close contact, index case and contact setting characteristics. Relative risks (RRs) of secondary attack were analysed using Poisson regression models.ResultsAmong 123 index cases and 530 close contacts in Cohort 1, 246 index cases and 988 close contacts in Cohort 2, and 304 index cases and 984 close contacts in Cohort 3, the SARs associated with alpha and delta variant index cases were 1.47 times and 1.89 times higher than those associated with non-VOC index cases. Delta variant index cases were associated with the highest SAR (29.2%) in the same household and a 2.40-fold (95% CI: 1.62-3.56) higher risk of transmission than non-VOC index cases. The age and symptoms of index cases were associated with the SAR.ConclusionsWe confirmed that VOC index cases were associated with increased transmissibility. Population longitudinal surveillance data linked with contact-tracing data provide valuable information for elucidation of the characteristics of newly emerging variants.

2.
Circ Res ; 130(5): 782-799, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723985

ABSTRACT

Social determinants of health (SDoH), which encompass the economic, social, environmental, and psychosocial factors that influence health, play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as CVD morbidity and mortality. The COVID-19 pandemic and the current social justice movement sparked by the death of George Floyd have laid bare long-existing health inequities in our society driven by SDoH. Despite a recent focus on these structural drivers of health disparities, the impact of SDoH on cardiovascular health and CVD outcomes remains understudied and incompletely understood. To further investigate the mechanisms connecting SDoH and CVD, and ultimately design targeted and effective interventions, it is important to foster interdisciplinary efforts that incorporate translational, epidemiological, and clinical research in examining SDoH-CVD relationships. This review aims to facilitate research coordination and intervention development by providing an evidence-based framework for SDoH rooted in the lived experiences of marginalized populations. Our framework highlights critical structural/socioeconomic, environmental, and psychosocial factors most strongly associated with CVD and explores several of the underlying biologic mechanisms connecting SDoH to CVD pathogenesis, including excess stress hormones, inflammation, immune cell function, and cellular aging. We present landmark studies and recent findings about SDoH in our framework, with careful consideration of the constructs and measures utilized. Finally, we provide a roadmap for future SDoH research focused on individual, clinical, and policy approaches directed towards developing multilevel community-engaged interventions to promote cardiovascular health.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Equity/statistics & numerical data , Humans
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524000

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread prevalence of cases associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, little is known about the spatial clustering of COVID-19 in the United States. Data on COVID-19 cases were used to identify U.S. counties that have both high and low COVID-19 incident proportions and clusters. Our results suggest that there are a variety of sociodemographic variables that are associated with the severity of COVID-19 county-level incident proportions. As the pandemic evolved, communities of color were disproportionately impacted. Subsequently, it shifted from communities of color and metropolitan areas to rural areas in the U.S. Our final period showed limited differences in county characteristics, suggesting that COVID-19 infections were more widespread. The findings might address the systemic barriers and health disparities that may result in high incident proportions of COVID-19 clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 347-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510011

ABSTRACT

Genetic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the mainstay of diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it has not been fully investigated whether infectious viruses are contained in SARS-CoV-2 genome-positive specimens examined using the rRT-PCR test. In this study, we examined the correlation between the threshold Cycle (Ct) value obtained from the rRT-PCR test and virus isolation in cultured cells, using 533 consecutive clinical specimens of COVID-19 patients. The virus was isolated from specimens with a Ct value of less than 30 cycles, and the lower the Ct value, the more efficient the isolation rate. A cytopathic effect due to herpes simplex virus type 1 contamination was observed in one sample with a Ct value of 35 cycles. In a comparison of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells and VeroE6 cells used for virus isolation, VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells isolated the virus 1.7 times more efficiently than VeroE6 cells. There was no significant difference between the two cells in the mean Ct value of the detectable sample. In conclusion, Lower Ct values in the PCR test were associated with higher virus isolation rates, and VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were able to isolate viruses more efficiently than VeroE6 cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Line , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Diabetes ; 70, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1362212

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Access to in-person diabetes self-management education (DSME) programs is limited in underserved immigrant communities. In this report, we examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a social media-based DSME intervention in low-income older Chinese immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This was a single-group study in 30 Chinese immigrants with T2D living in NYC. The intervention included 24 culturally and linguistically tailored DSME videos. Over 12 weeks, participants received 2 brief videos each week via WeChat, a free social media app popular among Chinese immigrants. Feasibility was defined as ability to achieve: 1) the recruitment goal (n=30);2) >80% retention;and 3) >80% watch rate. Acceptability was assessed via a satisfaction survey at 6 months. HbA1c was collected at baseline and 6 months Results: Recruitment was completed prior to the NYC COVID-19 lockdown. Despite COVID-19, the intervention continued without interruption. Participants were mostly female (70.0%), married (63.3%), with limited English proficiency (86.7%), and a mean age of 61.2 (SD=6.7) years old. Most reported an annual household income of < $25,000 (84.0%) and an education of high school or less (63.3%). Thirty participants were recruited within 2 months, 93.3% were retained at 6 months, and a video watch rate of 92.2% was achieved. The mean baseline HbA1c was 7.4% (SD=1.2) and declined by 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3%-0.9%, p=0.001) to 6.8% (SD=0.8) at 6 months. Participants expressed high satisfaction (96.4%), and all strongly agreed or agreed that they preferred this video-based DSME to face-to-face visits. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that a social media-based DSME intervention is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious in an aging low-income immigrant population with T2D. These findings provide timely implications in the era of COVID-19, suggesting older low-income immigrants can be engaged in mHealth interventions.

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