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1.
Journal of ISAKOS ; 6(6):551, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088867

ABSTRACT

We highlight the benefits of a formal preseason in professional football in terms of there being a lower injury rate at the start of the season following a formal preseason. Data Background The 'preseason' is an established period of the professional football season for players to gain fitness and has been demonstrated to subsequently improve player performance following the start of the season. Although players are at greater risk of injury in the preseason period, it is questioned whether a preseason subsequently decreases the risk of injury in the start of the formal season itself. Due to the established nature of the preseason no studies have previously reviewed the effect of the preseason on injury rates in the subsequent season. Our aim was to report the injury rate from post-lockdown professional football games (no preseason programme -NPP) and compare to the start of the season (following a preseason programme -FPP). This would then provide a comparison between the two groups and a determination of the potential beneficial effect of a formal preseason on the injury rates at the start of the formal season. Methods We compared the injuries sustained across 4 European Professional Football Leagues (Premier League, Serie A, Bundesliga, La Liga) from the first 2 games for each team at the start of the 2019-20 season (FPP group) and from the first 2 games for each team after the re-start of football following lockdown (NPP group). We recorded the frequency, injuries per game, contact and soft tissue injuries. An injury was recorded if the player was deemed unable to continue play. Results In total 156 games were reviewed, 78 in the FPP group and 78 in the NPP group. A total of 10 injuries were observed in the FPP group games, 0.13 per game, compared to 30 injuries in the NPP group games, 0.39 per game (p=0.001). The ratio of contact to soft tissue injuries was the same for both groups (1:4). There was no significant difference in the length of downtime between the leagues stopping and restarting (92-103 days) and no correlation between injury rate and length of downtime. Conclusions Injuries in elite professional football were more common in the first 2 games following the restart after lockdown than in the first 2 games of the 2019/20 season. We believe this is due to the beneficial effect of a normal preseason being absent for the restart. We highlight the importance of preseason in reducing injury rates amongst professional footballers.

2.
23rd IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science, IRI 2022 ; : 101-105, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063269

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic online shopping gained importance. One aspect of online shopping is customers recommending products to each other. Also named electronic word of mouth (EWOM), this type of marketing is effective in online marketing. Based on a survey of 206 Indonesian customers, this research examined which factors affect customer satisfaction and EWOM. The results show that price value, brand awareness, and country ethnocentricity were significantly affecting customer satisfaction. On the other hand, customer satisfaction had significant effect on EWOM. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Chest ; 162(4):A2594, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060971

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Late Breaking Pulmonary Vascular Disease Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:30 pm - 02:30 pm PURPOSE: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common form of thromboembolism which has a variable and non-specific presentation that can often be fatal. The Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) which includes hemodynamic parameters of perfusion has been shown to correlate with 30-day mortality in patients with acute PE. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to compare how lactate and sPESI perform in predicting clinical outcomes at our institution with the hopes of developing institutional guidelines for management of patients admitted with an acute PE. METHODS: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a new diagnosis of PE between the years 2016-2021. Patients were identified using ICD-9 CM codes. Exclusion criteria included current or prior positive testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). We performed univariate, multivariate, and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis to assess correlations between all cause mortality, lactate, and sPESI. Both lactate and sPESI were included as continuous variables. Our covariates included age, sex, Body Mass Index, prior or current history emphysema/COPD, smoking, CKD, diabetes, cancer, atrial fibrillation, and CHF. All analysis was carried out using software R version 3.6.3. RESULTS: Of the 161 patients who were included in the study, the mean age was 60 years (SD 17 years) and 38% (61/161) were females. 31 patients (19.3%) were deceased. Mean BMI of study participants was 29.9 kg/m2. Comorbidities included 9.9% (16/161) with emphysema/COPD, 44% (71/161) with active or prior history of smoking, 6% (10/161) with CKD, 12% (20/161) with diabetes, 15% (24/161) with diagnosis of cancer, 15% (24/161) with atrial fibrillation, 15% (24/161) with history of CHF. We found that in univariate analysis, both sPESI (p=3.4*10

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common form of thromboembolism which has a variable and non-specific presentation that can often be fatal. The Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (sPESI) which includes hemodynamic parameters of perfusion has been shown to correlate with 30-day mortality in patients with acute PE. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to compare how lactate and sPESI perform in predicting clinical outcomes at our institution with the hopes of developing institutional guidelines for management of patients admitted with an acute PE. Methods: We conducted a single center retrospective analysis on patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a new diagnosis of PE between the years 2016-2021. Patients were identified using ICD-9 CM codes. Exclusion criteria included current or prior positive testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). We performed univariant, multivariant, and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis to assess correlations between all cause mortality, lactate elevation, and sPESI. Our covariants included age, sex, Body Mass Index, prior or current history emphysema/COPD, smoking, CKD, diabetes, cancer, atrial fibrillation, and CHF. All analysis was carried out using software R version 3.6.3. Results: Of the 161 patients who were included in the study, the mean age was 60 years (SD 17 years) and 38% (61/161) were females. 31 patients (19.3%) were deceased. Mean BMI of study participants was 29.9 kg/m2. Comorbidities included 9.9% (16/161) with emphysema/COPD, 44% (71/161) with active or prior history of smoking, 6% (10/161) with CKD, 12% (20/161) with diabetes, 15% (24/161) with diagnosis of cancer, 15% (24/161) with atrial fibrillation, 15% (24/161) with history of CHF. We found that in univariant analysis, both sPESI (p=3.4∗10∧-6, AUC = 0.74) and lactate (p=1.1∗10∧-7, AUC = 0.71) correlate with mortality. When included in the same multivariant model, both lactate (p=1.3∗10∧-5) and sPESI (p=3.2∗10∧-4) retained their statistical significance with mortality. Conclusion: As in previous studies, our analysis confirms these results (lactate p=1.1∗10∧-7;AUC = 0.71, sPESI p=3.4∗10∧-6, AUC = 0.74). However, we also demonstrate that both lactate and sPESI retain statistical significance when both are included in the same multivariant model (p-value for lactate = 1.3∗10∧-5, p-value for sPESI = 3.2∗10∧-4). Thus, both lactate and sPESI each demonstrate independent statistical significance, contributing to prediction of mortality. This finding makes a compelling case for inclusion of lactate in risk stratification models used by Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERT) across institutions for triaging the management of acute pulmonary embolism in the hospital.

7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865326

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the introduction of revised diagnostic pathways for assessing urgent suspected cancer (USC) referrals. Combinations of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and minimal preparation computed tomography (CT) scans (MPCT) were used to manage referrals and prioritise access to clinical services or invasive tests. The effectiveness of these pathways across Wales is evaluated in this study. METHODS: All consecutive patients referred from primary care on the USC pathway between 15 March and 15 June 2020 were included to reflect the effect of full lockdown measures. Data collected included demographics, presenting symptom(s), investigations and timelines and patient outcomes up to 90 days following initial referral. RESULTS: A total of 1,050 patients across eight sites in Wales were included. Of these 1,050 patients, 52.6% were female with median age 68 (21-97) years; 50.5% had first-line clinical review, of which 61.1% were virtual consultations; 49.5% had primary investigations; 26.7% of patients had FIT and 13.1% had MPCT. COVID-response pathways achieved a 29.9% reduction in use of colonoscopy as first-line investigation and 79% of patients avoided face-to-face consultations altogether during this first wave of the pandemic. Overall, 6.8% of USC referrals were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). Median timescale from diagnosis to treatment for CRC was 65 (4-175) days. The negative predictive value (NPV) for FIT in this cohort was 99.6%. MPCT as the first modality had a NPV of 99.2%. CONCLUSION: A modified investigation pathway helped maintain cancer diagnosis rates during the pandemic with improved resource utilisation to that used prepandemic.

8.
2021 Winter Simulation Conference, WSC 2021 ; 2021-December, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746012

ABSTRACT

With the world facing a public health emergency due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a global pandemic, this paper provides insight about how a simulation model was used to determine the impact of headcount variability during lockdown on fab performance. To create a robust simulation model, operator loading time was introduced as one of the input parameters. An existing and well validated Discrete Event Fab simulation model was extended with operator modelling, and was used to conduct case studies, evaluating the impact of different operator availability scenarios including work disruptions for several shifts within a week. The studies provide implications for operation to derive mitigation strategies, weighing the trade-off between cost demand and speed loss due to operator resources. © 2021 IEEE.

9.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326746

ABSTRACT

Lethal COVID-19 is associated with respiratory failure that is thought to be caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to pulmonary infection. To date, the cellular pathogenesis has been inferred from studies describing the expression of ACE2, a transmembrane protein required for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and detection of viral RNA or protein in infected humans, model animals, and cultured cells. To functionally test the cellular mechanisms of COVID-19, we generated hACE2fl animals in which human ACE2 (hACE2) is expressed from the mouse Ace2 locus in a manner that permits cell-specific, Cre-mediated loss of function. hACE2fl animals developed lethal weight loss and hypoxemia within 7 days of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 that was associated with pulmonary infiltrates, intravascular thrombosis and patchy viral infection of lung epithelial cells. Deletion of hACE2 in lung epithelial cells prevented viral infection of the lung, but not weight loss, hypoxemia or death. Inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 by hACE2fl animals resulted in early infection of sustentacular cells with subsequent infection of neurons in the neighboring olfactory bulb and cerebral cortex—events that did not require lung epithelial cell infection. Pharmacologic ablation of the olfactory epithelium or Foxg1Cre mediated deletion of hACE2 in olfactory epithelial cells and neurons prevented lethality and neuronal infection following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conversely, transgenic expression of hACE2 specifically in olfactory epithelial cells and neurons in Foxg1Cre;LSL-hACE2 mice was sufficient to confer neuronal infection associated with respiratory failure and death. These studies establish mouse loss and gain of function genetic models with which to genetically dissect viral-host interactions and demonstrate that lethal disease due to respiratory failure may arise from extrapulmonary infection of the olfactory epithelium and brain. Future therapeutic efforts focused on preventing olfactory epithelial infection may be an effective means of protecting against severe COVID-19.

10.
Forced Migration Review ; 66:37-39, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1651765

ABSTRACT

The IASC Intervention Pyramid (MHPSS) for mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies facilitates the need for a multi-layered system of complementary support that meets the needs of different groups in emergencies. The recommendations here reflect these levels of intervention and provide a network of collective care and mutual aid that integrates the cognitive, emotional, mental and social realities of camp refugees in the context of COVID-19. It focuses on the importance of building, and focusing on (1) Basic services and security, (2) Community and family support, (3) Focused non-specialised supports, (4) Specialised mental health services, and (5) Task-sharing of psychological support.

12.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-297018

ABSTRACT

Lethal COVID-19 is associated with respiratory failure that is thought to be caused by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to pulmonary infection. To date, the cellular pathogenesis has been inferred from studies describing the expression of ACE2, a transmembrane protein required for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and detection of viral RNA or protein in infected humans, model animals, and cultured cells. To functionally test the cellular mechanisms of COVID-19, we generated hACE2 fl animals in which human ACE2 (hACE2) is expressed from the mouse Ace2 locus in a manner that permits cell-specific, Cre-mediated loss of function. hACE2 fl animals developed lethal weight loss and hypoxemia within 7 days of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 that was associated with pulmonary infiltrates, intravascular thrombosis and patchy viral infection of lung epithelial cells. Deletion of hACE2 in lung epithelial cells prevented viral infection of the lung, but not weight loss, hypoxemia or death. Inhalation of SARS-CoV-2 by hACE2 fl animals resulted in early infection of sustentacular cells with subsequent infection of neurons in the neighboring olfactory bulb and cerebral cortexa" events that did not require lung epithelial cell infection. Pharmacologic ablation of the olfactory epithelium or Foxg1 Cre mediated deletion of hACE2 in olfactory epithelial cells and neurons prevented lethality and neuronal infection following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conversely, transgenic expression of hACE2 specifically in olfactory epithelial cells and neurons in Foxg1 Cre ;LSL- hACE2 mice was sufficient to confer neuronal infection associated with respiratory failure and death. These studies establish mouse loss and gain of function genetic models with which to genetically dissect viral-host interactions and demonstrate that lethal disease due to respiratory failure may arise from extrapulmonary infection of the olfactory epithelium and brain. Future therapeutic efforts focused on preventing olfactory epithelial infection may be an effective means of protecting against severe COVID-19.

13.
Environmental Geotechnics ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1542226

ABSTRACT

The revitalization of the global economy after the COVID-19 era presents Environmental Geotechnics with the opportunity to reinforce the need for a change in paradigm toward a green, circular economy and to promote aggressively the use and development of sustainable technologies and management practices. This paper aims to assist in this effort by concentrating on several thematic areas where sustainability solutions and future improvements are sought. These include the re-entry of construction and demolition waste, excavated material, industrial waste, and marine sediments into the production cycle and the reuse of existing foundations. Despite the recent trend in advanced countries toward recycling and waste-to-energy thermal treatment, landfills still constitute the most common municipal solid waste management practice, especially in low-and-middle-income countries, and technological solutions to improve their environmental footprint are presented. At the same time, remediation solutions are required to address the multitude of contaminated sites worldwide. Advanced developments that incorporate environmental, economic, and social dimensions are expounded, together with sustainable ground improvement solutions for infrastructure projects conducted in soft and weak soils. The topic of thermo-active geostructures concludes this paper, where, apart from their infrastructure utility, these structures have the potential to contribute as a renewable energy source. © 2021 ICE Publishing: All rights reserved.

15.
Colorectal Disease ; 23(SUPPL 1):119, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1458393

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Revised patient pathways incorporating combinations of FIT and MPCT were introduced to triage USC referrals during the COVID-19 pandemic to replace straight-to- test colonoscopy. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a secondary care diagnostic pathway improvement initiative for colorectal cancer referrals. Method: All consecutive patients referred from primary care on the USC pathway between 15th March -15th June 2020 were included to reflect the effect of full lockdown measures. Data collected included demographics, presenting symptom(s), investigations, timelines and patient outcomes up to 90 days following initial referral. Results: 816 patients across 8 sites in Wales were included in this initial analysis. 52.7% of patients were female with median age 69 (21 -97) years. Of the 50.7% who had first-line clinical review, 70.5% were virtual consultations. 49.3% had primary investigations, with FIT in 31% of patients and MPCT in 18.3%. This was compliant with locally agreed pathways for 77.3% of referrals. COVID-response pathways achieved a 28.5% reduction in use of colonoscopy as first-line investigation and 84.3% of patients avoided face-to- face consultations during this first wave of the pandemic. Referred patients required a median of 1 secondary care investigation (0 -6). Overall, 5.6% of USC referrals were diagnosed with CRC, similar to pre-pandemic rates. Median timescale from diagnosis to treatment for CRC was 82 (4 -175) days. The NPV for FIT in this cohort was 99.5%. MPCT as the first modality had a NPV of 99%. Conclusion: A modified investigation pathway maintained cancer diagnosis during the pandemic with improved resource utilisation to that used previously.

17.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 101:269-269, 2020.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1452250

ABSTRACT

B Background: b The epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong generates the need to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures. B Methods and materials: b An individual-based mathematical model was developed alongside a resource-constrained contact tracing process for SARS outbreak. B Conclusion: b An improved understanding of the transmission dynamics of the SARS outbreak under different scenarios of contact tracing approach helps design the optimal control strategies with the given resources to control new emerging disease in the future. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of International Journal of Infectious Diseases is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

18.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 62(8), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1378606

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The COVID-19 pandemic caused the implementation of public health measures globally, including a call to Shelter-In-Place (SIP). In most cases, traditional classroom teaching became remote, pediatric outdoor programs such as organized sports were halted and parks closed. This study primarily aimed to understand the impact of COVID-19 SIP orders on pediatric habitual device use, outdoor activity, and reported eye symptoms. Methods : Eligible participants included English and Spanish speaking UCSF pediatric ophthalmology patients aged 5-10 years with no history of ocular disease, surgery or trauma. A parental survey was administered electronically or over the phone by a trained examiner. The survey included questions regarding their child's average daily device use, outdoor activity and how often their child typically reported eye symptoms before and during SIP. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-tests to examine changes in behaviors before and during SIP. Results : 42 participants (n=17 female, mean age 6.6 ± 1.3 years) were enrolled in the study. 98% (n = 41) of those surveyed reported that their child was in remote online learning during SIP, with the majority (56%) using a laptop as their main device for remote learning. On average, laptop and hand-held device (smartphone or tablet) use increased significantly during SIP for both weekdays and weekends (Laptops: ~3 hour increase weekdays and 1 hour increase weekends, p <0.001;Hand-held devices: ~1 hour increase weekdays and weekends p <0.002). Outdoor activity decreased on average by approximately 1 hour on both weekdays and weekends (p <0.008). Despite the increase in device use, there was only a slight increase in 'eyes feeling uncomfortable or tired' (from never to occasionally, on average). None of the other eye symptoms surveyed (seeing words moving, jumping, swimming, or floating;headache;dry eyes;blurry vision) were reported to change during SIP. Conclusions : This study provides insights into how COVID-19 SIP orders impact habitual pediatric device use and outdoor activity. Despite children spending significantly increased time on devices during SIP, there was a low prevalence of reported eye symptoms in our cohort. Further work is warranted to determine the potential longer term impacts of these behavior modifications on pediatric eye health.

19.
World Sustainability Series ; : 79-107, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1258129

ABSTRACT

This is a stock-taking piece on the role of COVID-19 social distancing measures in reducing urban air pollution and subsequent policy changes to reduce air toxics emissions from road traffic or energy production in dense urban areas. In particular, this chapter examines the use of multiple methods of communicating the benefits of reduced air pollution. Using a case study approach, the chapter identifies innovative sustainability programs championed by cities, in response to COVID-19. Creative and resourceful approaches to air pollution and COVID-19 by environmental justice organizations are also compared. By identifying and discussing intersectional work on air pollution and COVID-19, this chapter offers a diverse set of examples for how sustainability programming can emerge during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce air pollution and improve wellbeing. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.

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