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1.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 37(Supplement 1):251, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088264

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Poor bowel preparation for colonoscopy leads to aborted procedures and reduced polyp and cancer detection rates, leading to increased risk for patients, inconvenience to families, and additional resource use in a burgeoning health care system. The UK's Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy suggests that units have a > 90% rate of adequate preparation for successful accreditation. To improve patient education and poor preparation rates at our institution, the Project GEO - GE Online video platform was introduced in 2019. This consists of five Vimeo-hosted short educational videos to help prepare patients and their carers for their endoscopy and colonoscopy procedures, including diet and bowel preparation. We aimed to examine key performance indicators in colonoscopy, including bowel preparation, before and after the introduction of GEO. Method(s): We performed a retrospective audit in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Queensland that performs more than 6000 colonoscopies per year. A link to GEO, a set of culturally sensitive, patient-centered videos, was sent in a letter, an email, and SMS to patients preparing for endoscopy and colonoscopy. Previously, patients were required to attend the hospital and were given printed handouts for information. This audit obtained Provation MD data for a 6-month period in 2019, before the initiation of GEO, and a 6-month period after, in 2021. Incomplete colonoscopies or those without preparation reporting were excluded from the analysis. Statistics were performed with chi2 analysis, and significance was set as a P value of < 0.05. Result(s): In the 6 months of 2019, before the GEO videos, a total of 2798 colonoscopies were performed. After colonoscopies with missing data and incomplete procedures were removed, there were 2031 colonoscopies for analysis. A total of 2277 colonoscopies were included in the post-GEO dataset. Results for bowel preparation and sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) detection rate before and after GEO are shown in Table 1. Conclusion(s): Project GEO has shown a significant reduction in poor preparation rates in a high-performing center and reduced repeat procedures, while not compromising SSA detection rate. Poor preparation often leads to abandonment of procedures, waste of health resources, and significant risk and inconvenience for patients, carers, and the system provider. Project GEO has had excellent patient feedback that it is improving patient and carer education and understanding, is improving compliance, and is convenient. This has led to a massive reduction in face-to-face outpatient visits (> 10 000). GEO is also COVID-19-friendly, culturally sensitive, and reaches our patients in distant regional and rural Queensland.

2.
Progress in Microbes and Molecular Biology ; 5(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1935024

ABSTRACT

There is an increase in mental health sequelae following COVID-19 infection, with some studies showing a higher prevalence rate of psychiatric sequelae in post-COVID-19 survivors than in the general population. This review discusses the possible causes, prevalence, and risk factors of COVID-19 associated psychological manifestations, namely anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the exact cause is yet to be determined, it is likely multifactorial involving environmental, biological, and psychological factors due to the pandemic. Variation exists for risk factors and prevalence, but the female gender and psychiatric disorder history seem to be consistent risk factors across several studies. While conventional psychotropic medications are the common therapeutic intervention, probiotics could be a potential adjunct treatment to prevent and treat COVID-19 and its associated psychological manifestations. Their anti-inflammatory effects have been seen directly via reducing plasma concentration of proinflammatory cytokines or indirectly via the suppression within the kynurenine pathway and restoration of gut permeability. Additionally, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are crucial gut microbial metabolites with essential roles, including signaling along the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, maintaining blood-brain barrier’s (BBB) integrity, neuronal functions, neurotransmitters, and neurotrophic factors modulation. © 2022, HH Publisher. All rights reserved.

3.
Revista de Direito, Estado e Telecomunicacoes ; 14(1):31-51, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934926

ABSTRACT

[Purpose] This study analyzes the inequalities of ethnic minority children to adapt to online education. This is also a challenge to the whole education system in Vietnam before the 4th COVID-19 outbreak is considered to have a serious impact on the economy and society of Vietnam. [Methodology/Approach/Design] A case study is conducted in a cross-sectional form with 50 high school students and 10 teachers of the boarding ethnic minority school in Nam Pu district, Dien Bien province of Vietnam. Questions were conducted for students, teachers, and school administrators. [Findings] The lack of WiFi catchers such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones along with poor infrastructure are the main factors affecting the effectiveness of online learning. [Practical Implications] Equality in education is the sustainable development goal adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Geographical differences and economic conditions are factors that directly impact the effectiveness of students' online learning in the context of COVID-19 19. The Government of Vietnam should have an effective financial policy to provide connectivity for poor students, reducing the gap in access to general education services for online classes that are ethnic minorities. © 2022 Universidade de Brasilia. All rights reserved.

4.
Progress in Microbes and Molecular Biology ; 5(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1925005

ABSTRACT

South Africa is one of the countries heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. As of 9 January 2022, over 3.5 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported, and 93 551 deaths have been recorded in the country. The South African healthcare system faced a lack of essential resources and financial burdens by outbreaks and its new variant of concern (VOC), the Omicron. The local government has done as much as possible to control the spread of the virus in the local communities by quickly implementing lockdowns and enforcing movement restrictions. An eight-stage program to combat COVID-19 and a national vaccination strategy was also developed soon to manage the Coronavirus spread in the country better. As the country struggles to secure and administer COVID-19 vaccines to its people, the Coronavirus has been rapidly mutating and causing new waves of infections within the nation. The COVID-19 experience in South Africa demonstrates the great importance of equitable access to medicine, medical equipment, and vaccines globally. Equitable access to these essential resources is critical to prevent the virus spread across borders and reduce mortality rates worldwide. © 2022, HH Publisher. All rights reserved.

5.
Weather Climate and Society ; 14(1):237-255, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883374

ABSTRACT

Because many viral respiratory diseases show seasonal cycles, weather conditions could affect the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although many studies pursued this possible link early in the pandemic, their results were inconsistent. Here, we assembled 158 quantitative empirical studies examining the link between weather and COVID-19. A metaregression analysis was performed on their 4793 correlation coefficients to explain these inconsistent results. We found four principal findings. First, 80 of the 158 studies did not state the time lag between infection and reporting, rendering these studies ineffective in determining the weather-COVID-19 relationship. Second, the research outcomes depended on the statistical analysis methods employed in each study. Specifically, studies using correlation tests produced outcomes that were functions of the geographical locations of the data from the original studies, whereas studies using linear regression produced outcomes that were functions of the analyzed weather variables. Third, Asian countries had more positive associations for air temperature than other regions, possibly because the air temperature was undergoing its seasonal increase from winter to spring during the rapid outbreak of COVID-19 in these countries. Fourth, higher solar energy was associated with reduced COVID-19 spread, regardless of statistical analysis method and geographical location. These results help to interpret the inconsistent results and motivate recommendations for best practices in future research. These recommendations include calculating the effects of a time lag between the weather and COVID-19, using regression analysis models, considering nonlinear effects, increasing the time period considered in the analysis to encompass more variety of weather conditions and to increase sample size, and eliminating multicollinearity between weather variables.

6.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(3):279-283, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1877518

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is globally recognized as the most economical and effective tool in public health. Between December 2015 and May 2017, three vaccines against EV71 (including the EV71 human diploid cell vaccine developed by the Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, the inactivated EV71 vaccine developed by Sinovac Biotech Ltd. and the inactivated EV71 vaccine developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd.) have been licensed by CFDA in China. As a preventive measure to control HFMD, how effective they are and what impact they have on the epidemic of HFMD are of great concern in the industry. The prevalence of HFMD in China has obvious seasonality, and the most common causative strains are EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16). In order to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of HFMD, this paper summarizes the immune objects, immune procedures, immunogenicity, immune effect and cross immunization of the above three EV71 vaccines, and the etiological changes of mild, severe and death cases after the three vaccines have been released on the market. © 2022 The authors.

7.
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services ; 66:12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1814807

ABSTRACT

Panic buying behaviour is inherently undesirable due to its detrimental impact on community's resources and disruptions to supply chain systems. The prevailing COVID-19 pandemic has seen a resurgence of this phenomenon across the world, leaving supermarkets in stockout situations. While panic buying is largely reasoned as a psychological reaction to an extreme event, it is also a socially relevant behaviour as our perception of a crisis can be shaped by our observations and interactions within the society. The social determinants of panic buying behaviour, particularly on how these factors heighten one's perception of scarcity, and trigger panic buying behaviour, are studied. A theoretical model is developed to explain panic buying behaviour in a social context by synthesizing various social and behavioural theories, and the inter-relationship among the latent constructs is analysed using the structural equation modelling approach. Accordingly, an online survey was administered and analysis of the data confirmed that non-coercive social influence, social norm and observational learning directly influence one's perception of scarcity. Additionally, perceived scarcity can motivate panic buying behaviour directly or indirectly through feelings of anticipated regret. This study has contributed to the limited literature on panic buying. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of panic buying will aid policymakers and businesses in developing intervention or support strategies to cope with such behaviour.

8.
Mbio ; 13(1):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1766600

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients are highly variable, with a subset of patients demonstrating prolonged virus shedding, which poses a significant challenge for disease management and transmission control. In this study, the long-term dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection were investigated using a human well-differentiated nasal epithelial cell (NEC) model of infection. NECs were observed to release SARS-CoV-2 virus onto the apical surface for up to 28 days post-infection (dpi), further corroborated by viral antigen staining. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing (sc-seq) was utilized to explore the host response from infected NECs after short-term (3-dpi) and long-term (28-dpi) infection. We identified a unique population of cells harboring high viral loads present at both 3 and 28 dpi, characterized by expression of cell stress-related genes DDIT3 and ATF3 and enriched for genes involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) signaling and apoptosis. Remarkably, this sc-seq analysis revealed an antiviral gene signature within all NEC cell types even at 28 dpi. We demonstrate increased replication of basal cells, absence of widespread cell death within the epithelial monolayer, and the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to replicate despite a continuous interferon response as factors likely contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence. This study provides a model system for development of therapeutics aimed at improving viral clearance in immunocompromised patients and implies a crucial role for immune cells in mediating viral clearance from infected epithelia. IMPORTANCE Increasing medical attention has been drawn to the persistence of symptoms (long-COVID syndrome) or live virus shedding from subsets of COVID-19 patients weeks to months after the initial onset of symptoms. In vitro approaches to model viral or symptom persistence are needed to fully dissect the complex and likely varied mechanisms underlying these clinical observations. We show that in vitro differentiated human NECs are persistently infected with SARS-CoV-2 for up to 28 dpi. This viral replication occurred despite the presence of an antiviral gene signature across all NEC cell types even at 28 dpi. This indicates that epithelial cell intrinsic antiviral responses are insufficient for the clearance of SARS-CoV-Z implying an essential role for tissue-resident and infiltrating immune cells for eventual viral clearance from infected airway tissue in COVID-19 patients.

9.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326915

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged into humans in 2012, causing highly lethal respiratory disease. The severity of disease may be in part because MERS-CoV is adept at antagonizing early innate immune pathways - interferon (IFN) production and signaling, protein kinase R (PKR), and oligoadenylate synthetase ribonuclease L (OAS/RNase L) - generated in response to viral double-stranded (ds)RNA generated during genome replication. This is in contrast to SARS-CoV-2, which we recently reported activates PKR and RNase L and to some extent, IFN signaling. We previously found that MERS-CoV accessory proteins NS4a (dsRNA binding protein) and NS4b (phosphodiesterase) could weakly suppress these pathways, but ablation of each had minimal effect on virus replication. Here we investigated the antagonist effects of the conserved coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU), in combination with NS4a or NS4b. Inactivation of EndoU catalytic activity alone in a recombinant MERS-CoV caused little if any effect on activation of the innate immune pathways during infection. However, infection with recombinant viruses containing combined mutations with inactivation of EndoU and deletion of NS4a or inactivation of the NS4b phosphodiesterase promoted robust activation of the dsRNA-induced innate immune pathways. This resulted in ten-fold attenuation of replication in human lung derived A549 and primary nasal cells. Furthermore, replication of these recombinant viruses could be rescued to the level of WT MERS-CoV by knockout of host immune mediators MAVS, PKR, or RNase L. Thus, EndoU and accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b together suppress dsRNA-induced innate immunity during MERS-CoV infection in order to optimize viral replication.

10.
Online Information Review ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685032

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred a concurrent outbreak of false information online. Debunking false information about a health crisis is critical as misinformation can trigger protests or panic, which necessitates a better understanding of it. This exploratory study examined the effects of debunking messages on a COVID-19-related public chat on WhatsApp in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: To understand the effects of debunking messages about COVID-19 on WhatsApp conversations, the following was studied. The relationship between source credibility (i.e. characteristics of a communicator that affect the receiver's acceptance of the message) of different debunking message types and their effects on the length of the conversation, sentiments towards various aspects of a crisis, and the information distortions in a message thread were studied. Deep learning techniques, knowledge graphs (KG), and content analyses were used to perform aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) of the messages and measure information distortion. Findings: Debunking messages with higher source credibility (e.g. providing evidence from authoritative sources like health authorities) help close a discussion thread earlier. Shifts in sentiments towards some aspects of the crisis highlight the value of ABSA in monitoring the effectiveness of debunking messages. Finally, debunking messages with lower source credibility (e.g. stating that the information is false without any substantiation) are likely to increase information distortion in conversation threads. Originality/value: The study supports the importance of source credibility in debunking and an ABSA approach in analysing the effect of debunking messages during a health crisis, which have practical value for public agencies during a health crisis. Studying differences in the source credibility of debunking messages on WhatsApp is a novel shift from the existing approaches. Additionally, a novel approach to measuring information distortion using KGs was used to shed insights on how debunking can reduce information distortions. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

11.
CHEST ; 161(1):A282-A282, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1634905
12.
Economic Change and Restructuring ; : 21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1616187

ABSTRACT

External debt correlation and the sustainable economic development pathway within the South Asian sub-region is analysed in this research paper. The longitudinal root-analysis, the pooled ordinary least square, quantile estimation, and output estimation were utilized to evaluate the data obtained from the World Bank Development Indicators for the period of 2000-2018. We discovered that total external debt and external debt services affect 39% plus 31%, respectively, after the robust regression analysis was carried out. Besides that, the findings demonstrate direct expansionary impacts of fiscal policy crosswise in developing economies within the study timeframe. Remarkably, the advancements in state establishments encourage the "gathering impact" of fiscal policy implementation. The findings depict that the entire circumstances set a stiffer restraint on public expenditure, indicating a self-losing fiscal austerity situation which entails the impact of the company's liabilities. Inversely, the unrestrained countercyclical policy bars the knock-on impact of external problems, resulting in an improved economic system activity performance as well as decreasing the probability of economic predicaments after COVID-19.

13.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(12):13811-13814, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1615384

ABSTRACT

Consensus guidelines to protect airway managers during COVID-19 were developed to encourage safe, accurate and swift performance in intubation and extubation, but reintubation was not considered. With the massive surge of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in this COVID-19 pandemic, great incidence of difficult airways may necessitate reintubation. Equipments could be used now in extubation and reintubation are either too expensive and time-consuming in decontamination, or have not gained wide acceptance. Here, we adapted an extubation device from an intubating stylet, which is provided as accessory of endotracheal tube. Such stylet could provide safe access for expediting reintubation both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, which is inexpensive, single-use, readily available, straightforward to handle, and well-tolerated, thereby benefiting both the patients and healthcare providers.

14.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(12):14157-14167, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1610152

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies have unveiled the occurrence of re-detectable positive (RP) RNA test result after hospital discharge among recovered COVID-19 patients, but the clinical characteristics of RP patients (RP patients) and the potential features affecting RP RNA test outcome remain unclear. Methods: A total of 742 COVID-19 patients discharged between March 1st, 2020 and March 20th, 2020 were enrolled. All patients were followed-up for SARS-CoV-2 RNA test and RP patents were identified. The clinical characteristics between RP patients and NRP patients were compared, and the potential features affecting re-detectable RNA test outcome were further evaluated. Results: Up to April 9th, 2020, 60 recovered patients (8.09%) had been re-detected to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive. Among those 60 RP patients, the median RP time was 12 days from the last negative result of SARS-CoV-2 RNA test or 10 days from hospital discharge. RP patients were prone to be older, having mild/moderate conditions, unilateral lung involvement and fatigue, chills, stuffy or runny nose, with high lymphocyte count. Multivariate logistic analysis and COX regression analysis demonstrated that age, lymphocyte count, urea nitrogen, stuffy or runny nose as well as lung involvement were independently associated with RP RNA test (P<0.05). Conclusions: Older patients accompanied with stuffy or runny nose, low urea nitrogen as well as unilateral lung involvement were more likely to develop RP RNA test result after hospital discharge. Therefore, we strongly suggest using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid for RNA detection, extending quarantine time, and conducting continual follow-up medical examination for those discharged patients.

15.
Blood ; 138:1921, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582207

ABSTRACT

Introduction The standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involves autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Pre-ASCT mobilization chemotherapy for MM, vinorelbine and high dose cyclophosphamide (VC), has been historically given in the inpatient (IP) setting. Due to rising bed occupancy rates and patients' preferences for treatment in the ambulatory setting, our team has offered eligible patients an option to receive VC outpatient (OP) since 2018. Our study aims to audit the feasibility and safety of this initiative, and review potential healthcare-related cost savings. Methods Eligibility criteria for OP chemotherapy were developed by a multidisciplinary team based on patients' age, functional status, medical comorbidities and social factors (Figure 1). The chemotherapy regimen was modified for an OP setting (Figure 2), of which the main alteration involved changing the route of administration of intravenous (IV) mesna to a combination of IV and oral. A retrospective review was conducted for 35 MM patients (18 IP and 17 OP) who received VC for mobilisation at our center from 2018 to 2019. The patient characteristics were similar between the two groups (Table 1). Patient data were analyzed from the day of admission for VC (IP) or day 1 of VC (OP), to the day before admission for stem cell harvesting. Clinical charts were reviewed for unexpected complications and unplanned admissions. Costs incurred were calculated using the value-driven-outcome (VDO) informatics analysis of the hospital. Results There were no unexpected clinical complications or unplanned admissions in both groups. The median length of hospital stay for the IP cohort was 3 days, amounting to a saving of 51 hospital days over 2 years in the OP cohort. Median costs were 73% lower in the OP cohort (Figure 3). The difference was mainly due to certain costs not incurred in the OP setting. These included room charges and daily treatment fees (which accounted for an average of 46% and 19% of IP charges respectively). Investigation costs were also 55% lower in the OP cohort, which could be attributed to more investigations being performed in the IP setting such as screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and nonurgent radiographs ordered after hours by the on-call physician upon admission. Conclusions Our findings show that OP mobilization chemotherapy for MM is safe, feasible and associated with improved bed utilization and cost savings. Other components of the stem cell transplantation process are also increasingly being transitioned from the IP to OP setting in our center as part of an ongoing paradigm shift in right-siting treatment services, which has been accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic's strain on inpatient capacity. These results provide an affirmation of our efforts to optimize the utilization of healthcare resources. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Chng: Takeda: Consultancy;GlaxoSmithKline: Consultancy;Johnson & Johnson: Consultancy, Research Funding;Aslan: Research Funding;Antengene: Consultancy;Abbvie: Consultancy;Pfizer: Consultancy;Novartis: Research Funding;Sanofi: Consultancy;Amgen: Consultancy;BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding.

16.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 25(23):7585-7597, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread around the world in 2020. Abnormal pulmonary function and residual CT abnormalities were observed in COVID-19 patients during recovery. Appropriate rehabilitation training is around the corner. The correlation between spirometric impairment and residual CT abnormality remains largely unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted on the pulmonary function of 101 convalescent COVID-19 patients before discharge. Multivariate analysis was used to establish a scoring system to evaluate the spirometric abnormality based on residual chest CT. RESULTS: Lung consolidation area >25% and severe-type COVID-19 were two independent risk factors for severe pulmonary dysfunction. Besides, a scoring system was established. People scoring more than 12 points have more chances (17 times) to get severe pulmonary function impairment before discharge. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, a chest CT characteristics-based grading system was suggested to predict the pulmonary dysfunction of COVID-19 patients during convalescence in this study. This study may provide suggestions for pulmonary rehabilitation.

17.
Organic Process Research & Development ; : 10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1586054

ABSTRACT

Herein is described the development of a large-scale manufacturing process for molnupiravir, an orally dosed antiviral that was recently demonstrated to be efficacious for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. The yield, robustness, and efficiency of each of the five steps were improved, ultimately culminating in a 1.6-fold improvement in overall yield and a dramatic increase in the overall throughput compared to the baseline process.

18.
19.
23rd ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, ICMI 2021 ; : 628-635, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1526539

ABSTRACT

The COVID pandemic has resulted in many people working from home, blurring lines between work and personal time. In response, the Tomato Dice, a multimodal device, attempts to provide a fun way for people to take more effective breaks amid work through timeboxing. After the dice is rolled, each side plays visual and audio feedback helping users to either work for a set amount of time or take a break away from their work screens. In this paper, we discussed the design process and the different modes of the dice. We also conducted a heuristic evaluation followed by a usability study which revealed that participants were mostly fascinated with the dice and were more likely to use the Tomato Dice to relax than to take breaks. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):322A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508723

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysregulated immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are thought to underlie the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to further characterize host antiviral and cytokine gene expression in COVID-19 patients based on illness severity. Methods: In this case-control study, we retrospectively analyzed 46 recovered COVID-19 patients and 24 healthy subjects (no history of COVID-19) recruited from the Second People's Hospital of Fuyang City. Blood samples were collected from each study participant for RNA extraction and PCR. We assessed changes in antiviral gene expression between healthy controls and patients with mild/moderate (MM) and severe/critical (SC) disease. Results: We found that type I interferon signaling (IFNA2, TLR8, IFNA1, IFNAR1, TLR9, IRF7, ISG15, APOBEC3G, and MX1) and genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines (IL12B, IL15, IL6, IL12A and IL1B) and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL11 and CXCL10) were upregulated in patients with MM and SC disease. Moreover, we found that IFNA1, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) in the SC group compared to the MM group. We also observed that microRNA (miR)-155 and miR-130a levels were markedly higher in the MM group compared to the SC group. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with the activation of host antiviral genes. Induction of the IFN system appears to be particularly important in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection, as decreased expression of IFNA1, APOBEC3G and FADD genes in SC patients, relative to MM patients, may be associated with disease progression.

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