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Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2561-2575, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521396


OBJECTIVE: To compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute kidney injury (AKI) to sepsis-AKI (S-AKI). The morphology and transcriptomic and proteomic characteristics of autopsy kidneys were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals 18 years of age and older who died from COVID-19 and had an autopsy performed at Mayo Clinic between April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Morphological evaluation of the kidneys of 17 individuals with COVID-19 was performed. In a subset of seven COVID-19 cases with postmortem interval of less than or equal to 20 hours, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics (targeted transcriptome and proteomics analyses of tubulointerstitium) were evaluated. Molecular characteristics were compared with archived cases of S-AKI and nonsepsis causes of AKI. RESULTS: The spectrum of COVID-19 renal pathology included macrophage-dominant microvascular inflammation (glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis), vascular dysfunction (peritubular capillary congestion and endothelial injury), and tubular injury with ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial damage. Investigation of the spatial architecture using a novel imaging mass cytometry revealed enrichment of CD3+CD4+ T cells in close proximity to antigen-presenting cells, and macrophage-enriched glomerular and interstitial infiltrates, suggesting an innate and adaptive immune tissue response. Coronavirus disease 2019 AKI and S-AKI, as compared to nonseptic AKI, had an enrichment of transcriptional pathways involved in inflammation (apoptosis, autophagy, major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and type 1 T helper cell differentiation). Proteomic pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 AKI and to a lesser extent S-AKI were enriched in necroptosis and sirtuin-signaling pathways, both involved in regulatory response to inflammation. Upregulation of the ceramide-signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in COVID-19 AKI were noted. CONCLUSION: This data highlights the similarities between S-AKI and COVID-19 AKI and suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pivotal role in COVID-19 AKI. This data may allow the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/virology
Am J Transplant ; 22(1): 289-293, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345918


Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies such as bamlanivimab emerged as promising agents in treating kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19. However, the impact of bamlanivimab on kidney allograft histology remains unknown. We report a case of a kidney transplant recipient who received bamlanivimab for COVID-19 with subsequent histologic findings of diffuse peritubular capillary C4d staining. A 33-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease secondary to hypertension who received an ABO compatible kidney from a living donor, presented for his 4-month protocol visit. He was diagnosed with COVID-19 44 days prior to his visit and had received bamlanivimab with an uneventful recovery. His 4-month surveillance biopsy showed diffuse C4d staining of the peritubular capillaries without other features of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Donor-specific antibodies were negative on repeat evaluations. ABMR gene expression panel was negative. His creatinine was stable at 1.3 mg/dl, without albuminuria. Given the temporal relationship between bamlanivimab and our observations of diffuse C4d staining of the peritubular capillaries, we hypothesize that bamlanivimab might bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, resulting in classical complement pathway and C4d deposition. We elected to closely monitor kidney function which has been stable at 6 months after the biopsy. In conclusion, diffuse C4d may present following bamlanivimab administration without any evidence of ABMR.

COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Allografts , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Biopsy , Capillaries , Complement C4b , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Humans , Kidney , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Peptide Fragments , SARS-CoV-2 , Staining and Labeling
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2890-2894, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297494


Current guidelines recommend deferring liver transplantation (LT) in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection until clinical improvement occurs and two PCR tests collected at least 24 hours apart are negative. We report a case of an 18-year-old, previously healthy African-American woman diagnosed with COVID-19, who presents with acute liver failure (ALF) requiring urgent LT in the context of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. The patient was thought to have acute Wilsonian crisis on the basis of hemolytic anemia, alkaline phosphatase:bilirubin ratio <4, AST:ALT ratio >2.2, elevated serum copper, and low uric acid, although an unusual presentation of COVID-19 causing ALF could not be excluded. After meeting criteria for status 1a listing, the patient underwent successful LT, despite ongoing SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. Remdesivir was given immediately posttransplant, and mycophenolate mofetil was withheld initially and the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test eventually became negative. Three months following transplantation, the patient has made a near-complete recovery. This case highlights that COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity may not be an absolute contraindication for transplantation in ALF. Criteria for patient selection and timing of LT amid the COVID-19 pandemic need to be validated in future studies.

COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2