Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases ; 39(6):741-745, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780275

ABSTRACT

To understand the current status of Clonorchis sinensis infection in the population of Heilongjiang Province, the survey sites were selected from 104 rural areas and 15 urban areas in the Province in April-June 2015, using stratified cluster random sampling method, in accordance to the guideline of the National Survey, Program for Key Human Parasitic Diseases. The rural areas were divided into four ecoregions: Changbai Mountain-Qianshan Mountains, the Eastern Northeast Plain, Sanjiang Plain, and Xiaoxing'an Mountain coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The number of people surveyed at each survey site was no less than 250. The modified Kato thick smear method was used to examine the participants' fecal samples (two slide-reading/sample) for C. sinensis eggs and counted. Of the 30 280 examinees, 747 were found infected, with an infection rate of 2.47%. The infection rate in rural and urban areas was 2.77% (734/26 456) and 0.34% (13/3 824) respectively, with the difference being statistically significant (X2 = 82.295, P < 0.05). Most of the infected showed mild infection (82.33%, 615/747). The infection rate was 3.05% (462/15 171) in males and 1.89% (285/15 109) in females, showing significant difference between the sexes (X2 = 42.261, P < 0.05). The highest infection rate was seen in the age group of 30-39 years (3.32%, 147/4 430), revealing significant difference between the age groups (X2 = 122.182, P < 0.05). The highest infection rate was found in farmers (animal husbandry and fishery) (3.16%, 692/21 914), with the difference between occupation groups being statistically significant (X2 = 164.846, P < 0.05). The infection rate differed significantly among the participants with different levels of education (X2 = 124.596, P < 0.05) and was highest in the group with junior high school education (3.46%, 499/14 425). The rate was significantly different between different ethnic groups (X2 = 8.395, P < 0.05), with the Han group having the highest infection rate (2.51%, 739/29 487). In rural areas, most of the infected people showed mild infection intensity (82.56%, 606/734). The infection rate was 3.39% (454/13 378) in males and 2.14 (280/13 078) in females, thus differing significantly between the sexes (X2 = 38.468, P < 0.05). The infection rate differed significantly with age (X2 = 111.315, P < 0.05) and was highest in the 30-39 year age group (3.78%, 145/3 841). Significant difference in infection rate was found also in occupation distribution (X2 = 103.863, P < 0.05), with the highest seen in the group of servants and enterprise-institution employees (5.05%, 10/198). The infection rate differed significantly in education distribution (X2 = 127.308, P < 0.05), and was highest in the group at the education level of junior high school (3.88%, 496/12 792). It also differed significantly between different ethnic groups (X2 = 8.903, P < 0.05), and was highest in the Han group (2.82%, 726/25 734). The Sanjiang Plain ecoregion showed the highest infection rate (8.75%, 575/6 574), and the rate differed significantly between ecoregions (X2 = 1 177.510, P < 0.05). In urban areas, the majority of the infected had mild infection (9/13). The infection rate in males was 0.45% (8/1 793) and that in females was 0.25% (5/2 031). The highest infection rate was detected in the age group 50-59 years (0.79%, 5/636), and among different occupations, the group of servants and enterprise-institution employees had the highest infection rate (0.97%, 4/411). In the education distribution, the illiterate group showed the highest infection rate (1.14%, 2/176). C. sinensis infection was only detected in Han ethnicity, with an infection rate of 0.35% (13/3 753). The C. sinensis infection found in Heilongjiang Province was largely mild, and the highest infection rate was seen in the Sanjiang Plain ecoregion, thus, it is imperative to actively explore feasible control strategies and measures appropriate to the

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312605

ABSTRACT

The science around the use of masks by the general public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. Policymakers need guidance on how masks should be used by the general population to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, considering and synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact;transmission characteristics;source control;PPE;sociological considerations;and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory droplets, and is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: first, limit contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures, and second, reduce the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces the transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected droplets in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. The decreased transmissibility could substantially reduce the death toll and economic impact while the cost of the intervention is low. Given the current shortages of medical masks we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory droplets become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask-wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population-level, rather than mask-wearing by susceptible people, such as health-care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310861

ABSTRACT

With the growing importance of preventing the COVID-19 virus, face images obtained in most video surveillance scenarios are low resolution with mask simultaneously. However, most of the previous face super-resolution solutions can not handle both tasks in one model. In this work, we treat the mask occlusion as image noise and construct a joint and collaborative learning network, called JDSR-GAN, for the masked face super-resolution task. Given a low-quality face image with the mask as input, the role of the generator composed of a denoising module and super-resolution module is to acquire a high-quality high-resolution face image. The discriminator utilizes some carefully designed loss functions to ensure the quality of the recovered face images. Moreover, we incorporate the identity information and attention mechanism into our network for feasible correlated feature expression and informative feature learning. By jointly performing denoising and face super-resolution, the two tasks can complement each other and attain promising performance. Extensive qualitative and quantitative results show the superiority of our proposed JDSR-GAN over some comparable methods which perform the previous two tasks separately.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325325

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described to partially overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD) with regard to clinical symptoms, but they are unlikely to share the same disease entity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the laboratory parameters of MIS-C compared with those of KD and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS). Databases were searched for studies on laboratory parameters of MIS-C (hematology, inflammatory markers, cardiac markers and biochemistry) through May 31, 2021. Twelve studies with 3073 participants yielded 969 MIS-C patients. In terms of hematology, MIS-C patients had lower levels of leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count and platelet count (PLT) than KD patients and had similar absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In terms of inflammatory markers, MIS-C patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin than KD patients and had similar levels of procalcitonin and ESR. In terms of cardiac markers, MIS-C patients had higher CPK levels than KD patients. The levels of NT-proBNP, troponin and AST were not significantly different between MIS-C and KD patients. In terms of biochemistry, MIS-C patients had lower levels of albumin, sodium and ALT and higher levels of creatinine than KD patients. In addition, MIS-C patients had lower levels of PLT, Hb and ESR and higher levels of ANC than KDSS patients. Measurement of laboratory parameters might assist clinicians with accurate evaluation of MIS-C and further mechanistic research.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325264

ABSTRACT

As per the indicated need in literature, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize inflammatory markers of MIS-C patients with COVID-19, Kawasaki disease (KD), and coronary artery abnormalities. We searched nine databases for studies on inflammatory markers of MIS-C. After quality check, data were pooled using a fixed- or random-effects model. Inflammatory markers included white blood cell count (WBC) or leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for comparisons by severity and age. Twenty studies with 2,990 participants yielded 684 MIS-C patients. Compared to non-severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower ALC and higher ANC, CRP and D-dimer levels. Compared to severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower LDH and PLT counts and higher ESR levels. Compared to KD patients, MIS-C patients had lower ALC and PLT, and higher CRP and ferritin levels. Severe MIS-C patients had higher levels of WBC, CRP, D-dimer and ferritin. For MIS-C, younger children had lower CRP and ferritin levels than medium-aged/older children. Measurement of inflammatory markers might assist clinicians in accurate evaluation and diagnosis of MIS-C and the associated disorders.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322746

ABSTRACT

Within a short period of time, COVID-19 grew into a world-wide pandemic. Transmission by pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic viral carriers rendered intervention and containment of the disease extremely challenging. Based on reported infection case studies, we construct an epidemiological model that focuses on transmission around the symptom onset. The model is calibrated against incubation period and pairwise transmission statistics during the initial outbreaks of the pandemic outside Wuhan with minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions. Mathematical treatment of the model yields explicit expressions for the size of latent and pre-symptomatic subpopulations during the exponential growth phase, with the local epidemic growth rate as input. We then explore reduction of the basic reproduction number R_0 through specific disease control measures such as contact tracing, testing, social distancing, wearing masks and sheltering in place. When these measures are implemented in combination, their effects on R_0 multiply. We also compare our model behaviour to the first wave of the COVID-19 spreading in various affected regions and highlight generic and less generic features of the pandemic development.

8.
Nat Methods ; 18(8): 857, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541246
9.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(12): 3688-3698, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439708

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been described to partially overlap with Kawasaki disease (KD) with regard to clinical symptoms, but they are unlikely to share the same disease entity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the laboratory parameters of MIS-C compared with those of KD and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS). Databases were searched for studies on laboratory parameters of MIS-C (hematology, inflammatory markers, cardiac markers, and biochemistry) through May 31, 2021. Twelve studies with 3073 participants yielded 969 MIS-C patients. In terms of hematology, MIS-C patients had lower levels of leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count and platelet count (PLT) than KD patients and had similar absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. In terms of inflammatory markers, MIS-C patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein, D-dimer and ferritin than KD patients and had similar levels of procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). In terms of cardiac markers, MIS-C patients had higher CPK levels than KD patients. The levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin and aspartate aminotransferase were not significantly different between MIS-C and KD patients. In terms of biochemistry, MIS-C patients had lower levels of albumin, sodium and alanine aminotransferase and higher levels of creatinine than KD patients. In addition, MIS-C patients had lower levels of PLT, Hb and ESR and higher levels of ANC than KDSS patients. Measurement of laboratory parameters might assist clinicians with accurate evaluation of MIS-C and further mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Laboratories , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4677-4685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416994

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Most studies that examined the relationship between internet use and sleep were conducted mainly in children and adolescents, and we know little about the use of internet among adults. The purpose of this study is to understand the internet use patterns of Chinese adults and to measure their associations with sleep duration from variety, frequency and type. METHODS: A total of 19,730 samples were selected from 2018 data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal study. Internet usage was obtained by specific questions, and the range of sleep period was grouped according to recommendations from the National Sleep Foundation. Kruskal-Wallis H-test and the chi-squared test were used for basic descriptive analysis, and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the relationships between internet use and sleep duration. Stata version 15.0 was used for data cleaning, and SPSS version 20.0 was used for statistics analysis. RESULTS: After screening, a total of 6346 persons were included in the analysis, of which 3148 (49.61%) were males and 3198 (50.39%) were females. Age ranged from 21 to 95 years, most persons were over 45 years old, with the median age of 56 years. Only 1180 (18.59%) participants used the internet, and almost all of them used mobile phones (1137, 96.36%), the other three types were desktop computer (232, 19.66%), laptop computer (69, 5.85%) and tablet (73, 6.19%). There were 912 (77.28%) and 268 (22.71%) participants who used only one and two or more types, respectively. In the unadjusted model, both short sleep and long sleep were associated with internet use compared with normal sleep duration (0.806 [0.708-0.918] p = 0.001; 0.345 [0.251-0.475] p < 0.000). After adjusting for all covariates, the association between long sleep and internet use still persisted (0.612 [0.433-0.865] p = 0.005), but no significant difference was found in short sleep (0.929 [0.803-1.075] p = 0.325). CONCLUSION: Internet use was found to be closely associated with sleep and the duration of sleep negatively affected, which may provide new ideas for sleep hygiene recommendations and healthy media use. This conclusion needs more evidence to support.

12.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(10): 1127-1135, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270830

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine if neurologic symptoms at admission can predict adverse outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Electronic medical records of 1053 consecutively hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection of SARS-CoV-2 from one large medical center in the USA were retrospectively analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed with the calculation of areas under the curve (AUC) and concordance index (C-index). Patients were stratified into subgroups based on the presence of encephalopathy and its severity using survival statistics. In sensitivity analyses, patients with mild/moderate and severe encephalopathy (defined as coma) were separately considered. RESULTS: Of 1053 patients (mean age 52.4 years, 48.0% men [n = 505]), 35.1% (n = 370) had neurologic manifestations at admission, including 10.3% (n = 108) with encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was an independent predictor for death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.617, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.481-4.625) in multivariable Cox regression. The addition of encephalopathy to multivariable models comprising other predictors for adverse outcomes increased AUCs (mortality: 0.84-0.86, ventilation/ intensive care unit [ICU]: 0.76-0.78) and C-index (mortality: 0.78 to 0.81, ventilation/ICU: 0.85-0.86). In sensitivity analyses, risk stratification survival curves for mortality and ventilation/ICU based on severe encephalopathy (n = 15) versus mild/moderate encephalopathy (n = 93) versus no encephalopathy (n = 945) at admission were discriminative (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Encephalopathy at admission predicts later progression to death in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may have important implications for risk stratification in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/trends , Adult , Aged , Brain Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5808-5812, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264740

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly, which now has turned into a pandemic. The new emerging infectious disease has raised many challenges and uncertainties regarding disease management and prognosis in immunocompromised patient populations. The risk of COVID-19 among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has different opinions. Some scholars speculated that patients with HIV may be at decreased risk for complications of COVID-19 because HIV antiretroviral medications may have activity against coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2. But others have the opposite because of the immunosuppression for HIV patients. Here we reported a case of HIV-infected patient confirmed with COVID-19 and had a favourable prognosis. The patient was a 24-year-old male who was diagnosed with HIV infection 2 years ago and then followed a regular antiretroviral therapy (ART). After infected with COVID-19, the patient had no other clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities throughout the course of the disease except presented with fever for a short-term (2 days), and no secondary infection or exacerbation occurred after admission in hospital. Follow-up chest CT showed that the lung lesions disappeared within a short period of time. After standard treatment by 9 days, the patient was cured and discharged. This report highlights the importance of ART for HIV-infected persons, and with regular ART for HIV patients may reduce adverse consequences after infection with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 62-70, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis of laboratory cardiac markers for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was performed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Eight databases were searched until April 10, 2021, for studies on cardiac markers, including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), troponin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), in MIS-C patients. RESULTS: Of the 2583 participants enrolled in 24 studies, 1613 patients were diagnosed with MIS-C. MIS-C patients exhibited higher BNP levels than patients with non-severe COVID-19 [SMD (95% CI): 1.13 (0.48, 1.77), p < 0.05]. No significant differences in BNP levels were observed between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19 [SMD (95% CI): 0.29 (-0.07, 0.65), p = 0.117]. Comparisons of MIS-C patients to all COVID-19 patients revealed no significant differences in levels of troponin [SMD (95% CI): 0.13 (-0.07, 0.32), p = 0.212] or AST [SMD (95% CI): 0.10 (-0.11, 0.31), p = 0.336]. Compared to patients with non-severe MIS-C, those with severe MIS-C exhibited higher levels of BNP [SMD (95% CI): 0.26 (0.04, 0.48), p < 0.05], but no differences in troponin [SMD (95% CI): 0.05 (-0.06, 0.16) p = 0.387] or AST [SMD (95% CI): 0.19 (-0.34, 0.71), p = 0.483] were observed. Moreover, there was no significant difference in BNP [SMD (95% CI): -0.21 (-1.07, 0.64), p = 0.624] or troponin [SMD (95% CI): -0.07 (-0.45, 0.31), p = 0.710] between MIS-C with and without coronary artery abnormality. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess stability. No publication bias was detected based on Begg's test. CONCLUSIONS: The key cardiac marker that showed differences between patients with MIS-C/non-severe COVID-19 and between patients with severe/non-severe MIS-C was BNP. Other markers, such as troponin and AST, did not exhibit notable differences in indicating cardiac injury between patients with MIS-C and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Troponin/blood
15.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200044, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155969
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4358-4369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141369

ABSTRACT

To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize inflammatory markers in comparisons of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) versus severe/non-severe COVID-19, severe MIS-C versus non-severe MIS-C, and among age groups of MIS-C. Nine databases were searched for studies on inflammatory markers of MIS-C. After quality checks, data were pooled using a fixed or random effects model. Inflammatory markers included white blood cell count (WBC) or leukocytes, absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), platelet count (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for comparisons by severity and age. Twenty-one studies with 1735 participants yielded 787 MIS-C patients. Compared to non-severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower ALC and higher ANC, CRP, and D-dimer levels. Compared to severe COVID-19 patients, MIS-C patients had lower LDH and PLT counts and higher ESR levels. Severe MIS-C patients had higher levels of WBC, ANC, CRP, D-dimer, and ferritin than non-severe MIS-C patients. For MIS-C, younger children (0-5 years) had lower CRP and ferritin levels than middle-aged/older children/adolescents. Measurement of inflammatory markers might assist clinicians in accurate evaluation and diagnosis of MIS-C and the associated disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Platelet Count , Procalcitonin/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Young Adult
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1147, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091490

ABSTRACT

Within a short period of time, COVID-19 grew into a world-wide pandemic. Transmission by pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic viral carriers rendered intervention and containment of the disease extremely challenging. Based on reported infection case studies, we construct an epidemiological model that focuses on transmission around the symptom onset. The model is calibrated against incubation period and pairwise transmission statistics during the initial outbreaks of the pandemic outside Wuhan with minimal non-pharmaceutical interventions. Mathematical treatment of the model yields explicit expressions for the size of latent and pre-symptomatic subpopulations during the exponential growth phase, with the local epidemic growth rate as input. We then explore reduction of the basic reproduction number R0 through specific transmission control measures such as contact tracing, testing, social distancing, wearing masks and sheltering in place. When these measures are implemented in combination, their effects on R0 multiply. We also compare our model behaviour to the first wave of the COVID-19 spreading in various affected regions and highlight generic and less generic features of the pandemic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Basic Reproduction Number , Contact Tracing , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Masks , Physical Distancing , Quarantine
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023990

ABSTRACT

The science around the use of masks by the public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact, transmission characteristics, source control, wearer protection, sociological considerations, and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory particles, and it is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: limiting contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures and reducing the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected respiratory particles in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. Given the current shortages of medical masks, we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory particles become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population level, rather than only mask wearing by susceptible people, such as health care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Masks , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(22): 5501-5512, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994296

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is spreading throughout the world. Chest radiography and computed tomography play an important role in disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis, severity evaluation, prognosis prediction, therapeutic effects assessment and follow-up of patients with COVID-19. In this review, we summarize knowledge of COVID-19 pneumonia that may help improve the abilities of radiologists to diagnose and evaluate this highly infectious disease, which is essential for epidemic control and preventing new outbreaks in the short term.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL