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1.
Pathobiology ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296241

ABSTRACT

The incidence, presentation, and predisposing factors of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) are currently poorly understood. Lung explants may provide a rare insight into terminal SARS-CoV-2-associated lung damage and its pathophysiology. A 62-year-old man presented with progressively worsening respiratory symptoms after recovering from mild COVID-19 3 months earlier. No underlying pulmonary comorbidities were reported. A chest CT revealed bilateral extensive ground-glass and reticular opacities, suspicious of pulmonary fibrosis. Despite initial high-dose glucocorticoid therapy, the interstitial lung disease progressed, and after exhausting all viable therapeutic options, bilateral lung transplantation was successfully conducted. Histological analysis revealed extensive end-stage interstitial fibrosis with diffuse dendriform ossification and bronchiolar and transitional cell metaplasia. Signs of interstitial remodeling such as an increased interstitial collagen deposition, a pathological accumulation of CD163+/CD206+ M2-polarized macrophages with an increased expression of phosphorylated ERK, and an increased density of CD105+ newly formed capillaries were observed. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for SARS-CoV-2 N-protein in the endothelium of medium-sized vessels confirmed a persistence of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings highlight a highly unusual presentation of SARS-CoV-2-associated lung fibrosis, implying that incomplete viral clearance in the vascular compartment may play a vital pathophysiological role in the development of PASC.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emerged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2 and BA.4/5 demonstrate higher transmission and infection compared to previous variants of concern. To evaluate effectiveness of heterologous and homologous booster vaccination, we directly compared cellular and humoral immune responses as well as neutralizing capacity against replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 wild type, Delta and Omicron variants BA.1, BA.2, BA.4/5. METHODS: For this, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum samples of 137 participants divided into three major groups were investigated. Individuals of the first group were twice ChAdOx1 vaccinated and mRNA (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273)-boosted, the second group included triple mRNA vaccinated participants and the third group consisted of twice vaccinated and convalescent individuals. RESULTS: Vaccination and convalescence resulted in the highest levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, stronger T cell responses and best neutralization against WT, Delta Omicron BA.2 and BA.4/5, while a combination of twice ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2-vaccinated regimen displayed elevated neutralizing capacity against Omicron BA.1. In addition, heterologous boosted individuals showed higher efficacy against Omicron BA.2 as well as BA.4/5 compared to homologous booster regimens. CONCLUSIONS: We here showed that twice vaccinated and convalescent individuals demonstrated the strongest immunity against Omicron BA.2 and BA.4/5 variant followed by heterologous and homologous booster vaccine regimens.

4.
J Psychosom Res ; 169: 111234, 2023 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Subjective illness perception (IP) can differ from physician's clinical assessment results. Herein, we explored patient's IP during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovery. METHODS: Participants of the prospective observation CovILD study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04416100) with persistent somatic symptoms or cardiopulmonary findings one year after COVID-19 were analyzed (n = 74). Explanatory variables included demographic and comorbidity, COVID-19 course and one-year follow-up data of persistent somatic symptoms, physical performance, lung function testing, chest computed tomography and trans-thoracic echocardiography. Factors affecting IP (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire) one year after COVID-19 were identified by regularized modeling and unsupervised clustering. RESULTS: In modeling, 33% of overall IP variance (R2) was attributed to fatigue intensity, reduced physical performance and persistent somatic symptom count. Overall IP was largely independent of lung and heart findings revealed by imaging and function testing. In clustering, persistent somatic symptom count (Kruskal-Wallis test: η2 = 0.31, p < .001), fatigue (η2 = 0.34, p < .001), diminished physical performance (χ2 test, Cramer V effect size statistic: V = 0.51, p < .001), dyspnea (V = 0.37, p = .006), hair loss (V = 0.57, p < .001) and sleep problems (V = 0.36, p = .008) were strongly associated with the concern, emotional representation, complaints, disease timeline and consequences IP dimensions. CONCLUSION: Persistent somatic symptoms rather than abnormalities in cardiopulmonary testing influence IP one year after COVID-19. Modifying IP represents a promising innovative approach to treatment of post-COVID-19 condition. Besides COVID-19 severity, individual IP should guide rehabilitation and psychological therapy decisions.

5.
Int J Tryptophan Res ; 16: 11786469231154244, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260619

ABSTRACT

Background: Fatigue, sleep disturbance, and neurological symptoms during and after COVID-19 are common and might be associated with inflammation-induced changes in tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) metabolism. Aim: This pilot study investigated interferon gamma inducible biochemical pathways (namely Trp catabolism, neopterin, tyrosine [Tyr], and nitrite formation) during acute COVID-19 and reconvalescence. Patients and methods: Thirty one patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 admitted to the University Hospital of Innsbruck in early 2020 (March-May) were followed up. Neurotransmitter precursors Trp, Phe, Tyr as well as kynurenine (Kyn), neopterin, nitrite, and routine laboratory parameters were analyzed during acute infection and at a follow-up (FU) 60 days thereafter. Clinical symptoms of patients (neurological symptoms, fatigue, sleep disturbance) were recorded and associations with concentrations of laboratory parameters investigated. Results and conclusion: Almost half of the patients suffered from neurological symptoms (48.4%), the majority of patients experienced sleep difficulties (56.7%) during acute COVID-19. Fatigue was present in nearly all patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), neopterin, Kyn, Phe concentrations were significantly increased, and Trp levels depleted during acute COVID-19. Patients with sleep impairment and neurological symptoms during acute illness presented with increased CRP and IL-6 concentrations, Trp levels were lower in patients with sleep disturbance. In general, inflammatory markers declined during reconvalescence. A high percentage of patients suffered from persistent symptoms at FU (neurological symptoms: 17.2%, fatigue: 51.7%, sleeping disturbance: 34.5%) and had higher CRP concentrations. Nitrite and Phe levels were lower in patients with sleeping difficulties at FU and Kyn/Trp ratio, as indicator of IDO activity, was significantly lower in patients with neurological symptoms compared to patients without them at FU. In summary, inflammation induced alterations of amino acid metabolism might be related to acute and persisting symptoms of COVID-19.

6.
ERJ Open Res ; 9(2)2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279284

ABSTRACT

Background: Recovery trajectories from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) call for longitudinal investigation. We aimed to characterise the kinetics and status of clinical, cardiopulmonary and mental health recovery up to 1 year following COVID-19. Methods: Clinical evaluation, lung function testing (LFT), chest computed tomography (CT) and transthoracic echocardiography were conducted at 2, 3, 6 and 12 months after disease onset. Submaximal exercise capacity, mental health status and quality of life were assessed at 12 months. Recovery kinetics and patterns were investigated by mixed-effect logistic modelling, correlation and clustering analyses. Risk of persistent symptoms and cardiopulmonary abnormalities at the 1-year follow-up were modelled by logistic regression. Findings: Out of 145 CovILD study participants, 108 (74.5%) completed the 1-year follow-up (median age 56.5 years; 59.3% male; 24% intensive care unit patients). Comorbidities were present in 75% (n=81). Key outcome measures plateaued after 180 days. At 12 months, persistent symptoms were found in 65% of participants; 33% suffered from LFT impairment; 51% showed CT abnormalities; and 63% had low-grade diastolic dysfunction. Main risk factors for cardiopulmonary impairment included pro-inflammatory and immunological biomarkers at early visits. In addition, we deciphered three recovery clusters separating almost complete recovery from patients with post-acute inflammatory profile and an enrichment in cardiopulmonary residuals from a female-dominated post-COVID-19 syndrome with reduced mental health status. Conclusion: 1 year after COVID-19, the burden of persistent symptoms, impaired lung function, radiological abnormalities remains high in our study population. Yet, three recovery trajectories are emerging, ranging from almost complete recovery to post-COVID-19 syndrome with impaired mental health.

7.
Sci Immunol ; : eabp8966, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251435

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening 'breakthrough' cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals; however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-ß. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population.

8.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 35(1)2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The need to ration medical equipment and interventions during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic translated to an ever-lengthening wait list for surgical care. Retrospective analysis of lockdowns is of high importance to learn from the current situation for future pandemics. This monocentric study assessed the impact of lockdown periods on cardiac surgery cases and outcomes. METHODS: The single-centre cross-sectional descriptive observational study was conducted to investigate the first lockdown period and the following post-lockdown period in comparison to the same periods during the previous 3 years at the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the Medical University of Innsbruck. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed from the department-specific quality management system. The primary objective was to compare the number of open-heart procedures between the prelockdown and the lockdown period. The secondary objectives were to analyse the characteristics and the outcomes of open-heart procedures. RESULTS: There were no differences in patient demographics. A significant decrease of 29% in weekly surgical procedures was observed during the lockdown period. The surgical case-mix was unaffected: The numbers of aortic valve replacements, coronary artery bypass grafts, mitral valve repair or replacement procedures and others remained stable. The urgency of cases increased significantly, and the general health conditions of patients appeared to be worse. However, outcomes were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: By implementing a rational patient selection process, the quality of open-heart procedures was maintained even though patients who underwent surgery during lockdown were sicker and more symptomatic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2599, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245378

ABSTRACT

The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is related to the presence of comorbidities including metabolic diseases. We herein present data from the longitudinal prospective CovILD trial, and investigate the recovery from COVID-19 in individuals with dysglycemia and dyslipidemia. A total of 145 COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed and a comprehensive clinical, laboratory and imaging assessment was performed at 60, 100, 180, and 360 days after the onset of COVID-19. The severity of acute COVID-19 and outcome at early post-acute follow-up were significantly related to the presence of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia. Still, at long-term follow-up, metabolic disorders were not associated with an adverse pulmonary outcome, as reflected by a good recovery of structural lung abnormalities in both, patients with and without metabolic diseases. To conclude, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia are associated with a more severe course of acute COVID-19 as well as delayed early recovery but do not impair long-term pulmonary recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Metabolic Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications
10.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 2(1): 142, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of COVID-19 patients with cardiac involvement is unfavorable and it remains unknown which patients are at risk. The virus enters cells via its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Myocardial ACE2 expression is increased in structural heart disease (SHD). We, therefore, aimed to analyze correlations between structural heart disease and cardiac SARS-CoV-2 manifestation. METHODS: The clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with structural heart disease was assessed in a prospective cohort of 152 patients. The primary endpoints consisted of hospitalization and survival. Cardiac tissue of 23 autopsy cases with lethal COVID-19 course was obtained and analyzed for (a) the presence of SHD, (b) myocardial presence of SARS-CoV-2 via RT,-PCR, and (c) levels of ACE2 expression using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Structural heart disease is found in 67 patients, of whom 56 (83.60%) are hospitalized. The myocardium is positive for SARS-CoV-2 in 15 patients (65%) in 23 autopsy cases of lethal COVID-19. Moreover, most hearts with evidence of myocardial SARS-CoV-2 have structural heart disease [11 (91,67%) vs. 1 (8,33%), p = 0.029]. Myocardial presence of SARS-CoV-2 is correlated with a significant downregulation of ACE2 compared to negative control hearts (6.545 ± 1.1818 A.U. vs. 7.764 ± 2.411 A.U., p = 0.003). The clinical course of patients with cardiac SARS-CoV-2 manifestation is unfavorable, resulting in impaired survival (median, 12 days and 4.5 days, respectively, HR 0.30, 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.73, p = 0.0005) CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence for a correlation between SHD, altered ACE2 receptor expression, and cardiac SARS-CoV-2 manifestation. Consequently, structural heart disease may be considered a distinct risk factor for a severe clinical course after infection with SARS-CoV-2. REGISTRATION NUMBER LOCAL IRB: Ethics Committee of Northwestern and Central Switzerland ID 2020-00629; Ethics Committee of the Medical University Innsbruck EK Nr: 1103/2020. GOV NUMBER: NCT04416100.


SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, binds to ACE2 receptors to gain entry into cells. The ACE2 receptor is a cell surface protein found in many tissues, including the heart. Studies suggest that people with heart disease are likely to have higher levels of ACE2 receptors, which may explain why they are more susceptible to severe illness from COVID-19. In this study, we identified heart disease as a risk factor for hospitalization in 152 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the heart was associated with altered levels of ACE2 receptors and with a shortened survival time in patients. These findings provide evidence for a potential link between heart disease, ACE2 receptor levels, and SARS-CoV-2 infection of the heart, and may help doctors to understand the clinical course of patients with heart disease who contract COVID-19.

11.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(12): 1026-1029, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078007

ABSTRACT

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six post COVID-19 patients suspected for pulmonary fibrosis were scheduled for dual-tracer PET/CT with 18 F-FDG and 68 Ga-fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (FAPI)-46. The uptake of 68 Ga-FAPI-46 in the involved lung was compared with a control group of 9 non-COVID-19 patients. Clinical data and PET/CT imaging were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: PET/CT revealed in all 6 pulmonary impaired patients the reduced glucose avidity on 18 F-FDG and clear positivity on 68 Ga-FAPI-46 PET/CT in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing fibrotic repair mechanisms, 68 Ga-FAPI PET/CT may improve noninvasive clinical diagnostic performance in patients with long-term CT abnormalities after severe COVID-19. Although this study shows promising results, additional studies in larger populations are required to establish a general diagnostic guideline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Humans , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Gallium Radioisotopes
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0059722, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063980

ABSTRACT

Determination of antibody levels against the nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are used to estimate the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Differences in the design and specification of antibody assays challenge the interpretation of test results, and comparative studies are often limited to single time points per patient. We determined the longitudinal kinetics of antibody levels of 145 unvaccinated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at four visits over 1 year upon convalescence using 8 commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (from Abbott, DiaSorin, Roche, Siemens, and Technoclone), as well as a virus neutralization test (VNT). A linear regression model was used to investigate whether antibody results obtained in the first 6 months after disease onset could predict the VNT results at 12 months. Spike protein-specific antibody tests showed good correlation to the VNT at individual time points (rS, 0.74 to 0.92). While longitudinal assay comparison with the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S test showed almost constant antibody concentrations over 12 months, the VNT and all other tests indicated a decline in serum antibody levels (median decrease to 14% to 36% of baseline). The antibody level at 3 months was the best predictor of the VNT results at 12 months after disease onset. The current standardization to a WHO calibrator for normalization to binding antibody units (BAU) is not sufficient for the harmonization of SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests. Assay-specific differences in absolute values and trends over time need to be considered when interpreting the course of antibody levels in patients. IMPORTANCE Determination of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 will play an important role in detecting a sufficient immune response. Although all the manufacturers expressed antibody levels in binding antibody units per milliliter, thus suggesting comparable results, we found discrepant behavior between the eight investigated assays when we followed the antibody levels in a cohort of 145 convalescent patients over 1 year. While one assay yielded constant antibody levels, the others showed decreasing antibody levels to a varying extent. Therefore, the comparability of the assays must be improved regarding the long-term kinetics of antibody levels. This is a prerequisite for establishing reliable antibody level cutoffs for sufficient individual protection against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e418-e431, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long COVID, defined as the presence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms ≥28 days after clinical onset, is an emerging challenge to healthcare systems. The objective of the current study was to explore recovery phenotypes in nonhospitalized individuals with COVID-19. METHODS: A dual cohort, online survey study was conducted between September 2020 and July 2021 in the neighboring European regions Tyrol (TY; Austria, n = 1157) and South Tyrol (STY; Italy, n = 893). Data were collected on demographics, comorbid conditions, COVID-19 symptoms, and recovery in adult outpatients. Phenotypes of acute COVID-19, postacute sequelae, and risk of protracted recovery were explored using semi-supervised clustering and multiparameter least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) modeling. RESULTS: Participants in the study cohorts were predominantly working age (median age [interquartile range], 43 [31-53] years] for TY and 45 [35-55] years] for STY) and female (65.1% in TY and 68.3% in STY). Nearly half (47.6% in TY and 49.3% in STY) reported symptom persistence beyond 28 days. Two acute COVID-19 phenotypes were discerned: the nonspecific infection phenotype and the multiorgan phenotype (MOP). Acute MOP symptoms encompassing multiple neurological, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and dermatological symptoms were linked to elevated risk of protracted recovery. The major subset of individuals with long COVID (49.3% in TY; 55.6% in STY) displayed no persistent hyposmia or hypogeusia but high counts of postacute MOP symptoms and poor self-reported physical recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our 2-cohort analysis delineated phenotypic diversity of acute and postacute COVID-19 manifestations in home-isolated patients, which must be considered in predicting protracted convalescence and allocating medical resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
14.
Allergy ; 77(8): 2431-2445, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. One possibility to control the pandemic is to induce sterilizing immunity through the induction and maintenance of neutralizing antibodies preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering human cells to replicate in. METHODS: We report the construction and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (PreS-RBD) based on a structurally folded recombinant fusion protein consisting of two SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domains (RBD) fused to the N- and C-terminus of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen PreS to enable the two unrelated proteins serving as immunologic carriers for each other. RESULTS: PreS-RBD, but not RBD alone, induced a robust and uniform RBD-specific IgG response in rabbits. Currently available genetic SARS-CoV-2 vaccines induce mainly transient IgG1 responses in vaccinated subjects whereas the PreS-RBD vaccine induced RBD-specific IgG antibodies consisting of an early IgG1 and sustained IgG4 antibody response in a SARS-CoV-2 naive subject. PreS-RBD-specific IgG antibodies were detected in serum and mucosal secretions, reacted with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the omicron variant of concern and the HBV receptor-binding sites on PreS of currently known HBV genotypes. PreS-RBD-specific antibodies of the immunized subject more potently inhibited the interaction of RBD with its human receptor ACE2 and their virus-neutralizing titers (VNTs) were higher than median VNTs in a random sample of healthy subjects fully immunized with registered SARS-CoV-2 vaccines or in COVID-19 convalescent subjects. CONCLUSION: The PreS-RBD vaccine has the potential to serve as a combination vaccine for inducing sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and HBV by stopping viral replication through the inhibition of cellular virus entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rabbits , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Bastard, Paul, Vazquez, Sara, Liu, Jamin, Laurie, Matthew T.; Wang, Chung Yu, Gervais, Adrian, Le Voyer, Tom, Bizien, Lucy, Zamecnik, Colin, Philippot, Quentin, Rosain, Jérémie, Catherinot, Emilie, Willmore, Andrew, Mitchell, Anthea M.; Bair, Rebecca, Garçon, Pierre, Kenney, Heather, Fekkar, Arnaud, Salagianni, Maria, Poulakou, Garyphallia, Siouti, Eleni, Sahanic, Sabina, Tancevski, Ivan, Weiss, Günter, Nagl, Laurenz, Manry, Jérémy, Duvlis, Sotirija, Arroyo-Sánchez, Daniel, Paz Artal, Estela, Rubio, Luis, Perani, Cristiano, Bezzi, Michela, Sottini, Alessandra, Quaresima, Virginia, Roussel, Lucie, Vinh, Donald C.; Reyes, Luis Felipe, Garzaro, Margaux, Hatipoglu, Nevin, Boutboul, David, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Yacine, Borghesi, Alessandro, Aliberti, Anna, Cassaniti, Irene, Venet, Fabienne, Monneret, Guillaume, Halwani, Rabih, Sharif-Askari, Narjes Saheb, Danielson, Jeffrey, Burrel, Sonia, Morbieu, Caroline, Stepanovskyy, Yurii, Bondarenko, Anastasia, Volokha, Alla, Boyarchuk, Oksana, Gagro, Alenka, Neuville, Mathilde, Neven, Bénédicte, Keles, Sevgi, Hernu, Romain, Bal, Antonin, Novelli, Antonio, Novelli, Giuseppe, Saker, Kahina, Ailioaie, Oana, Antolí, Arnau, Jeziorski, Eric, Rocamora-Blanch, Gemma, Teixeira, Carla, Delaunay, Clarisse, Lhuillier, Marine, Le Turnier, Paul, Zhang, Yu, Mahevas, Matthieu, Pan-Hammarström, Qiang, Abolhassani, Hassan, Bompoil, Thierry, Dorgham, Karim, consortium, Covid Hge, French, Covid study group, consortium, Comet, Gorochov, Guy, Laouenan, Cédric, Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos, Ng, Lisa F. P.; Renia, Laurent, Pujol, Aurora, Belot, Alexandre, Raffi, François, Allende, Luis M.; Martinez-Picado, Javier, Ozcelik, Tayfun, Keles, Sevgi, Imberti, Luisa, Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Troya, Jesus, Solanich, Xavier, Zhang, Shen-Ying, Puel, Anne, Wilson, Michael R.; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie, Abel, Laurent, Jouanguy, Emmanuelle, Ye, Chun Jimmie, Cobat, Aurélie, Thompson, Leslie M.; Andreakos, Evangelos, Zhang, Qian, Anderson, Mark S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent, DeRisi, Joseph L..
Science immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918542
16.
Metabolites ; 12(6)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with iron dyshomeostasis. The latter is related to acute disease severity and COVID-19 convalescence. We herein describe iron dyshomeostasis at COVID-19 follow-up and its association with long-term pulmonary and symptomatic recovery. The prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study "Development of Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) in Patients With Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection (CovILD)" encompasses serial extensive clinical, laboratory, functional and imaging evaluations at 60, 100, 180 and 360 days after COVID-19 onset. We included 108 individuals with mild-to-critical acute COVID-19, whereas 75% presented with severe acute disease. At 60 days post-COVID-19 follow-up, hyperferritinaemia (35% of patients), iron deficiency (24% of the cohort) and anaemia (9% of the patients) were frequently found. Anaemia of inflammation (AI) was the predominant feature at early post-acute follow-up, whereas the anaemia phenotype shifted towards iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and combinations of IDA and AI until the 360 days follow-up. The prevalence of anaemia significantly decreased over time, but iron dyshomeostasis remained a frequent finding throughout the study. Neither iron dyshomeostasis nor anaemia were related to persisting structural lung impairment, but both were associated with impaired stress resilience at long-term COVID-19 follow-up. To conclude, iron dyshomeostasis and anaemia are frequent findings after COVID-19 and may contribute to its long-term symptomatic outcome.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 792881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775691

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescents are at risk of developing a de novo mental health disorder or worsening of a pre-existing one. COVID-19 outpatients have been less well characterized than their hospitalized counterparts. The objectives of our study were to identify indicators for poor mental health following COVID-19 outpatient management and to identify high-risk individuals. Methods: We conducted a binational online survey study with adult non-hospitalized COVID-19 convalescents (Austria/AT: n = 1,157, Italy/IT: n = 893). Primary endpoints were positive screening for depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-4) and self-perceived overall mental health (OMH) and quality of life (QoL) rated with 4 point Likert scales. Psychosocial stress was surveyed with a modified PHQ stress module. Associations of the mental health and QoL with socio-demographic, COVID-19 course, and recovery variables were assessed by multi-parameter Random Forest and Poisson modeling. Mental health risk subsets were defined by self-organizing maps (SOMs) and hierarchical clustering algorithms. The survey analyses are publicly available (https://im2-ibk.shinyapps.io/mental_health_dashboard/). Results: Depression and/or anxiety before infection was reported by 4.6% (IT)/6% (AT) of participants. At a median of 79 days (AT)/96 days (IT) post-COVID-19 onset, 12.4% (AT)/19.3% (IT) of subjects were screened positive for anxiety and 17.3% (AT)/23.2% (IT) for depression. Over one-fifth of the respondents rated their OMH (AT: 21.8%, IT: 24.1%) or QoL (AT: 20.3%, IT: 25.9%) as fair or poor. Psychosocial stress, physical performance loss, high numbers of acute and sub-acute COVID-19 complaints, and the presence of acute and sub-acute neurocognitive symptoms (impaired concentration, confusion, and forgetfulness) were the strongest correlates of deteriorating mental health and poor QoL. In clustering analysis, these variables defined subsets with a particularly high propensity of post-COVID-19 mental health impairment and decreased QoL. Pre-existing depression or anxiety (DA) was associated with an increased symptom burden during acute COVID-19 and recovery. Conclusion: Our study revealed a bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 symptoms and mental health. We put forward specific acute symptoms of the disease as "red flags" of mental health deterioration, which should prompt general practitioners to identify non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients who may benefit from early psychological and psychiatric intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT04661462].

19.
Radiology ; 304(2): 462-470, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765163

ABSTRACT

Background The long-term pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19 is not well known. Purpose To characterize patterns and rates of improvement of chest CT abnormalities 1 year after COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter observational cohort study conducted from April 29 to August 12, 2020, to assess pulmonary abnormalities at chest CT approximately 2, 3, and 6 months and 1 year after onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Pulmonary findings were graded for each lung lobe using a qualitative CT severity score (CTSS) ranging from 0 (normal) to 25 (all lobes involved). The association of demographic and clinical factors with CT abnormalities after 1 year was assessed with logistic regression. The rate of change of the CTSS at follow-up CT was investigated by using the Friedmann test. Results Of 142 enrolled participants, 91 underwent a 1-year follow-up CT examination and were included in the analysis (mean age, 59 years ± 13 [SD]; 35 women [38%]). In 49 of 91 (54%) participants, CT abnormalities were observed: 31 of 91 (34%) participants showed subtle subpleural reticulation, ground-glass opacities, or both, and 18 of 91 (20%) participants had extensive ground-glass opacities, reticulations, bronchial dilation, microcystic changes, or a combination thereof. At multivariable analysis, age of more than 60 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 24; P = .009), critical COVID-19 severity (OR, 29; 95% CI: 4.8, 280; P < .001), and male sex (OR, 8.9; 95% CI: 2.6, 36; P < .001) were associated with persistent CT abnormalities at 1-year follow-up. Reduction of CTSS was observed in participants at subsequent follow-up CT (P < .001); during the study period, 49% (69 of 142) of participants had complete resolution of CT abnormalities. Thirty-one of 49 (63%) participants with CT abnormalities showed no further improvement after 6 months. Conclusion Long-term CT abnormalities were common 1 year after COVID-19 pneumonia. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Leung in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3677, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730313

ABSTRACT

The CovILD study is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to systematically follow up patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We extensively evaluated 145 COVID-19 patients at 3 follow-up visits scheduled for 60, 100, and 180 days after initial confirmed diagnosis based on typical symptoms and a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We employed comprehensive pulmonary function and laboratory tests, including serum concentrations of IgG against the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, and compared the results to clinical data and chest computed tomography (CT). We found that at the 60 day follow-up, 131 of 145 (90.3%) participants displayed S-specific serum IgG levels above the cut-off threshold. Notably, the highly elevated IgG levels against S glycoprotein positively correlated with biomarkers of immune activation and negatively correlated with pulmonary function and the extent of pulmonary CT abnormalities. Based on the association between serum S glycoprotein-specific IgG and clinical outcome, we generated an S-specific IgG-based recovery score that, when applied in the early convalescent phase, accurately predicted delayed pulmonary recovery after COVID-19. Therefore, we propose that S-specific IgG levels serve as a useful immunological surrogate marker for identifying at-risk individuals with persistent pulmonary injury who may require intensive follow-up care after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
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