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4.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with autoimmune diseases were advised to shield to avoid COVID-19, but information on their prognosis is lacking. We characterised 30-day outcomes and mortality after hospitalisation with COVID-19 among patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, and compared outcomes after hospital admissions among similar patients with seasonal influenza. DESIGN: Multinational network cohort study. SETTING: Electronic health records data from Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) (NYC, United States [US]), Optum [US], Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) (US), Information System for Research in Primary Care-Hospitalisation Linked Data (SIDIAP-H) (Spain), and claims data from IQVIA Open Claims (US) and Health Insurance and Review Assessment (HIRA) (South Korea). PARTICIPANTS: All patients with prevalent autoimmune diseases, diagnosed and/or hospitalised between January and June 2020 with COVID-19, and similar patients hospitalised with influenza in 2017-2018 were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 30-day complications during hospitalisation and death. RESULTS: We studied 133,589 patients diagnosed and 48,418 hospitalised with COVID-19 with prevalent autoimmune diseases. The majority of participants were female (60.5% to 65.9%) and aged >=50 years. The most prevalent autoimmune conditions were psoriasis (3.5 to 32.5%), rheumatoid arthritis (3.9 to 18.9%), and vasculitis (3.3 to 17.6%). Amongst hospitalised patients, Type 1 diabetes was the most common autoimmune condition (4.8% to 7.5%) in US databases, rheumatoid arthritis in HIRA (18.9%), and psoriasis in SIDIAP-H (26.4%). Compared to 70,660 hospitalised with influenza, those admitted with COVID-19 had more respiratory complications including pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, and higher 30-day mortality (2.2% to 4.3% versus 6.3% to 24.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with autoimmune diseases had high rates of respiratory complications and 30-day mortality following a hospitalization with COVID-19. Compared to influenza, COVID-19 is a more severe disease, leading to more complications and higher mortality. Future studies should investigate predictors of poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients with autoimmune diseases. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC: Patients with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection andcomplications. There is a paucity of evidence characterising the outcomes of hospitalised COVID-19 patients with prevalent autoimmune conditions. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Most people with autoimmune diseases who required hospitalisation for COVID-19 were women, aged 50 years or older, and had substantial previous comorbidities.Patients who were hospitalised with COVID-19 and had prevalent autoimmune diseases had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, and Type 2 diabetes as compared to those with prevalent autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with COVID-19.A variable proportion of 6% to 25% across data sources died within one month of hospitalisation with COVID-19 and prevalent autoimmune diseases.For people with autoimmune diseases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was associated with worse outcomes and 30-day mortality compared to admission with influenza in the 2017-2018 season.

5.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 15(1):270-278, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1743256

ABSTRACT

As cardiovascular diseases are still a major cause of death in most countries, it is still relevant to look into treatment of such diseases. Dyslipidemia is one of the important identified risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. As this is largely driven by lifestyle and diet, it may be difficult to control it with lifestyle modifications alone. Currently, Statins remains to be the mainstay therapy for dyslipidemia but this is also met by problems within certain patient population. The drug may be contraindicated in certain patient groups;some patients tend to not respond to Statins;while certain patients may not tolerate the adverse events. This study looked into available literature on studies done on dyslipidemia using plant-based formulations using randomized clinical trial. Based on the review conducted, there are several plant-based formations with potential to be similar in efficacy to Statins. Some of the plants used are abundant or may be easily sourced. With the increasing popularity of food supplements or nutraceuticals, exploration on the potential of plant-based products is attractive. Despite the promising results of some studies, these will need further investigations and targeting a larger population size. Formulation options may need to be explored also focused on its stability. © RJPT All right reserved.

7.
Kidney international reports ; 7(2):S400-S400, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695142
8.
Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S400-S400, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1693561
9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314989

ABSTRACT

Background: The need for healthcare workers (HCWs) to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic heightens thermal stress. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HCWs from developed and developing countries on PPE usage and heat stress when performing treatment and care.Methods: One hundred and sixty-five HCWs from India (n=110) and Singapore (n=55) participated in this survey. Thirty-seven HCWs from Singapore provided thermal comfort ratings before and after ice slurry ingestion. Responses between India and Singapore HCWs were compared. A p- value cut-off of 0·05 depicted statistical significance.Results: Median wet-bulb globe temperature was higher in India (30·2°C [IQR 29·1-31·8°C]) than in Singapore (22·0°C [IQR 18·8-24·8°C]) ( p <0·001). Majority of the respondents reported thirst (144;87%), excessive sweating (145;88%), exhaustion (128;78%), and desire to go to comfort zones (136;84%). In Singapore, reports of air-conditioning at worksites (34;62%), dedicated rest area availability (55;100%) and PPE removal during breaks (54;98.2%) were higher than in India (27;25%, 46;42%, and 66;60%, respectively) ( p <0·001). Median thermal comfort rating improved from 2 (IQR 1-2) to 0 (IQR 0-1) after ice slurry ingestion in Singapore ( p <0·001). Conclusion: HCWs are cognisant of the effects of heat stress but might not adopt best practices due to various constraints. Thermal stress management is better in Singapore than in India. Ice slurry ingestion is shown to be practical and effective in promoting thermal comfort under these conditions. Adverse effects of heat stress on productivity and judgement of HCWs warrant further investigation.Funding: This study was not funded in part or whole by any companies or agencies.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that there are no competing financial interests.Ethics Approval Statement: In India, ethics approval was granted by Sri Ramachandra Institution of Higher Education and Research (Reference No.: IECNI/17/APR/59/54). In Singapore, ethics approval was granted by the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB;Reference No.: 2020/00590).

10.
7th International Conference on Man Machine Systems, ICoMMS 2021 ; 2107, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1608169

ABSTRACT

Face masks have become a necessary thing that people need to wear daily. Even though some people might already be vaccinated, there is still a chance that the Covid-19 virus could still infect them. Hence, this paper presents a device developed to help determine the quality of face masks crucial in preventing the spread of the virus. These devices can calculate the temperature outside the face mask at a maximum distance of three meters. The way this device works is by measuring the temperature released out of the face mask. Here, the developments of the device with the ability to help determine the quality of face masks are explained and discussed. In the end, the device is perfectly functioning and definitely would assist in verifying the quality of the face masks being worn by someone. Two types of faces are used as test materials: the KN95 type face mask and the 3ply facemask used in Malaysia. Each facemask collected data from 30 minutes to 300 minutes for ten subjects over ten days. Studies that have been conducted show that the thermal value of the KN95 facemask increased to 30.27°C after 5 hours of use. At the same time, the 3ply type facemask offers a thermal value of up to 34.58°C after 5 hours of use. This shows a thermal value difference of up to 4.31°C for both facemasks after 5 hours of use. © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

11.
2021 International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICoBE 2021 ; 2071, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1606423

ABSTRACT

COVID19 chest X-ray has been used as supplementary tools to support COVID19 severity level diagnosis. However, there are challenges that required to face by researchers around the world in order to implement these chest X-ray samples to be very helpful to detect the disease. Here, this paper presents a review of COVID19 chest X-ray classification using deep learning approach. This study is conducted to discuss the source of images and deep learning models as well as its performances. At the end of this paper, the challenges and future work on COVID19 chest X-ray are discussed and proposed. © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

12.
7th International Conference on Man Machine Systems, ICoMMS 2021 ; 2107, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1604314

ABSTRACT

In COVID19 pandemic, new norms have been introduced, including, to leave a record when checking-in to a particular place. This new norm is regulated in order to trace locations that have been visited by someone with positive COVID-19. This paper presents a work on development of check-in location system. The system implemented Near Field Communication (NFC) technology which is mainly utilized two NFC compatible devices where an identification card (IC) is used as a smart object (NFC tag) and the NFC detector as an NFC reader to exchange information. Testing has been conducted in order to observe the system performance, and, the results showed that this system is able to collect information of users who were coming to premise. Also, the information can be checked by authority in order to track someone with positive COVID-19. As conclusion, this system can be an alternative to MySejahtera App. © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

13.
Blood ; 138:2504, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582285

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients (pts) with hematological malignancies (HMs) are at increased risk for severe COVID19 infection and death (Grivas, 2021). Currently, vaccination represents the most effective prevention approach. HM pts have been shown to have lower immune responses to COVID19 vaccine, particularly those with lymphoid malignancies (LMs) (Herishanu, 2021;Thakkar 2021;Tzarfari 2021). We conducted an observational cohort study at Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) to evaluate the immune response following one and two doses of the mRNA1273 (Moderna) vaccine in cancer pts. Here we report the results for pts with LMs and assessed associated factors. Methods: MCC pts who presented for the first mRNA-1273 vaccine dose from 1/12/2021-1/25/2021 and who provided consent were enrolled. Blood samples were collected prior to the 1 st and 2 nd doses (Days 1 and 29) and ~28 days after the 2 nd dose (Day 57). The IgG response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was measured using a two-step ELISA adapted from the Krammer (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai) protocol. The total 103 LM pts who received both vaccine doses and had samples at all time points were included in analyses. The 214 pts with solid tumors (ST) were included as comparison. Associations of seroconversion (SV) rates with pt characteristics were evaluated using the Fisher exact test or Chi-square test as appropriate. Associations of antibody (Ab) titers with pt characteristics were examined using Kruskal Wallis test. Factors independently associated with SV rates were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. All analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 and R studio. Results: Baseline characteristics, cancer treatments and SV rates by these factors are listed in Tables 1 and 2. 55 pts had B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), 23 had chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 15 had T- or NK-cell lymphoma (T/NK lymphoma) and 10 had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). SV rates were significantly lower for LM pts compared to ST pts (49.5% vs 86.9% after the 1st dose and 68.9% vs 98.1% after the 2 nd dose, respectively, p<0.0001 for both doses). Pts with CLL and B-NHL had the lowest SV rates (21.7% and 43.6% after dose 1 and 65.2% and 58.2% after dose 2, respectively). None of the 11 pts on anti-CD20 monoclonal Ab (mAb) seroconverted after 2 doses. Pts on BTK inhibitors (BTKi) or PI3K inhibitors (PI3Ki) or venetoclax also had low SV rates [4/12 (33.3%) after 2 doses]. Only 1 out of the 8 pts post CAR-T seroconverted, despite the fact that 6 pts had CAR-T >12 months ago and 6 pts were in remission and have not received any cancer treatment after CAR-T. Pts with CLL and B-NHL but not on CD20 mAb/BTKi/PI3Ki/venetoclax or post CAR-T had much higher SV rates (31.3-60.5% after dose 1 and 79.0-81.3% after dose 2, Table 3). Other factors associated with lack of SV after 2 doses included: lymphocyte <1 x 10 9/L, low IgG level and on anticancer treatment within 3 months. Multivariate analyses showed that diagnosis of CLL or B-NHL compared to ST, CAR-T and CD20 mAb/BTKi/PI3Ki/venetoclax were independently associated with decreased SV after 2 doses (Table 4). In the univariate model, Ab titers after 1 and 2 doses were significantly lower in pts with diagnosis of CLL/B-NHL, low lymphocyte count, low IgG and on cancer treatment (Figures 1-3). HL and T/NK lymphoma had titers comparable to solid tumors (Figure 1). Conclusions: Pts with CLL and B-NHL had low SV rates and Ab titers after receiving the mRNA-1273 vaccine when compared with ST, HL and T/NK-lymphoma. Current or past treatments with CD20 mAb/BTKi/PI3Ki/venetoclax and CAR-T were associated with lower immune response, with pooled SV rates of 16.7% after 2 doses. In general, LM pts had lower SV rates and Ab titers after the 1 st dose vs ST, but responses improved after the 2 nd dose. Further studies are needed to improve immune responses to COVID19 vaccines in LM pts, including the potential role of a 3 rd booster dose. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Gaballa: Adaptive Biotechnologies: Research Funding;Epizyme: Consultancy, Resear h Funding;TG therapeutics: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Beigene: Consultancy;ADC Therapeutics: Consultancy. Saeed: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company: Consultancy;sano-aventis U.S.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, LP: Consultancy, Other: investigator;Celgene Corporation: Consultancy, Other: investigator;MEI Pharma Inc: Consultancy, Other: investigator;Kite Pharma: Consultancy, Other: investigator;Other-TG therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: investigator;Nektar Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: research investigator;MorphoSys AG: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Other-Epizyme, Inc.: Consultancy;Other-Secura Bio, Inc.: Consultancy;Seattle Genetics, Inc.: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Shah: Pharmacyclics/Janssen: Honoraria, Other: Expenses;Pfizer: Consultancy, Other: Expenses;BeiGene: Consultancy, Honoraria;Servier Genetics: Other;Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Precision Biosciences: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Expenses, Research Funding;Acrotech/Spectrum: Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Expenses;Bristol-Myers Squibb/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Expenses;Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy;Incyte: Research Funding. Locke: Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;EcoR1: Consultancy;Allogene Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role, Research Funding;Calibr: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;Amgen: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;Umoja: Consultancy, Other;Cowen: Consultancy;Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role, Research Funding;Emerging Therapy Solutions: Consultancy;Gerson Lehrman Group: Consultancy;Moffitt Cancer Center: Patents & Royalties: field of cellular immunotherapy;Iovance Biotherapeutics: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;GammaDelta Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;Cellular Biomedicine Group: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Role;Wugen: Consultancy, Other;Takeda: Consultancy, Other;Novartis: Consultancy, Other, Research Funding;Legend Biotech: Consultancy, Other. Chavez: Abbvie: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Kite/Gilead: Consultancy;Karyopharm Therapeutics: Consultancy;MorphoSys: Speakers Bureau;Epizyme: Speakers Bureau;Bristol Myers Squibb: Speakers Bureau;Merck: Research Funding;Adaptive: Research Funding;BeiGene: Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy;ADC Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Lancet: AbbVie: Consultancy;ElevateBio Management: Consultancy;Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy;Celgene/BMS: Consultancy;Millenium Pharma/Takeda: Consultancy;BerGenBio: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy;Astellas: Consultancy;Jazz: Consultancy. Sokol: Dren Bio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kyowa-Kirin: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Pinilla Ibarz: AbbVie, Janssen, AstraZeneca, Novartis, TG Therapeutics, Takeda: Consultancy, Other: Advisory;Sellas: Other: ), patents/royalties/other intellectual property;MEI, Sunesis: Research Funding;AbbVie, Janssen, AstraZeneca, Takeda: Speakers Bureau. Giuliano: Merck & CO: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.

14.
Blood ; 138:217, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582241

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), are at a high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is uncertain whether patients with AML and MDS, who frequently have quantitative or qualitative deficiencies of neutrophils and/or lymphocytes, will develop protective immunity from SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The primary aim of this analysis was to describe the immune response and safety profile to the mRNA-1273 vaccine amongst a cohort of patients with AML and MDS. Methods: We enrolled AML and MDS patients to a large, single-site observational study of mRNA-1273 vaccination in cancer patients during the period January 12 to January 25, 2021. Blood specimens were collected from patients prior to the first and second vaccine doses (Days 1 and 29) and ~28 days after the second vaccine dose (Day 57) for antibody analyses. Retrospective chart review was done to collect information on baseline characteristics, cancer diagnoses, treatments received, and disease status. To evaluate serostatus, a two-step ELISA was performed, measuring IgG responses. SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rates were compared using the Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The association of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer and patient characteristics was examined by using Kruskal-Wallis test. Paired t-test was used to analyze the difference of SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers among day 1, after dose 1 and dose 2. Results: A total of 46 patients, 30 patients with AML and 16 patients with MDS, were included in this study. The median age at vaccination for the entire cohort was 68 yrs (range 37-85 yrs). The majority of patients were males (58.7%) and Caucasians (95.7%). Table 1 describes the baseline characteristics of the patients. The median time from diagnosis to the start of vaccination series was 24.3 months (range 4.5-105). One third of the patients (32.6%, n=15) were on active treatment for their disease during the course of vaccination with hypomethylating agents (n=6;13%), erythroid maturation agent i.e. luspatercept (n=2, 4.3%), immunomodulatory drugs i.e. lenalidomide (n=1;2.2%) and targeted therapy (6;13%). Targeted therapy included patients on enasidenib (n=4), midostaurin (n=1) and gilteritinib (n=1). A total of 32 patients (69.6%) were post allogeneic stem cell transplantation for their disease. The median time since allo-SCT for the entire cohort was 17 months (4.9-75.8 mos). The majority of the patients (n=40, 87%) were in remission at the time of vaccination. We found that two patients with AML relapsed post vaccination. Overall, 69.6% patients were seropositive at day 29 (after first vaccine dose) and 95.7% patients were seropositive on day 57 (after 2 vaccine doses). Table 2 describes response to the vaccine in our cohort and the differences in seropositivity rate after one and two doses of vaccine, based upon disease characteristics. Age, gender, race, disease status, time to vaccination from disease diagnosis, number of prior lines of therapy, whether on active treatment, laboratory parameters (including ALC and ANC), whether the patient had undergone allo-SCT, and therapy at time of vaccination did not significantly affect the seropositivity rate. Antibody titer levels were significantly higher after the 2 nd vaccine dose than after 1 st dose (mean 3806.5 vs 315, p<0.0001), a difference that was observed across the different variables and patient subsets (Figure 1). Mild injection site pain, fatigue, headache and arm swelling were the most common adverse events post vaccination. Conclusion: In this observational study, the largest reported to date amongst AML and MDS patients with serial serologic data following 2 vaccine doses, we found that the vast majority of patients with AML and MDS converted to seropositivity after two doses of the vaccine. Although the overall sample size was relatively small, most clinical and laboratory variables (including neutropenia and lymphopenia) did not affect the seropositivity rate. Antibody titer levels increased dramatically follo ing the 2 nd vaccine dose, indicating the potential utility for serial vaccination (i.e. additional dosing) in poorly-responsive patients. While these findings should be substantiated in a larger cohort, mRNA-273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine appears to induce a strong humoral response in this population of patients with AML and MDS. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Komrokji: PharmaEssentia: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Geron: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Acceleron: Consultancy;Jazz: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Taiho Oncology: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;AbbVie: Consultancy;BMSCelgene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Sweet: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;AROG: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Astellas: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Bristol Meyers Squibb: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Sallman: Incyte: Speakers Bureau;AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Aprea: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Bristol-Myers Squibb: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Agios: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Intellia: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Kite: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Magenta: Consultancy;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Syndax: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Shattuck Labs: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Takeda: Consultancy. Padron: Taiho: Honoraria;Kura: Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;Blueprint: Honoraria;Incyte: Research Funding;Stemline: Honoraria. Kuykendall: BluePrint Medicines: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Honoraria;Celgene/BMS: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;CTI Biopharma: Honoraria;Incyte: Consultancy;Novartis: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Protagonist: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Prelude: Research Funding;PharmaEssentia: Honoraria. Giuliano: Merck & CO: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Lancet: Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy;BerGenBio: Consultancy;Celgene/BMS: Consultancy;Millenium Pharma/Takeda: Consultancy;Agios: Consultancy;ElevateBio Management: Consultancy;AbbVie: Consultancy;Astellas: Consultancy;Jazz: Consultancy.

15.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296920

ABSTRACT

Background: Routinely collected real world data (RWD) have great utility in aiding the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic response [1,2]. Here we present the international Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) [3] Characterizing Health Associated Risks, and Your Baseline Disease In SARS-COV-2 (CHARYBDIS) framework for standardisation and analysis of COVID-19 RWD.

16.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):849A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508755

ABSTRACT

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) activities during the COVID-19 pandemic have been curtailed in many countries which has led to increased percentage of waitlist deaths. The impact of various policies restricting LT on outcomes of patients on the LT waitlist is unclear. This study aims to model effects of various scenarios and duration of LT disruption on outcomes. Methods: Using nationwide data from Hong Kong and Singapore of 571 patients between January 2016 and May 2020, we utilized a continuous time Markov chains model approach to evaluate the three following outcomes: (a) overall survival, (b) proportion of waitlist dropout in HCC patients, and (c) proportion of patients that developed acuteon-chronic liver failure (ACLF) while on the LT waitlist under the five scenarios. The five scenarios were: (1) no limitation to LT (both deceased donor liver transplant [DDLT] and living donor liver transplant [LDLT]), (2) no limitation to DDLT, only urgent (acute liver failure [ALF] or ACLF) LDLT allowed, (3) only urgent LT (DDLT and LDLT) allowed, (4) only DDLT, no LDLT allowed and (5) complete cessation of LT. For each scenario, varying periods of 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month duration of disruption were simulated. Results: With complete cessation of LT, the projected 1-year overall survival (OS) decreased by 3.6%, 10.51% and 19.21% for a 1-, 3- and 6-month disruption respectively when compared to no limitation to LT, while 5-year OS decreased by 5.3%, 15.81%, and 31.11% respectively. When only urgent LT was allowed, the projected 1-year OS decreased by a similar proportion: 3.1%, 8.41% and 15.20% respectively. When only DDLT was allowed to take place, the 1-year projected OS decreased by a smaller proportion - 1.9%, 6.30% and 10.79% for a 1-, 3-, 6-month disruption respectively. When DDLT and only urgent LDLT were allowed, 1-year projected OS was similar to when only DDLT was allowed, at 1.2%, 5.1% and 8.85% for a 1-, 3- and 6-month disruption respectively (Figure 1A). Complete cessation of LT activities resulted in an increased projected incidence of ACLF at 1-year by 17.6%, 49.1% and 95.5%, as well as an increase in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) dropout resulting in delisting at 1-year by 31.8%, 107.96% and 176.06% for a 1-, 3- and 6- month disruption respectively (Figure 1B). When only urgent LT was allowed, HCC dropout and ACLF incidence were comparable to the rates seen in the scenario of complete LT cessation. Conclusion: A short and wide-ranging disruption to LT results in better outcomes compared with a longer duration of partial restrictions. Findings from our study provide useful guidance for LT units worldwide in navigating the peaks and troughs of COVID-19 surges and highlight the impact of LT disruption on waitlisted patients during this prolonged pandemic. Once the peak of the COVID-19 wave has passed, DDLT at minimum should be resumed as soon as possible.

18.
Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology ; 31(2):189-197, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1314856

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak affects both the physical and mental health of individuals and society. This study investigates the factors related to health anxiety in COVID-19 patients and explores their sociodemographic-, disease-, and treatment-related factors, trait anxiety, and characteristics of secure or insecure attachment. Methods: The sample consisted of 420 individuals aged 18-65 years and diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 15 and May 15, 2020. The participants completed a sociodemographic data form and the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), Adult Attachment Scale (AAS), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that female gender, presence of chronic physical diseases, presence of mental health problems, and high AAS insecure attachment scores significantly predicted high HAI scores. Moreover, results indicated that the model explained approximately 21% of variance in HAI scores. Conclusions: Factors such as gender, presence of chronic physical diseases, presence of mental health problems, and attachment style influence health anxiety. Determining the appropriate factors that cause health anxiety can contribute to the implementation of protective measures for mental health and to the application of effective interventions for individuals who develop mental problems.

19.
Aust Vet J ; 99(10): 423-426, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288260

ABSTRACT

Owning a pet has often been associated with improved mental health among owners, including enhanced quality of life, and decreased levels of depression and loneliness. The aim of this study was to identify whether owning a cat and/or dog was associated with better psychological wellbeing during a strict lockdown period in Victoria, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analysed from a large-scale mental health study: the COvid-19 and you: mentaL heaLth in AusTralia now survEy (COLLATE). The impact of pet ownership on levels of resilience, loneliness and quality of life were examined in a sample of 138 pet owners and 125 non-pet owners. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that pet ownership was significantly associated with poorer quality of life, but not significantly associated with resilience or loneliness, after accounting for situational factors (e.g. job loss) and mood states. Contrary to expectations, the findings suggest that during a specific situation such as a pandemic, pets may contribute to increased burden among owners and contribute to poorer quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Communicable Disease Control , Dogs , Mental Health , Ownership , Pandemics , Pets , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Victoria/epidemiology
20.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8164

ABSTRACT

Background: Routinely collected real world data (RWD) have great utility in aiding the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic response [1,2]. Here we present the international Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) [3] Characterizing Health Associated Risks, and Your Baseline Disease In SARS-COV-2 (CHARYBDIS) framework for standardisation and analysis of COVID-19 RWD. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cohort study using a federated network of data partners in the United States, Europe (the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Germany, France and Italy) and Asia (South Korea and China). The study protocol and analytical package were released on 11 (th) June 2020 and are iteratively updated via GitHub [4]. Findings: We identified three non-mutually exclusive cohorts of 4,537,153 individuals with a clinical COVID-19 diagnosis or positive test, 886,193 hospitalized with COVID-19 , and 113,627 hospitalized with COVID-19 requiring intensive services . All comorbidities, symptoms, medications, and outcomes are described by cohort in aggregate counts, and are available in an interactive website: https://data.ohdsi.org/Covid19CharacterizationCharybdis/. Interpretation: CHARYBDIS findings provide benchmarks that contribute to our understanding of COVID-19 progression, management and evolution over time. This can enable timely assessment of real-world outcomes of preventative and therapeutic options as they are introduced in clinical practice.

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