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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e31542, 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622518

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/29528.].

2.
JMIR Form Res ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people experienced unintended weight gain during the COVID-19 pandemic, which has been discussed widely on social media. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to describe the content of weight loss videos on YouTube during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using the keywords "weight loss during quarantine", the 100 most viewed English language videos were identified and coded for content related to losing weight gained during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Nine videos were excluded due to having non-English content or posting data before the COVID-19 pandemic. The 91 videos included in the study sample acquired 407,326 views at the time of study and were roughly 14 minutes long. A total of 42% of the sample videos included graphic comparisons to illustrate weight change. Videos that included a graphic comparison were more likely to have content of trigger warning (χ2=6.05, P=0.014), weight loss (χ2=13.39, P<0.001), negative feelings during quarantine (χ2=4.75, P=0.029), instructions of losing weight (χ2=9.17, P=0.002), self-love (χ2=6.01, P=0.014), body shaming (χ2=4.36, P=0.037), and special dietary practices (χ2=11.10, P<0.001), but less likely to include food recipes (χ2=5.05, P=0.025). Regression analysis results suggested that mentioning quarantine (P=0.05), fat gaining food (P=0.035), self-care and self-love (P=0.05), body shaming (P=0.008) and presenters from both genders(P<0.001) are significant predictors for a higher number of views. Adjusted regression model suggested that videos included routine change have significantly lower view count(P=0.03) than videos without the content. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate the ways in which YouTube is being used to showcase COVID-19 related weight loss in a pre/post fashion. The use of graphic comparisons garnered a great deal of attention. Additional studies are needed help to understand the role of graphic comparisons in social media posts. Further studies focusing on people's attitudes and behaviors toward weight change during the COVID-19 pandemic and the implications of social media on these attitudes and behaviors are warranted.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589017

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296266

ABSTRACT

5-Methylcytosine (m 5 C) is a widespread post-transcriptional RNA modification and is reported to be involved in manifold cellular responses and biological processes through regulating RNA metabolism. However, its regulatory role in antiviral innate immunity has not yet been elucidated. Here, we report that NSUN2, a typical m 5 C methyltransferase, can negatively regulate type I interferon responses during viral infection. NSUN2 specifically mediates m 5 C methylation of IRF3 mRNA and accelerates its degradation, resulting in low levels of IRF3 and downstream IFN-β production. Knockout or knockdown of NSUN2 could enhance type I interferon responses and downstream ISG expression after viral infection in vitro . And in vivo , the antiviral innate responses is more dramatically enhanced in Nsun2 +/− mice than in Nsun2 +/+ mice. Four highly m 5 C methylated cytosines in IRF3 mRNA were identified, and their mutation could enhance the cellular IRF3 mRNA levels. Moreover, infection with Sendai virus (SeV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), Zika virus (ZIKV), or especially SARS-CoV-2 resulted in a reduction in endogenous levels of NSUN2. Together, our findings reveal that NSUN2 serves as a negative regulator of interferon response by accelerating the fast turnover of IRF3 mRNA, while endogenous NSUN2 levels decrease after viral infection to boost antiviral responses for the effective elimination of viruses. Our results suggest a paradigm of innate antiviral immune responses ingeniously involving NSUN2-mediated m 5 C modification.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437669

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Basigin/antagonists & inhibitors , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
6.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 64, 2021 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349645

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), driven by SARS-CoV-2, is a severe infectious disease that has become a global health threat. Vaccines are among the most effective public health tools for combating COVID-19. Immune status is critical for evaluating the safety and response to the vaccine, however, the evolution of the immune response during immunization remains poorly understood. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) represents a powerful tool for dissecting multicellular behavior and discovering therapeutic antibodies. Herein, by performing scRNA/V(D)J-seq on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four COVID-19 vaccine trial participants longitudinally during immunization, we revealed enhanced cellular immunity with concerted and cell type-specific IFN responses as well as boosted humoral immunity with SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Based on the CDR3 sequence and germline enrichment, we were able to identify several potential binding antibodies. We synthesized, expressed and tested 21 clones from the identified lineages. Among them, one monoclonal antibody (P3V6-1) exhibited relatively high affinity with the extracellular domain of Spike protein, which might be a promising therapeutic reagent for COVID-19. Overall, our findings provide insights for assessing vaccine through the novel scRNA/V(D)J-seq approach, which might facilitate the development of more potent, durable and safe prophylactic vaccines.

7.
One Health ; 13: 100301, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340781

ABSTRACT

Emerging diseases of zoonotic origin such as COVID-19 are a continuing public health threat in China that lead to a significant socioeconomic burden. This study reviewed the current laws and regulations, government reports and policy documents, and existing literature on zoonotic disease preparedness and prevention across the forestry, agriculture, and public health authorities in China, to articulate the current landscape of potential risks, existing mandates, and gaps. A total of 55 known zoonotic diseases (59 pathogens) are routinely monitored under a multi-sectoral system among humans and domestic and wild animals in China. These diseases have been detected in wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish or other aquatic animals, the majority of which are transmitted between humans and animals via direct or indirect contact and vectors. However, this current monitoring system covers a limited scope of disease threats and animal host species, warranting expanded review for sources of disease and pathogen with zoonotic potential. In addition, the governance of wild animal protection and utilization and limited knowledge about wild animal trade value chains present challenges for zoonotic disease risk assessment and monitoring, and affect the completeness of mandates and enforcement. A coordinated and collaborative mechanism among different departments is required for the effective monitoring and management of disease emergence and transmission risks in the animal value chains. Moreover, pathogen surveillance among wild animal hosts and human populations outside of the routine monitoring system will fill the data gaps and improve our understanding of future emerging zoonotic threats to achieve disease prevention. The findings and recommendations will advance One Health collaboration across government and non-government stakeholders to optimize monitoring and surveillance, risk management, and emergency responses to known and novel zoonotic threats, and support COVID-19 recovery efforts.

8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 397, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to understand the influencing factors of Chinese college students' satisfaction with online teaching and psychological pressure on learning during the novel coronavirus epidemic. METHODS: We assessed the effect of online teaching of 7084 medical students from wannan medical college in March 5 to April 2, 2020 using cluster sampling. The respondents were asked to complete a 7-item self-compiled online teaching satisfaction questionnaire. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis are used. RESULTS: Sex is female (OR = 1.257, 95%CI: 1.132 ~ 1.396), grades are second and third grades (second grades: OR = 1.228, 95%CI: 1.080 ~ 1.397; third grades: OR = 1.197, 95%CI: 1.048 ~ 1.367), normal/unfamiliar learning platform operation (OR = 3.692, 95%CI: 3.321 ~ 4.103) were risk factors for satisfactory teaching effect. In addition, students whose school year system is four-year (OR = 0.870, 95%CI: 0.781 ~ 0.969) and grade 4 and above (OR = 0.594, 95%CI: 0.485 ~ 0.727) were more satisfied with the teaching effect of teachers. And, during the period of the COVID-19 epidemic, the risk factors for college students to have psychological stress were: female (OR = 1.258, 95%CI: 1.096 ~ 1.442), from rural areas (OR = 1.511, 95%CI: 1.312 ~ 1.740), and the academic year system is four-year system (OR = 1.191, 95%CI: 1.028 ~ 1.380), using mobile phones and other learning tools (OR = 1.388, 95%CI: 1.205 ~ 1.600), general/unfamiliar with learning platform operations (OR = 2.273), 95%CI: 1.888 ~ 2.735). While the protective factors for college students' psychological stress included: grade three and four and above (OR = 0.463, 95%CI: 0.387 ~ 0.554; OR = 0.232, 95%CI: 0.187 ~ 0.286), and they think that the teaching effect is satisfactory (OR = 0.314, 95%CI: 0.261 ~ 0.379). CONCLUSION: This survey shows that compared with male college students, female college students were more dissatisfied with the teaching effect of teachers and havd greater psychological pressure on learning. Psychological counseling should be strengthened for students in rural areas and those who were not familiar with the operating platform to relieve their psychological pressure on learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Students, Medical , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e31542, 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286909

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/29528.].

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e29528, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 testing remains an essential element of a comprehensive strategy for community mitigation. Social media is a popular source of information about health, including COVID-19 and testing information. One of the most popular communication channels used by adolescents and young adults who search for health information is TikTok-an emerging social media platform. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe TikTok videos related to COVID-19 testing. METHODS: The hashtag #covidtesting was searched, and the first 100 videos were included in the study sample. At the time the sample was drawn, these 100 videos garnered more than 50% of the views for all videos cataloged under the hashtag #covidtesting. The content characteristics that were coded included mentions, displays, or suggestions of anxiety, COVID-19 symptoms, quarantine, types of tests, results of test, and disgust/unpleasantness. Additional data that were coded included the number and percentage of views, likes, and comments and the use of music, dance, and humor. RESULTS: The 100 videos garnered more than 103 million views; 111,000 comments; and over 12.8 million likes. Even though only 44 videos mentioned or suggested disgust/unpleasantness and 44 mentioned or suggested anxiety, those that portrayed tests as disgusting/unpleasant garnered over 70% of the total cumulative number of views (73,479,400/103,071,900, 71.29%) and likes (9,354,691/12,872,505, 72.67%), and those that mentioned or suggested anxiety attracted about 60% of the total cumulative number of views (61,423,500/103,071,900, 59.59%) and more than 8 million likes (8,339,598/12,872,505, 64.79%). Independent one-tailed t tests (α=.05) revealed that videos that mentioned or suggested that COVID-19 testing was disgusting/unpleasant were associated with receiving a higher number of views and likes. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of an association between TikTok videos that mentioned or suggested that COVID-19 tests were disgusting/unpleasant and these videos' propensity to garner views and likes is of concern. There is a need for public health agencies to recognize and address connotations of COVID-19 testing on social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Social Media , Adolescent , Community Networks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Video Recording , Young Adult
11.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-7, 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107922

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To analyze the initial CT features of different clinical categories of COVID-19. Material and methods: A total of 86 patients with COVID-19 were analyzed, including the clinical, laboratory and imaging features. The following imaging features were analyzed, the lesion amount, location, density, lung nodule, halo sign, reversed-halo sign, distribution pattern, inner structures and changes of adjacent structures. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, or Mann-Whitney U test was used for the enumeration data. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to draw a regression equation to estimate the likelihood of severe and critical category. The forward conditional method was employed for variable selection. Results: Significant statistical differences were found in age (p = 0.001) and sex (p = 0.028) between mild and moderate and severe and critical category. No significant difference was found in clinical symptoms and WBC count between the two groups. The majority of cases (91.8%) showed multifocal lesions. The presence of GGO was higher in severe and critical category than in the mild and moderate category. (57.8% vs.31.7%, p = 0.015). Lymphocyte count was important indicator for the severe and critical category. Conclusion: The initial CT features of the different clinical category overlapped. Combining with laboratory test, especially the lymphocyte count, could help to predict the severity of COVID-19. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42058-021-00056-4.

12.
Cell Rep ; 34(7): 108761, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062276

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global health threat caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 elicits a dysregulated immune response and a delayed interferon (IFN) expression in patients, which contribute largely to the viral pathogenesis and development of COVID-19. However, underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the activation and repression of the innate immune response by SARS-CoV-2. We show that SARS-CoV-2 RNA activates the RIG-I-MAVS-dependent IFN signaling pathway. We further uncover that ORF9b immediately accumulates and antagonizes the antiviral type I IFN response during SARS-CoV-2 infection on primary human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. ORF9b targets the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) essential modulator NEMO and interrupts its K63-linked polyubiquitination upon viral stimulation, thereby inhibiting the canonical IκB kinase alpha (IKKα)/ß/γ-NF-κB signaling and subsequent IFN production. Our findings thus unveil the innate immunosuppression by ORF9b and provide insights into the host-virus interplay during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Retinoic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction , Ubiquitination
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1816, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the public play a major role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the KAP of the Chinese public and to assess potential influencing factors related to practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China in February 2020 via a self-designed questionnaire comprising 33 questions assessing KAP. RESULTS: For the 2136 respondents from 30 provinces or municipalities in China, the accurate response rate for the knowledge section ranged from 72.7 to 99.5%, and the average was 91.2%. Regarding attitude section, the percentage of positive attitudes ("strongly agree" and "agree") ranged from 94.7 to 99.7%, and the average value was 98.0%. The good practices ("always" and "often") results ranged from 76.1 to 99.5%, and the average value was 96.8%. The independent samples t-test revealed that gender and ethnic differences had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behaviour (P > 0.05). However, knowledge was associated with age (t = 4.842, p < 0.001), marital status (t = - 5.323, p < 0.001), education level (t = 8.441, p < 0.001), occupation (t = - 10.858, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 7.929, p < 0.001). Similarly, attitude was associated with marital status (t = - 2.383, p = 0.017), education level (t = 2.106, p = 0.035), occupation (t = - 4.834, p < 0.001), and place of residence (t = 4.242, p < 0.001). The multiple linear regression analysis results showed that the factors influencing practices were knowledge (t = - 3.281, p = 0.001), attitude (t = 18.756, p < 0.001), occupation (t = - 3.860, p < 0.001), education level (t = 3.136, p = 0.002), and place of residence (t = 3.257, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese public exhibited a good level of knowledge of COVID-19, a positive attitude, and high adherence to good practices. COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes and practices were affected by age, marital status, education level, occupation, and place of residence to varying degrees. In addition, practices were affected by knowledge and attitudes towards COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 33(2): 303-312, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912925

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially disrupted many processes of care related to emergency cardiac conditions, while there has been no clinical guidance regarding the management of type A aortic dissection. A retrospective multicenter study involving 52 consecutive patients (mean age 52.3, 28.9% women) with type A aortic dissection during COVID-19 pandemic was conducted at tertiary aortic centers in Michigan, Wuhan and Changsha (China). Twenty-four (46.2%) were considered clinically suspicious for COVID-19 based on radiographic lung lesions (70.8%) followed by dyspnea (25.0%), cough (12.5%), and fever (12.5%). Overall, 47 (90.4%) underwent an operation and 5 (9.6%) managed nonoperatively. All suspected patients underwent a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction at arrival, whereas 82.1% in the nonsuspected (P = 0.054). Among the 24 patients either nonoperatively managed or whose operation was delayed for >24 hours, only 1 (4.2%) died. A total of 3 (6.4%) operated patients had a positive reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction at various timings, including 1 nonsuspected patient preoperatively and 2 with very recent COVID-19 infection. The first patient died of respiratory failure despite uneventful surgical repair and maximal medical management. The postoperative course of both patients with recent COVID-19 was characterized by severe coagulopathy requiring massive transfusions and prolonged ICU stay. However, both survived to hospital discharge. In light of the possible dismal outcomes associated with dual diagnoses of type A aortic dissection/COVID-19 and the higher-than-expected number of asymptomatic carriers, all type A dissection patients should be immediately tested for COVID-19. Surgical interventions in patients recovered from recent COVID-19 may be safe.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting , COVID-19 , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/epidemiology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(1): L84-L98, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910283

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), driven by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a global pandemic in March 2020. Pathogenic T cells and inflammatory monocytes are regarded as the central drivers of the cytokine storm associated with the severity of COVID-19. In this study, we explored the characteristic peripheral cellular profiles of patients with COVID-19 in both acute and convalescent phases by single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF). Using a combination of algorithm-guided data analyses, we identified peripheral immune cell subsets in COVID-19 and revealed CD4+ T-cell depletion, T-cell differentiation, plasma cell expansion, and the reduced antigen presentation capacity of innate immunity. Notably, COVID-19 induces a dysregulation in the balance of monocyte populations by the expansion of the monocyte subsets. Collectively, our results represent a high-dimensional, single-cell profile of the peripheral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antigen Presentation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Lymphocyte Depletion , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/cytology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Single-Cell Analysis
16.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(6): e200, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is currently a global pandemic, but the response of human immune system to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains unclear. Noncoding RNAs serve as immune regulators and thus may play a critical role in disease progression. METHODS: We performed multi-transcriptome sequencing of both noncoding RNAs and mRNAs isolated from the red blood cell depleted whole blood of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients. The functions of noncoding RNAs were validated by analyses of the expression of downstream mRNAs. We further utilized the single-cell RNA-seq data of COVID-19 patients from Wilk et al. and Chua et al. to characterize noncoding RNA functions in different cell types. RESULTS: We defined four types of microRNAs with different expression tendencies that could serve as biomarkers for COVID-19 progress. We also identified miR-146a-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-142-3p, and miR-15b-5p as potential contributors to the disease pathogenesis, possibly serving as biomarkers of severe COVID-19 and as candidate therapeutic targets. In addition, the transcriptome profiles consistently suggested hyperactivation of the immune response, loss of T-cell function, and immune dysregulation in severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings provide a comprehensive view of the noncoding and coding transcriptional landscape of peripheral immune cells during COVID-19, furthering our understanding and offering novel insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis.

18.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 33, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-268764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, in December 2019; the outbreak was caused by a novel coronavirus previously never observed in humans. China has imposed the strictest quarantine and closed management measures in history to control the spread of the disease. However, a high level of evidence to support the surgical management of potential trauma patients during the novel coronavirus outbreak is still lacking. To regulate the emergency treatment of trauma patients during the outbreak, we drafted this paper from a trauma surgeon perspective according to practical experience in Wuhan. MAIN BODY: The article illustrates the general principles for the triage and evaluation of trauma patients during the outbreak of COVID-19, indications for emergency surgery, and infection prevention and control for medical personnel, providing a practical algorithm for trauma care providers during the outbreak period. CONCLUSIONS: The measures of emergency trauma care that we have provided can protect the medical personnel involved in emergency care and ensure the timeliness of effective interventions during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Algorithms , Anesthesia/standards , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Emergencies , Hospital Units/standards , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perioperative Care/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Triage/standards
19.
Cell Discov ; 6: 31, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208713

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has recently affected over 1,200,000 people and killed more than 60,000. The key immune cell subsets change and their states during the course of COVID-19 remain unclear. We sought to comprehensively characterize the transcriptional changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the recovery stage of COVID-19 by single-cell RNA sequencing technique. It was found that T cells decreased remarkably, whereas monocytes increased in patients in the early recovery stage (ERS) of COVID-19. There was an increased ratio of classical CD14++ monocytes with high inflammatory gene expression as well as a greater abundance of CD14++IL1ß+ monocytes in the ERS. CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells decreased significantly and expressed high levels of inflammatory genes in the ERS. Among the B cells, the plasma cells increased remarkably, whereas the naïve B cells decreased. Several novel B cell-receptor (BCR) changes were identified, such as IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-7, and isotypes (IGHV3-15, IGHV3-30, and IGKV3-11) previously used for virus vaccine development were confirmed. The strongest pairing frequencies, IGHV3-23-IGHJ4, indicated a monoclonal state associated with SARS-CoV-2 specificity, which had not been reported yet. Furthermore, integrated analysis predicted that IL-1ß and M-CSF may be novel candidate target genes for inflammatory storm and that TNFSF13, IL-18, IL-2, and IL-4 may be beneficial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients. Our study provides the first evidence of an inflammatory immune signature in the ERS, suggesting COVID-19 patients are still vulnerable after hospital discharge. Identification of novel BCR signaling may lead to the development of vaccines and antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19.

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