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1.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 12(7): 2969-2989, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262519

ABSTRACT

Patients exhibit good tolerance to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, and the choice of encoded molecules is flexible and diverse. These vaccines can be engineered to express full-length antigens containing multiple epitopes without major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction, are relatively easy to control and can be rapidly mass produced. In 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech, which has generated enthusiasm for mRNA vaccine research and development. Based on the above characteristics and the development of mRNA vaccines, mRNA cancer vaccines have become a research hotspot and have undergone rapid development, especially in the last five years. This review analyzes the advances in mRNA cancer vaccines from various perspectives, including the selection and expression of antigens/targets, the application of vectors and adjuvants, different administration routes, and preclinical evaluation, to reflect the trends and challenges associated with these vaccines.

2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1107639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261428

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NtAb) levels are key indicators in the development and evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Establishing a unified and reliable WHO International Standard (IS) for NtAb is crucial for the calibration and harmonization of NtAb detection assays. National and other WHO secondary standards are key links in the transfer of IS to working standards but are often overlooked. The Chinese National Standard (NS) and WHO IS were developed by China and WHO in September and December 2020, respectively, the application of which prompted and coordinated sero-detection of vaccine and therapy globally. Currently, a second-generation Chinese NS is urgently required owing to the depletion of stocks and need for calibration to the WHO IS. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) developed two candidate NSs (samples 33 and 66-99) traced to the IS according to the WHO manual for the establishment of national secondary standards through a collaborative study of nine experienced labs. Either NS candidate can reduce the systematic error among different laboratories and the difference between the live virus neutralization (Neut) and pseudovirus neutralization (PsN) methods, ensuring the accuracy and comparability of NtAb test results among multiple labs and methods, especially for samples 66-99. At present, samples 66-99 have been approved as the second-generation NS, which is the first NS calibrated tracing to the IS with 580 (460-740) International Units (IU)/mL and 580 (520-640) IU/mL by Neut and PsN, respectively. The use of standards improves the reliability and comparability of NtAb detection, ensuring the continuity of the use of the IS unitage, which effectively promotes the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , China , World Health Organization
3.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241292

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protein subunit vaccine is one of the mainstream technology platforms for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, and most R&D units use the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or spike (S) protein as the main target antigen. The complexity of vaccine design, sequence, and expression systems makes it urgent to establish common antigen assays to facilitate vaccine development. In this study, we report the development of a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the antigen content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines based on the United States Pharmacopeia <1220> and ICH (international conference on harmonization) Q14 and Q2 (R2) requirements. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), 20D8, was identified as the detection antibody based on its high RBD binding activity (EC50 = 8.4 ng/mL), broad-spectrum anti-variant neutralizing activity (EC50: 2.7−9.8 ng/mL for pseudovirus and EC50: 9.6−127 ng/mL for authentic virus), good in vivo protection, and a recognized linear RBD epitope (369−379 aa). A porcine anti-RBD polyclonal antibody was selected as the coating antibody. Assay performance met the requirements of the analytical target profile with an accuracy and precision of ≥90% and adequate specificity. Within the specification range of 70−143%, the method capability index was >0.96; the misjudgment probability was <0.39%. The method successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccine antigens (RBD or S protein sequences in Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants) obtained from five different manufacturers. Thus, we present a new robust, reliable, and general method for measuring the antigenic content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. In addition to currently marketed and emergency vaccines, it is suitable for vaccines in development containing antigens derived from pre-Omicron mutant strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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