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Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512287


Assisted living (AL) is an emerging model of care in countries where long-term care needs are escalating, with emphasis given to promoting independence and autonomy among the residents to achieve active and healthy ageing. Unlike established nursing homes, the governance of AL is nebulous due to its novelty and diverse nature of operations in many jurisdictions. A comprehensive understanding of how AL is governed globally is important to inform regulatory policies as the adoption of AL increases. A systematic literature review was undertaken to understand the different levels of regulations that need to be instituted to govern AL effectively. A total of 65 studies, conducted between 1990 to 2020, identified from three major databases (PubMed, Medline, and Scopus), were included. Using a thematic synthesis analytical approach, we identified macro-level regulations (operational authorisation, care quality assessment and infrastructural requirements), meso-level regulations (operational management, staff management and distribution, service provision and care monitoring, and crisis management), and micro-level regulations (clear criteria for resident admission and staff hiring) that are important in the governance of AL. Large-scale adoption of AL without compromising the quality, equity and affordability would require clear provisions of micro-, meso- and macro-level regulations.

Long-Term Care , Nursing Homes , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Quality of Health Care
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 122, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456011


BACKGROUND: The availability of various types of COVID-19 vaccines and diverse characteristics of the vaccines present a dilemma in vaccination choices, which may result in individuals refusing a particular COVID-19 vaccine offered, hence presenting a threat to immunisation coverage and reaching herd immunity. The study aimed to assess global COVID-19 vaccination intention, vaccine characteristics influencing vaccination acceptance and desirable vaccine characteristics influencing the choice of vaccines. METHODS: An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted between 4 January and 5 March 2021 in 17 countries worldwide. Proportions and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine characteristics influencing vaccination acceptance were generated and compared across countries and regions. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: Of the 19,714 responses received, 90.4% (95% CI 81.8-95.3) reported likely or extremely likely to receive COVID-19 vaccine. A high proportion of likely or extremely likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was reported in Australia (96.4%), China (95.3%) and Norway (95.3%), while a high proportion reported being unlikely or extremely unlikely to receive the vaccine in Japan (34.6%), the U.S. (29.4%) and Iran (27.9%). Males, those with a lower educational level and those of older age expressed a higher level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Less than two-thirds (59.7%; 95% CI 58.4-61.0) reported only being willing to accept a vaccine with an effectiveness of more than 90%, and 74.5% (95% CI 73.4-75.5) said they would accept a COVID-19 vaccine with minor adverse reactions. A total of 21.0% (95% CI 20.0-22.0) reported not accepting an mRNA vaccine and 51.8% (95% CI 50.3-53.1) reported that they would only accept a COVID-19 vaccine from a specific country-of-origin. Countries from the Southeast Asia region reported the highest proportion of not accepting mRNA technology. The highest proportion from Europe and the Americas would only accept a vaccine produced by certain countries. The foremost important vaccine characteristic influencing vaccine choice is adverse reactions (40.6%; 95% CI 39.3-41.9) of a vaccine and effectiveness threshold (35.1%; 95% CI 33.9-36.4). CONCLUSIONS: The inter-regional and individual country disparities in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy highlight the importance of designing an efficient plan for the delivery of interventions dynamically tailored to the local population.

COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
J Cancer Policy ; 25: 100241, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643359


The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted current models of healthcare and adaptations will likely continue. With the gradual easing of lockdown measures worldwide, cancer centres must be prepared to implement novel means to prevent repeated waves of infection. There are two limitations unique to oncology - a higher susceptibility of patients to COVID-19 and the multidisciplinary approach required of cancer management. We describe the measures implemented in the largest cancer centre in Singapore to continue optimal cancer care in spite of the ongoing pandemic, with no nosocomial infections reported in our centre to date. We adopted a multipronged approach, with an overall committee supervising the entire COVID-19 management effort. A screening clinic was setup to triage patients prior to entry to the centre. Each Oncology Division within the cancer centre designed solutions tailored to the specific needs of their discipline. We explore in detail the screening criteria and workflow of the screening clinic, as well as modifications by individual divisions to reduce infection risk to patients and healthcare professionals. This approach can be modelled by other cancer centres during this prolonged COVID-19 pandemic.