Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28846, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245127

ABSTRACT

Since the first SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in late 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 genome has harbored multiple mutations, especially spike protein mutations. The currently fast-spreading Omicron variant that manifests without symptoms or with upper respiratory diseases has been recognized as a serious global public health problem. However, its pathological mechanism is largely unknown. In this work, rhesus macaques, hamsters, and BALB/C mice were employed as animal models to explore the pathogenesis of Omicron (B.1.1.529). Notably, Omicron (B.1.1.529) infected the nasal turbinates, tracheae, bronchi, and lungs of hamsters and BALB/C mice with higher viral loads than in those of rhesus macaques. Severe histopathological damage and inflammatory responses were observed in the lungs of Omicron (B.1.1.529)-infected animals. In addition, viral replication was found in multiple extrapulmonary organs. Results indicated that hamsters and BALB/c mice are potential animal models for studies on the development of drugs/vaccines and therapies for Omicron (B.1.1.529).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice , Animals , Cricetinae , Macaca mulatta , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Bronchi
2.
Sci Adv ; 9(22): eadf0211, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242861

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a series of SARS-CoV-2 variants has necessitated the search for broad-spectrum antiviral targets. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) senses tryptophan metabolites and is an immune regulator. However, the role of AhR in SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether AhR can be used as the target of antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are yet unclear. Here, we show that infection with SARS-CoV-2 activates AhR signaling and facilitates viral replication by interfering with IFN-I-driven antiviral immunity and up-regulating ACE2 receptor expression. The pharmacological AhR blockade or AhR knockout reduces SARS-CoV-2 and its variants' replication in vitro. Drug targeting of AhR with AhR antagonists markedly reduced SARS-CoV-2 and its variants' replication in vivo and ameliorated lung inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters. Overall, AhR was a SARS-CoV-2 proviral host factor and a candidate host-directed broad-spectrum target for antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, including Delta and Omicron, and potentially other variants in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Proviruses/metabolism , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
3.
J Infect Dis ; 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241839

ABSTRACT

The emergence of novel variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need to investigate alternative approaches to prevent infection and treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Here, we report the preclinical efficacy of NL-CVX1, a de novo decoy that blocks virus entry into cells by binding with nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Using a transgenic mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we showed that a single prophylactic intranasal dose of NL-CVX1 conferred complete protection from severe disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple therapeutic administrations of NL-CVX1 also protected mice from succumbing to infection. Finally, we showed that infected mice treated with NL-CVX1 developed both anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and memory T cells and were protected against reinfection a month after treatment. Overall, these observations suggest NL-CVX1 is a promising therapeutic candidate for preventing and treating severe SARS-CoV-2 infections.

4.
ACS Cent Sci ; 9(5): 892-904, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317241

ABSTRACT

Nature has evolved intricate machinery to target and degrade RNA, and some of these molecular mechanisms can be adapted for therapeutic use. Small interfering RNAs and RNase H-inducing oligonucleotides have yielded therapeutic agents against diseases that cannot be tackled using protein-centered approaches. Because these therapeutic agents are nucleic acid-based, they have several inherent drawbacks which include poor cellular uptake and stability. Here we report a new approach to target and degrade RNA using small molecules, proximity-induced nucleic acid degrader (PINAD). We have utilized this strategy to design two families of RNA degraders which target two different RNA structures within the genome of SARS-CoV-2: G-quadruplexes and the betacoronaviral pseudoknot. We demonstrate that these novel molecules degrade their targets using in vitro, in cellulo, and in vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection models. Our strategy allows any RNA binding small molecule to be converted into a degrader, empowering RNA binders that are not potent enough to exert a phenotypic effect on their own. PINAD raises the possibility of targeting and destroying any disease-related RNA species, which can greatly expand the space of druggable targets and diseases.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(1): 2203782, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296691

ABSTRACT

Multiple clinical and epidemiological studies have shown an interconnection between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes, but experimental evidence is still lacking. Understanding the interplay between them is important because of the global health burden of COVID-19 and diabetes. We found that C57BL/6J mice were susceptible to the alpha strain of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, diabetic C57BL/6J mice with leptin receptor gene deficiency (db/db mice) showed a higher viral load in the throat and lung and slower virus clearance in the throat after infection than C57BL/6J mice. Histological and multifactor analysis revealed more advanced pulmonary injury and serum inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infected diabetic mice. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infected diabetic mice exhibited more severe insulin resistance and islet cell loss than uninfected diabetic mice. By RNA sequencing analysis, we found that diabetes may reduce the collagen level, suppress the immune response and aggravate inflammation in the lung after infection, which may account for the greater susceptibility of diabetic mice and their more severe lung damage after infection. In summary, we successfully established a SARS-CoV-2 infected diabetic mice model and demonstrated that diabetes and COVID-19 were risk factors for one another.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Inflammation
6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 9(1): 109-121, 2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2211891

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) catalyzed the development of vaccines and antivirals. Clinically approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2 target the virus directly, which makes them susceptible to viral mutations, which in turn can attenuate their antiviral activity. Here we report a host-directed antiviral (HDA), piperlongumine (PL), which exhibits robust antiviral activity as a result of selective induction of reactive oxygen species in infected cells by GSTP1 inhibition. Using a transgenic K18-hACE2 mouse model, we benchmarked PL against plitidepsin, a HDA undergoing phase III clinical trials. We observed that intranasal administration of PL is superior in delaying disease progression and reducing lung inflammation. Importantly, we showed that PL is effective against several variants of concern (VOCs), making it an ideal pan-variant antiviral. PL may display a critical role as an intranasal treatment or prophylaxis against a range of viruses, expanding the arsenal of tools to fight future outbreaks.

7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5459, 2022 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036822

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has rapidly surpassed Delta to become the predominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant, given the higher transmissibility rate and immune escape ability, resulting in breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. A new generation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines targeting the Omicron variant are urgently needed. Here, we developed a subunit vaccine named RBD-HR/trimer by directly linking the sequence of RBD derived from the Delta variant (containing L452R and T478K) and HR1 and HR2 in SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit in a tandem manner, which can self-assemble into a trimer. In multiple animal models, vaccination of RBD-HR/trimer formulated with MF59-like oil-in-water adjuvant elicited sustained humoral immune response with high levels of broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies against Omicron variants, also inducing a strong T cell immune response in vivo. In addition, our RBD-HR/trimer vaccine showed a strong boosting effect against Omicron variants after two doses of mRNA vaccines, featuring its capacity to be used in a prime-boost regimen. In mice and non-human primates, RBD-HR/trimer vaccination could confer a complete protection against live virus challenge of Omicron and Delta variants. The results qualified RBD-HR/trimer vaccine as a promising next-generation vaccine candidate for prevention of SARS-CoV-2, which deserved further evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit , Water
8.
Cell ; 185(13): 2265-2278.e14, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803705

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections by SARS-CoV-2 variants become the global challenge for pandemic control. Previously, we developed the protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 based on the dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of prototype SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a chimeric RBD-dimer vaccine approach to adapt SARS-CoV-2 variants. A prototype-Beta chimeric RBD-dimer was first designed to adapt the resistant Beta variant. Compared with its homotypic forms, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of variants and conferred better protection in mice. The protection of the chimeric vaccine was further verified in macaques. This approach was generalized to develop Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer to adapt the currently prevalent variants. Again, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and conferred better protection against challenge by either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The chimeric approach is applicable for rapid updating of immunogens, and our data supported the use of variant-adapted multivalent vaccine against circulating and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Cell ; 185(10): 1728-1744.e16, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767964

ABSTRACT

As the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to drive the worldwide pandemic, there is a constant demand for vaccines that offer more effective and broad-spectrum protection. Here, we report a circular RNA (circRNA) vaccine that elicited potent neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses by expressing the trimeric RBD of the spike protein, providing robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 in both mice and rhesus macaques. Notably, the circRNA vaccine enabled higher and more durable antigen production than the 1mΨ-modified mRNA vaccine and elicited a higher proportion of neutralizing antibodies and distinct Th1-skewed immune responses. Importantly, we found that the circRNARBD-Omicron vaccine induced effective neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron but not the Delta variant. In contrast, the circRNARBD-Delta vaccine protected against both Delta and Omicron or functioned as a booster after two doses of either native- or Delta-specific vaccination, making it a favorable choice against the current variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , RNA, Circular/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL