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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 8850666221098930, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Tracheostomy is increasingly performed when a prolonged course of IMV is anticipated. OBJECTIVES: To determine clinical and resource utilization benefits of early versus late tracheostomy among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Embase were used to identify relevant studies comparing outcomes of COVID-19 patients undergoing early and late tracheostomy from January 1, 2020, to December 1, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve studies were selected, and 2222 critically ill COVID-19 patients hospitalized between January to December 2020 were included. Among the included patients, 34.5% and 65.5% underwent early and late tracheostomy, respectively. Among the included studies, 58.3% and 41.7% defined early tracheostomy using cutoffs of 14 and 10 days, respectively. All-cause in-hospital mortality was not different between the early and late tracheostomy groups (32.9% vs. 33.1%; OR = 1.00; P = 0.98). Sensitivity analysis demonstrated a similar mortality rate in studies using a cutoff of 10 days (34.6% vs. 35.5%; OR = 0.97; P = 0.89) or 14 days (31.2% vs. 27.7%; OR = 1.05; P = 0.78). The early tracheostomy group had shorter ICU length of stay (LOS) (mean: 23.18 vs. 30.51 days; P < 0.001) and IMV duration (mean: 20.49 vs. 28.94 days; P < 0.001) than the late tracheostomy group. The time from tracheostomy to decannulation was longer (mean: 23.36 vs. 16.24 days; P = 0.02) in the early tracheostomy group than in the late tracheostomy group, but the time from tracheostomy to IMV weaning was similar in both groups. Other clinical characteristics, including age, were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early tracheostomy reduced the ICU LOS and IMV duration among COVID-19 patients compared with late tracheostomy, but the mortality rate was similar in both groups. The findings have important implications for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, especially in a resource-limited setting.

2.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 33, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant strain on healthcare resources and this requires diligent resource re-allocation. We aim to describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during this period as compared to non-pandemic period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. The study compared the incidence and outcomes of code blue activations over a 3-month period from March to May 2020 (COVID-19 period) with the same months in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). The primary outcome of the study was the rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA. The secondary outcomes included incidence of all code blue activation per 1000 hospital admissions, incidence of IHCA per 1000 hospital admissions. OUTCOMES: The rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA was 5.88% in the COVID-19 period as compared to 10.0% in the pre-COVID-19 period [odds ratio (OR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-1.95]. Compared to pre-COVID-19 period, there were more IHCA incidences per 1000 hospital admissions in the COVID-19 period (1.86 vs 1.03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: The study observed a trend towards higher incidence of IHCA and lower rate of survival to hospital discharge during COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 period.

3.
Indoor Air ; 31(5): 1639-1644, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194130

ABSTRACT

Facing shortages of personal protective equipment, some clinicians have advocated the use of barrier enclosures (typically mounted over the head, with and without suction) to contain aerosol emissions from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. There is, however, little evidence for its usefulness. To test the effectiveness of such a device, we built a manikin that can expire micron-sized aerosols at flow rates close to physiological conditions. We then placed the manikin inside the enclosure and used a laser sheet to visualize the aerosol leaking out. We show that with sufficient suction, it is possible to effectively contain aerosol from the manikin, reducing aerosol exposure outside the enclosure by 99%. In contrast, a passive barrier without suction only reduces aerosol exposure by 60%.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Humans , Models, Anatomic , SARS-CoV-2 , Suction/methods
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7477, 2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169408

ABSTRACT

We aim to describe a case series of critically and non-critically ill COVID-19 patients in Singapore. This was a multicentered prospective study with clinical and laboratory details. Details for fifty uncomplicated COVID-19 patients and ten who required mechanical ventilation were collected. We compared clinical features between the groups, assessed predictors of intubation, and described ventilatory management in ICU patients. Ventilated patients were significantly older, reported more dyspnea, had elevated C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. A multivariable logistic regression model identified respiratory rate (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.24-6.47) and neutrophil count (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.34-4.26) on admission as independent predictors of intubation with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.928 (95% CI 0.828-0.979). Median APACHE II score was 19 (IQR 17-22) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio before intubation was 104 (IQR 89-129). Median peak FiO2 was 0.75 (IQR 0.6-1.0), positive end-expiratory pressure 12 (IQR 10-14) and plateau pressure 22 (IQR 18-26) in the first 24 h of ventilation. Median duration of ventilation was 6.5 days (IQR 5.5-13). There were no fatalities. Most COVID-19 patients in Singapore who required mechanical ventilation because of ARDS were extubated with no mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Area Under Curve , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Rate , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore
5.
Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore ; 49(7):434-448, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-777043

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Singapore was one of the first countries affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVED-19) pandemic but has been able to prevent its healthcare system and intensive care units (ICU) from being overwhelmed. We describe the clinical features, management and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure admitted to our ICU. Materials and Methods: A case series of COVID-19 patients admitted to our ICU for respiratory failure from 7 February, with data censoring at 30 June 2020, was performed from a review of medical records. Results: Twenty-two COVID-19 patients were admitted to our ICU for respiratory failure. The median age was 54.5 years (IQR 30-45.5), 72.7% were male and had at least one comorbidity. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were 2.5 (IQR 1.25-7) and 10 (8.25-12) respectively. Thirteen patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and had a median PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 194 mmHg (IQR 173-213) after intubation. The 28-day survival was 100%, with 2 patients demising subsequently. The overall ICU mortality rate was 9.1% at the time of data censoring. In IMV survivors, length of IMV and ICU stay were 11 days (IQR 9-17.75) and 16 days (IQR 12-32) respectively. Conclusion: Low COVID-19 ICU mortality was observed in our "pandemic-ready" ICU. This was achieved by having adequate surge capacity to facilitate early ICU admission and IMV, lung protective ventilation, and slow weaning. Being able to maintain clinical standards and evidence-based practices without having to resort to rationing contributed to better outcomes.

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