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J Clin Med ; 11(3)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674684


During the COVID-19 pandemic, intravitreal injections are performed with patients wearing masks. The risk of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection is reported to increase due to an influx of exhaled air containing oral bacteria from the upper part of the mask onto the ocular surface. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of endophthalmitis when intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections were performed using the same infection control measures before and during the pandemic. Vitreoretinal specialists performed intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents in the outpatient room of a university hospital. Infection control measures before and during the pandemic included covering the patient's eye with adhesive face drape and irrigating the ocular surface with 0.25% povidone-iodine before draping, and immediately before and after injection. Before the COVID-19 pandemic (February 2016 to December 2019), one case of endophthalmitis occurred among 31,173 injections performed (0.0032%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.000008-0.017872%). During the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020 to August 2021), one case of endophthalmitis occurred among 14,725 injections performed (0.0068%; 95% CI, 0.000017-0.037832%). There was no significant difference between the two periods (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.5387). Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, very low incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection can be maintained by implementing basic infection prophylactic measures, including face draping and 0.25% povidone-iodine irrigation, established before COVID-19 pandemic.

Front Neurol ; 12: 748316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518508


Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide with collateral damage and therefore might affect the behavior of stroke patients with mild symptoms seeking medical attention. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to hospitals within 7 days of onset were retrospectively registered. The clinical characteristics, including onset-to-door time (ODT), of patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA)/mild stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score of ≤ 3 on admission) or moderate/severe stroke were compared between those admitted from April 2019 to March 2020 (pre-COVID-19 period) and from April to September 2020 (COVID-19 period). Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the ODT. Results: Of 1,100 patients (732 men, median age, 73 years), 754 were admitted during the pre-COVID-19 period, and 346 were admitted during the COVID-19 period. The number and proportion of patients with TIA/minor stroke were 464 (61.5%) in the pre-COVID-19 period and 216 (62.4%) during the COVID-19 period. Among patients with TIA/mild stroke, the ODT was longer in patients admitted during the COVID-19 period compared with that of the pre-COVID-19 period (median 864 min vs. 508 min, p = 0.003). Multivariable analysis revealed the COVID-19 period of admission was associated with longer ODT (standardized partial regression coefficient 0.09, p = 0.003) after adjustment for age, sex, route of arrival, NIHSS score on admission, and the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and wake-up stroke. No significant change in the ODT was seen in patients with moderate/severe stroke. Conclusions: The COVID-19 epidemic might increase the ODT of patients with TIA/mild stroke.