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Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 32, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962906


BACKGROUND: Due to the outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 160 million patients have become convalescents worldwide to date. Significant alterations have occurred in the gut and oral microbiome and metabonomics of patients with COVID-19. However, it is unknown whether their characteristics return to normal after the 1-year recovery. METHODS: We recruited 35 confirmed patients to provide specimens at discharge and one year later, as well as 160 healthy controls. A total of 497 samples were prospectively collected, including 219 tongue-coating, 129 stool and 149 plasma samples. Tongue-coating and stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and plasma samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics testing. RESULTS: The oral and gut microbiome and metabolomics characteristics of the 1-year convalescents were restored to a large extent but did not completely return to normal. In the recovery process, the microbial diversity gradually increased. Butyric acid-producing microbes and Bifidobacterium gradually increased, whereas lipopolysaccharide-producing microbes gradually decreased. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate, which is closely related to the inflammatory factor storm of COVID-19, increased significantly during the recovery process. Moreover, the predictive models established based on the microbiome and metabolites of patients at the time of discharge reached high efficacy in predicting their neutralizing antibody levels one year later. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to characterize the oral and gut microbiome and metabonomics in 1-year convalescents of COVID-19. The key microbiome and metabolites in the process of recovery were identified, and provided new treatment ideas for accelerating recovery. And the predictive models based on the microbiome and metabolomics afford new insights for predicting the recovery situation which benefited affected individuals and healthcare.

COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Metabolomics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics