Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 820-825, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19 may present with respiratory syndromes indistinguishable from those caused by common viruses. Early isolation and containment is challenging. Although screening all patients with respiratory symptoms for COVID-19 has been recommended, the practicality of such an effort has yet to be assessed. METHODS: Over a 6-week period during a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, our institution introduced a "respiratory surveillance ward" (RSW) to segregate all patients with respiratory symptoms in designated areas, where appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) could be utilized until SARS-CoV-2 testing was done. Patients could be transferred when SARS-CoV-2 tests were negative on 2 consecutive occasions, 24 hours apart. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1,178 patients were admitted to the RSWs. The mean length-of-stay (LOS) was 1.89 days (SD, 1.23). Among confirmed cases of pneumonia admitted to the RSW, 5 of 310 patients (1.61%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. This finding was comparable to the pickup rate from our isolation ward. In total, 126 HCWs were potentially exposed to these cases; however, only 3 (2.38%) required quarantine because most used appropriate PPE. In addition, 13 inpatients overlapped with the index cases during their stay in the RSW; of these 13 exposed inpatients, 1 patient subsequently developed COVID-19 after exposure. No patient-HCW transmission was detected despite intensive surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: Our institution successfully utilized the strategy of an RSW over a 6-week period to contain a cluster of COVID-19 cases and to prevent patient-HCW transmission. However, this method was resource-intensive in terms of testing and bed capacity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Symptom Assessment , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 978760, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043449

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected half a billion people, including vulnerable populations such as cancer patients. While increasing evidence supports the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 months after a negative nasopharyngeal swab test, the effects on long-term immune memory and cancer treatment are unclear. In this report, we examined post-COVID-19 tissue-localized immune responses in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient and a colorectal cancer (CRC) patient. Using spatial whole-transcriptomic analysis, we demonstrated spatial profiles consistent with a lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 response (based on two public COVID-19 gene sets) in the tumors and adjacent normal tissues, despite intra-tumor heterogeneity. The use of RNAscope and multiplex immunohistochemistry revealed that the spatial localization of B cells was significantly associated with lymphocyte-associated SARS-CoV-2 responses within the spatial transcriptomic (ST) niches showing the highest levels of virus. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing data obtained from previous (CRC) or new (HCC) ex vivo stimulation experiments showed that patient-specific SARS-CoV-2 memory B cells were the main contributors to this positive association. Finally, we evaluated the spatial associations between SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological effects and immunotherapy-related anti-tumor immune responses. Immuno-predictive scores (IMPRES) revealed consistent positive spatial correlations between T cells/cytotoxic lymphocytes and the predicted immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) response, particularly in the HCC tissues. However, the positive spatial correlation between B cells and IMPRES score was restricted to the high-virus ST niche. In addition, tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) analysis revealed marked T cell dysfunction and inflammation, alongside low T cell exclusion and M2 tumor-associated macrophage infiltration. Our results provide in situ evidence of SARS-CoV-2-generated persistent immunological memory, which could not only provide tissue protection against reinfection but may also modulate the tumor microenvironment, favoring ICB responsiveness. As the number of cancer patients with COVID-19 comorbidity continues to rise, improved understanding of the long-term immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on cancer treatment is much needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Comorbidity , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunologic Memory , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
4.
IDCases ; 30: e01611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996203

ABSTRACT

Background: Prolonged shedding/relapse of COVID-19 infection has been reported, particularly in patients who received anti-CD20 agents (eg. rituximab). However, cases of occult COVID-19, in which SARS-CoV-2 persistence in lung parenchyma is diagnosed despite clearance from nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens, are uncommon. Case summary: We describe two cases of occult COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients. Both patients had received rituximab previously. Both cases initially presented as ground-glass infiltrates on lung imaging; the diagnosis was originally not suspected due to repeated demonstration of negative SARS-CoV-2 from NP specimens, and alternative etiologies were originally considered. Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in lung parenchyma, however, was demonstrated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens; additionally, isolation of viable SARS-CoV-2 virus and detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike-protein antigen in lung tissue on immunohistochemistry close to 3-months from primary infection strongly suggested ongoing viral persistence and replication as a driver of the lung parenchymal changes, which resolved after antiviral treatment. Discussion: Occult COVID-19 can be a cause of unexplained ground-glass infiltrates on lung imaging; negative NP samples do not rule out SARS-CoV-2 persistence and invasive sampling must be considered. The unsuspected presence of viable virus on BAL, however, highlights that procedurists perfoming aerosol-generating-procedures during an ongoing pandemic wave must also practise appropriate infection-prevention precautions to limit potential exposure.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 781796, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847220

ABSTRACT

This study explores the factors contributing to the prolonged psychological distress of frontline nurses and physicians caring for COVID-19 patients in hospitals in Singapore and Japan. A cross-sectional survey between September and December 2020 yielded 1,644 responses (23.8%), from 62 nurses and 64 physicians in Singapore and 1,280 nurses and 238 physicians in Japan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that significant risk factors for prolonged psychological distress included being a frontline nurse [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-4.66], having an underlying medical condition (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.22-2.46), experiencing prejudice because they undertook COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.23-4.18), having trouble dealing with panicked or uncooperative patients (aOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.71-3.25), and experiencing an outbreak of COVID-19 in the hospital (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.38-3.04). Factors inversely associated with psychological distress included age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-1.00), number of beds in the hospital (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.94), clinical practice of carefully putting on and taking off personal protective equipment in daily COVID-19 patient care (aOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.73), and knowledge on COVID-19 (aOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94). These results could help us identify vulnerable healthcare providers who need urgent mental care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Measures that may reduce psychological strain include adequate supply of medical resources, education on precautionary measures, and communication strategies to combat discrimination against frontline healthcare providers.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0079122, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840554

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised hosts with prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have been implicated in the emergence of highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variants. Spike mutations are of particular concern because the spike protein is a key target for vaccines and therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the emergence of spike mutations in two immunocompromised patients with persistent SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription (RT)-PCR positivity (>90 days). Whole-genome sequence analysis of samples obtained before and after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment demonstrated the development of partial therapeutic escape mutations and increased intrahost SARS-CoV-2 genome diversity over time. This case series thus adds to the accumulating evidence that immunocompromised hosts with persistent infections are important sources of SARS-CoV-2 genome diversity and, in particular, clinically important spike protein diversity. IMPORTANCE The emergence of clinically important mutations described in this report highlights the need for sustained vigilance and containment measures when managing immunocompromised patients with persistent COVID-19. Even as jurisdictions across the globe start lifting pandemic control measures, immunocompromised patients with persistent COVID-19 constitute a unique group that requires close genomic monitoring and enhanced infection control measures, to ensure early detection and containment of mutations and variants of therapeutic and public health importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-5, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815396

ABSTRACT

Sporadic clusters of healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred despite intense rostered routine surveillance and a highly vaccinated healthcare worker (HCW) population, during a community surge of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.617.2 δ (delta) variant. Genomic analysis facilitated timely cluster detection and uncovered additional linkages via HCWs moving between clinical areas and among HCWs sharing a common lunch area, enabling early intervention.

11.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(5): 418-425, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086243

ABSTRACT

Importance: Three-dimensionally printed nasopharyngeal swabs (3DP swabs) have been used to mitigate swab shortages during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinical validation for diagnostic accuracy and consistency, as well as patient acceptability, is crucial to evaluate the swab's performance. Objective: To determine the accuracy and acceptability of the 3DP swab for identifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Design, Setting, and Participants: A diagnostic study was conducted from May to July 2020 at 2 tertiary care centers in Singapore with different reference swabs (FLOQSwab [COPAN Diagnostics] or Dacron swab [Deltalab]) and swab processing techniques (wet or dry) to evaluate the performance of the 3DP swab compared with traditional, standard-of-care nasopharyngeal swabs used in health care institutions. The participants were patients with COVID-19 in the first 2 weeks of illness and controls with acute respiratory illness with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2. Paired nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the same nostril and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of swabs was randomized based on odd and even participant numbers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures were overall agreement (OA), positive percentage agreement (PPA), and negative percentage agreement of the 3DP swab compared with reference swabs. Secondary outcome measures were the correlation of cycle threshold (Ct) values of both swabs. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 45.4 (13.1) years, and most participants were men (87 of 89 [97.8%]), in keeping with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. A total of 79 patients with COVID-19 and 10 controls were recruited. Among the patients with COVID-19, the overall agreement and PPA of the 3DP swab was 91.1% and 93.5%, respectively, compared with reference swabs. The PPA was 100% for patients with COVID-19 who were tested within the first week of illness. All controls tested negative. The reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Ct values for the ORF1ab and E-gene targets showed a strong correlation (intraclass correlations coefficient, 0.869-0.920) between the 3DP and reference swab on independent testing at each institution despite differences in sample processing. Discordant results for both gene targets were observed only at high Ct values. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic study of 79 patients with COVID-19 and 10 controls, the 3DP swab performed accurately and consistently across health care institutions and could help mitigate strained resources in the escalating COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Adult , Equipment Design , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(2): 123-131, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare-associated transmission of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is a concern. To reduce the impact of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses on patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) we devised and evaluated a multi-tiered infection control strategy with the goal of preventing nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV2 and other RVIs across a large healthcare campus. METHODS: From January-June 2020, a multi-tiered infection control strategy was implemented across a healthcare campus in Singapore, comprising the largest acute tertiary hospital as well as four other subspecialty centres, with more than 10,000 HCWs. Drawing on our institution's experience with an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, this strategy included improved patient segregation and distancing, and heightened infection prevention and control (IPC) measures including universal masking. All symptomatic patients were tested for COVID-19 and common RVIs. RESULTS: A total of 16,162 admissions campus-wide were screened; 7.1% (1155/16,162) tested positive for COVID-19. Less than 5% of COVID-19 cases (39/1155) were initially detected outside of isolation wards in multi-bedded cohorted wards. Improved distancing and enhanced IPC measures successfully mitigated onward spread even amongst COVID-19 cases detected outside of isolation. COVID-19 rates amongst HCWs were kept low (0.13%, 17/13,066) and reflected community acquisition rather than nosocomial spread. Rates of healthcare-associated-RVI amongst inpatients fell to zero and this decrease was sustained even after the lifting of visitor restrictions. CONCLUSION: This multi-tiered infection control strategies can be implemented at-scale to successfully mitigate healthcare-associated transmission of respiratory viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans
14.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-88104.v1

ABSTRACT

BackgroundTo evaluate the utility of age and chest radiography(CXR) in triaging COVID-19 patients for hospitalization versus isolation in non-hospital facilities, we examined how age and CXR at diagnosis were associated with clinical needs from late-January to early-April. MethodsClinical status of all COVID-19 cases was monitored for national disease surveillance. Cases were isolated in hospitals until SARS-CoV-2 RNA was undetectable on PCR. Age and CXR results on admission were analysed for association with oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation, the outcomes of interest.ResultsTill 4 April 2020, there were 1,481 COVID-19 cases in Singapore. Overall, 11.4% required supplemental oxygen while 4.8% required mechanical ventilation and intensive care. The respective proportions increased to 40.9% and 16.5% for cases aged ≥70 years. As a predictor of subsequent mechanical ventilation, age had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve(AUROC) of 0.772 (95%CI:0.699-0.845). A combined criterion of either an abnormal CXR or age≥55 years had a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 58.0% for the same outcome. A similar performance was observed for predicting oxygen supplementation needs.ConclusionsAge and CXR at diagnosis may be valuable in excluding severe disease, allowing safe triage for isolation in non-hospital facilities. 

16.
Adv Cell Gene Ther ; 3(4): e101, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine whether the frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are sufficiently high in the blood of convalescent donors and whether it is technically feasible to manufacture clinical-grade products overnight for T-cell therapy and assessment of COVID-19 immunity. Methods: One unit of whole blood or leukapheresis was collected from each donor following standard blood bank practices. The leukocytes were stimulated using overlapping peptides of SARS-CoV-2, covering the immunodominant sequence domains of the S protein and the complete sequence of the N and M proteins. Thereafter, functionally reactive cells were enriched overnight using an automated device capturing IFNγ-secreting cells. Results: From 1 × 109 leukocytes, a median of 0.98 × 106 (range 0.56-2.95) IFNγ + T cells were produced from each of the six donors, suggesting a high frequency of SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in their blood, even though only one donor had severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation whereas the other five donors had minor symptoms. A median of 57% of the enriched T cells were IFNγ+ (range 20%-74%), with preferential enrichment of CD56+ T cells and effector memory T cells. TCRVß-spectratyping confirmed distinctively tall oligoclonal peaks in final products. With just six donors, the probability that a recipient would share at least one HLA allele with one of the donors is >88% among Caucasian, >95% among Chinese, >97% among Malay, and >99% among Indian populations. Conclusions: High frequencies of rapid antigen-reactive T cells were found in convalescent donors, regardless of severity of COVID-19. The feasibility of clinical-grade production of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells overnight for therapeutics and diagnostics is revealed.

17.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(7): 765-771, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Staff surveillance is crucial during the containment phase of a pandemic to help reduce potential healthcare-associated transmission and sustain good staff morale. During an outbreak of SARS-COV-2 with community transmission, our institution used an integrated strategy for early detection and containment of COVID-19 cases among healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: Our strategy comprised 3 key components: (1) enforcing reporting of HCWs with acute respiratory illness (ARI) to our institution's staff clinic for monitoring; (2) conducting ongoing syndromic surveillance to obtain early warning of potential clusters of COVID-19; and (3) outbreak investigation and management. RESULTS: Over a 16-week surveillance period, we detected 14 cases of COVID-19 among HCWs with ARI symptoms. Two of the cases were linked epidemiologically and thus constituted a COVID-19 cluster with intrahospital HCW-HCW transmission; we also detected 1 family cluster and 2 clusters among HCWs who shared accommodation. No transmission to HCWs or patients was detected after containment measures were instituted. Early detection minimized the number of HCWs requiring quarantine, hence preserving continuity of service during an ongoing pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated surveillance strategy, outbreak management, and encouraging individual responsibility were successful in early detection of clusters of COVID-19 among HCWs. With ongoing local transmission, vigilance must be maintained for intrahospital spread in nonclinical areas where social mingling of HCWs occurs. Because most individuals with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, addressing presenteeism is crucial to minimize potential staff and patient exposure.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Early Diagnosis , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Singapore/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
18.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104436, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305912

ABSTRACT

AIMS: During the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, co-circulation of other common respiratory viruses can potentially result in co-infections; however, reported rates of co-infections for SARS-CoV-2 vary. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of all community acquired viral respiratory infections requiring hospitalization during an ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, with a focus on co-infection rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Over a 10-week period, all admissions to our institution, the largest tertiary hospital in Singapore, were screened for respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 as well as a panel of common respiratory viral pathogens were systematically tested for. Information was collated on clinical outcomes, including requirement for mechanical ventilation and in hospital mortality. RESULTS: One-fifth (19.3%, 736/3807) of hospitalized inpatients with respiratory symptoms had a PCR-proven viral respiratory infection; of which 58.5% (431/736) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 42.2% (311/736) tested positive for other common respiratory viruses. The rate of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 was 1.4% (6/431); all patients with co-infection had mild disease and stayed in communal settings. The in-hospital mortality rate and proportion of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive ventilation was low, at around 1% of patients; these rates were lower than patients with other community-acquired respiratory viruses admitted over the same period (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Even amidst an ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, common respiratory viruses still accounted for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations. Coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 were rare, with no observed increase in morbidity or mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Virus Diseases/mortality , Virus Diseases/virology
20.
Eur Radiol ; 30(9): 4964-4967, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108784

ABSTRACT

KEY POINTS: • Radiology services encountering the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic will need to modify their daily operational practices.• Leadership, patient risk stratification, adequate manpower, operational workflow clarity, and workplace/social responsibility will help Radiology services safely and sustainably deal with the current disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL