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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023990

ABSTRACT

The science around the use of masks by the public to impede COVID-19 transmission is advancing rapidly. In this narrative review, we develop an analytical framework to examine mask usage, synthesizing the relevant literature to inform multiple areas: population impact, transmission characteristics, source control, wearer protection, sociological considerations, and implementation considerations. A primary route of transmission of COVID-19 is via respiratory particles, and it is known to be transmissible from presymptomatic, paucisymptomatic, and asymptomatic individuals. Reducing disease spread requires two things: limiting contacts of infected individuals via physical distancing and other measures and reducing the transmission probability per contact. The preponderance of evidence indicates that mask wearing reduces transmissibility per contact by reducing transmission of infected respiratory particles in both laboratory and clinical contexts. Public mask wearing is most effective at reducing spread of the virus when compliance is high. Given the current shortages of medical masks, we recommend the adoption of public cloth mask wearing, as an effective form of source control, in conjunction with existing hygiene, distancing, and contact tracing strategies. Because many respiratory particles become smaller due to evaporation, we recommend increasing focus on a previously overlooked aspect of mask usage: mask wearing by infectious people ("source control") with benefits at the population level, rather than only mask wearing by susceptible people, such as health care workers, with focus on individual outcomes. We recommend that public officials and governments strongly encourage the use of widespread face masks in public, including the use of appropriate regulation.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101323

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new infectious disease, firstly appeared in Wuhan city and has rapidly spread to 114 countries outside China, which is receiving worldwide attention. As two important means of examination, computed tomography (CT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have always been controversial in the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we report a family cluster case of a father and a son diagnosed as COVID-19 at our hospital, and described the clinical manifestations, laboratory results, CT changes, diagnosis and treatment strategy of these two patients. Focus on the value of these two methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, as well as their respective deficiencies. For patient 1 (father), the efficacy of RT-PCR is not satisfactory either in terms of diagnosis or follow-up, which may cause misdiagnosis and delay treatment. For patient 2 (son), the clinical symptoms were not obvious, but CT imaging clearly displayed dynamic changes of the lung lesions. Meanwhile, the two patients respectively underwent five chest CT examinations during their hospitalization and discharge follow-up, showing the potential harm of radiation. Therefore, in clinical work, doctors should make full use of the advantages of CT and RT-PCR, and take other measures to make up for their disadvantages.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 30(8): 4427-4433, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52598

ABSTRACT

A serious epidemic of COVID-19 broke out in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread to other Chinese cities and several countries now. As the majority of patients infected with COVID-19 had chest CT abnormality, chest CT has become an important tool for early diagnosis of COVID-19 and monitoring disease progression. There is growing evidence that children are also susceptible to COVID-19 and have atypical presentations compared with adults. This review is mainly about the differences in clinical symptom spectrum, diagnosis of COVID-19, and CT imaging findings between adults and children, while highlighting the value of radiology in prevention and control of COVID-19 in pediatric patients. KEY POINTS: • Compared with adults, pediatric patients with COVID-19 have the characteristics of lower incidence, slighter clinical symptoms, shorter course of disease, and fewer severe cases. • The chest CT characteristics of COVID-19 in pediatric patients were atypical, with more localized GGO extent, lower GGO attenuation, and relatively rare interlobular septal thickening. • Chest CT should be used with more caution in pediatric patients with COVID-19 to protect this vulnerable population from risking radiation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Child , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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