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1.
Journal of Fungal Research ; 20(3):160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2251168

ABSTRACT

The development of Chinese edible fungus industry in recent years not only had favorable policy environment such as targeted poverty alleviation and a large health industry, but also was suffered the temporary impact of COVID-19. Under this situation, this paper analyzes the fundamentals of Chinese edible mushroom development, and its stability and internality, considering the countermeasures to meet the transfer of the global edible mushroom innovation center and recognizing the importance of independent innovation and original innovation in the science and technology of edible mushroom industry. It hoped to realize the reform of Chinese edible mushroom industry in terms of innovation mechanism, talent training and R&D investment, and joint efforts to achieve a strong edible mushroom country.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 227: 115152, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241579

ABSTRACT

Multiple studies showed that metabolic disorders play a critical role in respiratory infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Metabolites contained in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are different from those in plasma at the acute stage, while the metabolic features of plasma sEVs of COVID-19 survivors remain unknown. Here, we used a nanopore membrane-based microfluidic chip for plasma sEVs separation, termed ExoSEC, and compared the sEVs obtained by UC, REG, and ExoSEC in terms the time, cost, purity, and metabolic features. The results indicated the ExoSEC was much less costly, provided higher purity by particles/proteins ratio, and achieved 205-fold and 2-fold higher sEVs yield, than UC and REG, respectively. Moreover, more metabolites were identified and several signaling pathways were significantly enriched in ExoSEC-sEVs compared to UC-sEVs and REG-sEVs. Furthermore, we detected 306 metabolites in plasma sEVs using ExoSEC from recovered asymptomatic (RA), moderate (RM), and severe/critical COVID-19 (RS) patients without underlying diseases 3 months after discharge. Our study demonstrated that COVID-19 survivors, especially RS, experienced significant metabolic alteration and the dysregulated pathways mainly involved fatty acid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, etc. Metabolites of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway bore a significantly negative association with red blood cell counts and hemoglobin, which might be ascribed to hypoxia or respiratory failure in RM and RS but not in RA at the acute stage. Our study confirmed that ExoSEC could provide a practical and economical alternative for high throughput sEVs metabolomic study.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Nanopores , Humans , Fatty Acids
4.
China CDC Wkly ; 5(4): 71-75, 2023 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240391

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: People are likely to engage in collective behaviors online during extreme events, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis, to express awareness, take action, and work through concerns. What is added by this report?: This study offers a framework for evaluating interactions among individuals' emotions, perceptions, and online behaviors in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) during the first two waves of COVID-19 (February to June 2020). Its results indicate a strong correlation between online behaviors, such as Google searches, and the real-time reproduction numbers. To validate the model's output of risk perception, this investigation conducted 10 rounds of cross-sectional telephone surveys on 8,593 local adult residents from February 1 through June 20 in 2020 to quantify risk perception levels over time. What are the implications for public health practice?: Compared to the survey results, the estimates of the risk perception of individuals using our network-based mechanistic model capture 80% of the trend of people's risk perception (individuals who are worried about being infected) during the studied period. We may need to reinvigorate the public by involving people as part of the solution that reduced the risk to their lives.

5.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163533

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has spawned a worldwide pandemic. ADAM17 is a sheddase associated with the modulation of the receptor ACE2 of SARS-CoV-2. Studies have revealed that malignant phenotypes of several cancer types are closely relevant to highly expressed ADAM17. However, ADAM17 regulation in SARS-CoV-2 invasion and its role on small molecules are unclear. Here, we evaluated the ADAM17 inhibitory effects of cordycepin (CD), thymoquinone (TQ), and N6, N6-dimethyladenosine (m62A), on cancer cells and predicted the anti-COVID-19 potential of the three compounds and their underlying signaling pathways by network pharmacology. It was found that CD, TQ, and m62A repressed the ADAM17 expression upon different cancer cells remarkably. Moreover, CD inhibited GFP-positive syncytia formation significantly, suggesting its potential against SARS-CoV-2. Pharmacological analysis by constructing CD-, TQ-, and m62A-based drug-target COVID-19 networks further indicated that ADAM17 is a potential target for anti-COVID-19 therapy with these compounds, and the mechanism might be relevant to viral infection and transmembrane receptors-mediated signal transduction. These findings imply that ADAM17 is of potentially medical significance for cancer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, which provides potential new targets and insights for developing innovative drugs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , ADAM17 Protein
6.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(46): 1025-1031, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146601

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ease of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-pharmacological interventions and the increased susceptibility during the past COVID-19 pandemic could be a precursor for the resurgence of influenza, potentially leading to a severe outbreak in the winter of 2022 and future seasons. The recent increased availability of data on Electronic Health Records (EHR) in public health systems, offers new opportunities to monitor individuals to mitigate outbreaks. Methods: We introduced a new methodology to rank individuals for surveillance in temporal networks, which was more practical than the static networks. By targeting previously infected nodes, this method used readily available EHR data instead of the contact-network structure. Results: We validated this method qualitatively in a real-world cohort study and evaluated our approach quantitatively by comparing it to other surveillance methods on three temporal and empirical networks. We found that, despite not explicitly exploiting the contacts' network structure, it remained the best or close to the best strategy. We related the performance of the method to the public health goals, the reproduction number of the disease, and the underlying temporal-network structure (e.g., burstiness). Discussion: The proposed strategy of using historical records for sentinel surveillance selection can be taken as a practical and robust alternative without the knowledge of individual contact behaviors for public health policymakers.

7.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099666

ABSTRACT

As a cellular protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) plays roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and viral entry, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Herein, we conducted expression, mutation, and prognostic analyses for the TMPRSS2 gene in pan-cancers as well as in COVID-19-infected lung tissues. The results indicate that TMPRSS2 expression was highest in prostate cancer. A high expression of TMPRSS2 was significantly associated with a short overall survival in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA), sarcoma (SARC), and uveal melanoma (UVM), while a low expression of TMPRSS2 was significantly associated with a short overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), demonstrating TMPRSS2 roles in cancer patient susceptibility and severity. Additionally, TMPRSS2 expression in COVID-19-infected lung tissues was significantly reduced compared to healthy lung tissues, indicating that a low TMPRSS2 expression may result in COVID-19 severity and death. Importantly, TMPRSS2 mutation frequency was significantly higher in prostate adenocarcinoma (PRAD), and the mutant TMPRSS2 pan-cancer group was significantly associated with long overall, progression-free, disease-specific, and disease-free survival rates compared to the wild-type (WT) TMPRSS2 pan-cancer group, demonstrating loss of functional roles due to mutation. Cancer cell lines were treated with small molecules, including cordycepin (CD), adenosine (AD), thymoquinone (TQ), and TQFL12, to mediate TMPRSS2 expression. Notably, CD, AD, TQ, and TQFL12 inhibited TMPRSS2 expression in cancer cell lines, including the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, implying a therapeutic role for preventing COVID-19 in cancer patients. Together, these findings are the first to demonstrate that small molecules, such as CD, AD, TQ, and TQFL12, inhibit TMPRSS2 expression, providing novel therapeutic strategies for preventing COVID-19 and cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms , Male , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Prognosis , Adenosine , Mutation , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080140

ABSTRACT

ISG20 inhibits viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 invasion; however, details of its expression and regulation with viral susceptibility remain to be elucidated. The present study analyzed ISG20 expression, isoform information, survival rate, methylation patterns, immune cell infiltration, and COVID-19 outcomes in healthy and cancerous individuals. Cordycepin (CD) and N6, N6-dimethyladenosine (m6 2A) were used to treat cancer cells for ISG20 expression. We revealed that ISG20 mRNA expression was primarily located in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, its expression was significantly increased in 11 different types of cancer, indicating that cancer patients may be less vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them, higher expression of ISG20 was associated with a long OS in CESC and SKCM, suggesting that ISG20 may be a good marker for both viral prevention and cancer progress. ISG20 promoter methylation was significantly lower in BLCA, READ, and THCA tumor tissues than in the matched normal tissues, while higher in BRCA, LUSC, KIRC, and PAAD. Hypermethylation of ISG20 in KIRC and PAAD tumor tissues was correlated with higher expression of ISG20, suggesting that methylation of ISG20 may not underlie its overexpression. Furthermore, ISG20 expression was significantly correlated with immune infiltration levels, including immune lymphocytes, chemokine, receptors, immunoinhibitors, immunostimulators, and MHC molecules in pan-cancer. STAD exhibited the highest degree of ISG20 mutations; the median progression-free survival time in months for the unaltered group was 61.84, while it was 81.01 in the mutant group. Isoforms ISG20-001 and ISG20-009 showed the same RNase_T domain structure, demonstrating the functional roles in tumorigenesis and SARS-CoV-2 invasion inhibition in cancer patients. Moreover, CD and m6 2A increase ISG20 expression in various cancer cell lines, implying the antiviral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic potential. Altogether, this study highlighted the value of combating cancer by targeting ISG20 during the COVID-19 pandemic, and small molecules extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, such as CD, may have potential as anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anticancer agents by promoting ISG20 expression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exoribonucleases , Neoplasms , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Travel Med ; 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077806

ABSTRACT

We analysed the effectiveness of various non-pharmaceutical interventions in containing the 2022 Omicron outbreak in China. The results show that the Rapid Antigen Test contributed to containing the outbreak, reducing the reproduction number by 0.788 (95% CI:-0.306, 1.880) in studied cities.

10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045194

ABSTRACT

ISG20 inhibits viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 invasion;however, details of its expression and regulation with viral susceptibility remain to be elucidated. The present study analyzed ISG20 expression, isoform information, survival rate, methylation patterns, immune cell infiltration, and COVID-19 outcomes in healthy and cancerous individuals. Cordycepin (CD) and N6, N6-dimethyladenosine (m62A) were used to treat cancer cells for ISG20 expression. We revealed that ISG20 mRNA expression was primarily located in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, its expression was significantly increased in 11 different types of cancer, indicating that cancer patients may be less vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among them, higher expression of ISG20 was associated with a long OS in CESC and SKCM, suggesting that ISG20 may be a good marker for both viral prevention and cancer progress. ISG20 promoter methylation was significantly lower in BLCA, READ, and THCA tumor tissues than in the matched normal tissues, while higher in BRCA, LUSC, KIRC, and PAAD. Hypermethylation of ISG20 in KIRC and PAAD tumor tissues was correlated with higher expression of ISG20, suggesting that methylation of ISG20 may not underlie its overexpression. Furthermore, ISG20 expression was significantly correlated with immune infiltration levels, including immune lymphocytes, chemokine, receptors, immunoinhibitors, immunostimulators, and MHC molecules in pan-cancer. STAD exhibited the highest degree of ISG20 mutations;the median progression-free survival time in months for the unaltered group was 61.84, while it was 81.01 in the mutant group. Isoforms ISG20-001 and ISG20−009 showed the same RNase_T domain structure, demonstrating the functional roles in tumorigenesis and SARS-CoV-2 invasion inhibition in cancer patients. Moreover, CD and m62A increase ISG20 expression in various cancer cell lines, implying the antiviral/anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic potential. Altogether, this study highlighted the value of combating cancer by targeting ISG20 during the COVID-19 pandemic, and small molecules extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, such as CD, may have potential as anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anticancer agents by promoting ISG20 expression.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 765581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952750

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak triggered a massive spread of unverified news on social media and has become a source of rumors. This paper studies the impact of a virtual rumor control center (RCC) on Weibo user behavior. The collected COVID-19 breaking news stories were divided into positive, negative, and neutral categories, while the moderating effect model was used to analyze the influence of anti-rumor on user behavior (forwarding, liking, and commenting). Our research found that rumor refuting does not directly affect user behavior but does have an indirect moderating effect. Rumor refuting has a profound impact on user forwarding behavior in cases of positive and negative news. Specifically, when the epidemic becomes more serious, the role of rumor refuting becomes critical, and vice versa. Refuting rumors reduces user willingness to forward positive or negative news, with more impact on negative news. Time lag analysis shows a significant moderation of unverified news within 72 h of refuting rumors but indicated an apparent weakening trend over time. Furthermore, we discovered non-linear feature and counter-cyclical phenomena in the moderating effect of rumor refutation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Social Networking
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 541, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243286

ABSTRACT

More and more patients suffered from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have got recovery gradually due to suitable intervention. Increasing data mainly studies the clinical characteristics of recovered COVID-19 patients, and their molecular changes especially proteome changes also play the same important role in understanding of biological characteristics of recovered COVID-19 patients as clinical characteristics do. In our study, we reported the whole lung-ground glass-CT value-average of mild/severe recovered patients 3 months after discharge without underlying diseases was significantly lower than that of healthy subjects. Then we isolated the extracellular vesicles (EVs) of plasma from 19 healthy subjects and 67 recovered COVID-19 patients. Mass Spectrometry was used to catalogue the proteins of these EVs compared to a defined group of controls. Identified 174 proteins were differentially expressed in the EVs of COVID-19 patients compared with healthy subjects, which involved in lipid metabolic process, response to cellular, and response to stress oxygen-containing compound. Besides, we identified several protein of plasma EVs in recovered patients associated with coagulation activity, inflammatory reaction, immune response, and low organ function. In addition, proteins correlating with clinical index such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also detected. Moreover, we also identified many unique or characteristic associations found in the recovered COVID-19 patients, which especially involved the kidney, serum electrolyte levels, and inflammation functions. This finding suggests that monitoring the situation of recovered patients might be useful, especially the indexes of coagulation, inflammation, immunity, and organ function, which can prevent bleeding, reinfection and organ dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Convalescence , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Female , Humans , Lipids/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104257, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir is a first-line antiviral drug, especially in primary hospitals. During the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most patients with COVID-19 who are symptomatic have used oseltamivir. Considering its popular and important role as an antiviral drug, it is necessary to evaluate oseltamivir in the treatment of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of oseltamivir against COVID-19. METHODS: Swiss-model was used to construct the structure of the N-terminal RNA-binding domain (NRBD) of the nucleoprotein (NC), papain-like protease (PLpro), and RNA-directed RNA polymerase (RdRp) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). TM-align program was performed to compare the structure of the viral proteins with the structure of the neuraminidase of influenza A. Molecular docking was used to analyze the theoretical possibility of effective binding of oseltamivir with the active centers of the viral proteins. In vitro study was used to evaluate the antiviral efficiency of oseltamivir against SARS-CoV-2. By clinical case analysis, we statistically evaluated whether the history of oseltamivir use influenced the progression of the disease. RESULTS: The structures of NRBD, PLpro, and RdRp were built successfully. The results from TM-align suggested that the S protein, NRBD, 3C-like protease (3CLpro), PLPrO, and RdRp were structurally similar to the influenza A neuraminidase, with TM-scores of 0.30077, 0.19254, 0.28766, 0.30666, and 0.34047, respectively. Interestingly, the active center of 3CL pro was found to be similar to the active center from the neuraminidase of influenza A. Through an analysis of molecular docking, we discovered that oseltamivir carboxylic acid was more favorable to bind to the active site of 3CLpro effectively, but its inhibitory effect was not strong compared with the positive group. Finally, we used in vitro study and retrospective case analysis to verify our speculations. We found that oseltamivir is ineffective against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro study and the clinical use of oseltamivir did not improve the patients' symptoms and signs and did not slow the disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that oseltamivir isn't suitable for the treatment of COVID-19. During the outbreak of novel coronavirus, when oseltamivir is not effective for the patients after they take it, health workers should be highly vigilant about the possibility of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oseltamivir/chemistry , Oseltamivir/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Vero Cells
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e208297, 2020 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186546

ABSTRACT

Importance: Sustained spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has happened in major US cities. Capacity needs in cities in China could inform the planning of local health care resources. Objectives: To describe and compare the intensive care unit (ICU) and inpatient bed needs for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2 cities in China to estimate the peak ICU bed needs in US cities if an outbreak equivalent to that in Wuhan occurs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study analyzed the confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan and Guangzhou, China, from January 10 to February 29, 2020. Exposures: Timing of disease control measures relative to timing of SARS-CoV-2 community spread. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number of critical and severe patient-days and peak number of patients with critical and severe illness during the study period. Results: In Wuhan, strict disease control measures were implemented 6 weeks after sustained local transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Between January 10 and February 29, 2020, patients with COVID-19 accounted for a median (interquartile range) of 429 (25-1143) patients in the ICU and 1521 (111-7202) inpatients with serious illness each day. During the epidemic peak, 19 425 patients (24.5 per 10 000 adults) were hospitalized, 9689 (12.2 per 10 000 adults) were considered in serious condition, and 2087 (2.6 per 10 000 adults) needed critical care per day. In Guangzhou, strict disease control measures were implemented within 1 week of case importation. Between January 24 and February 29, COVID-19 accounted for a median (interquartile range) of 9 (7-12) patients in the ICU and 17 (15-26) inpatients with serious illness each day. During the epidemic peak, 15 patients were in critical condition and 38 were classified as having serious illness. The projected number of prevalent critically ill patients at the peak of a Wuhan-like outbreak in US cities was estimated to range from 2.2 to 4.4 per 10 000 adults, depending on differences in age distribution and comorbidity (ie, hypertension) prevalence. Conclusions and Relevance: Even after the lockdown of Wuhan on January 23, the number of patients with serious COVID-19 illness continued to rise, exceeding local hospitalization and ICU capacities for at least a month. Plans are urgently needed to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 outbreaks on the local health care systems in US cities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand , Hospital Bed Capacity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cities , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Forecasting , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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