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1.
PLOS ONE ; 17(5):e0268237-e0268237, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1822298

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a challenge worldwide, and testing of asymptomatic individuals remains critical to pandemic control measures. Starting March 2020, a total of 7497 hospital employees were tested at least weekly for SARS CoV-2;the cumulative incidence of asymptomatic infections was 5.64%. Consistently over a 14-month period half of COVID-19 infections (414 of 820, total) were detected through the asymptomatic screening program, a third of whom never developed any symptoms during follow-up. Prompt detection and isolation of these cases substantially reduced the risk of potential workplace and outside of workplace transmission. COVID-19 vaccinations of the workforce were initiated in December 2020. Twenty-one individuals tested positive after being fully vaccinated (3.9 per 1000 vaccinated). Most (61.9%) remained asymptomatic and in majority (75%) the virus could not be sequenced due to low template RNA levels in swab samples. Further routine testing of vaccinated asymptomatic employees was stopped and will be redeployed if needed;routine testing for those not vaccinated continues. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing, as a part of enhanced screening, monitors local dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic and can provide valuable data to assess the ongoing impact of COVID-19 vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 variants, inform risk mitigation, and guide adaptive, operational planning including titration of screening strategies over time, based on infection risk modifiers such as vaccination.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334415

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the utility of a test-based approach to shorten isolation of healthcare workers with COVID-19 in the setting of the highly transmissible omicron variant Methods: Between December 24th, 2021, to January 5th, 2022 HCWs who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were re-tested at least five days since onset of symptoms. Results: 46 sequential fully COVID-19 vaccinated HCWs who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 underwent follow up testing. All the isolates were confirmed as omicron variants and only 4 (8.7%) were negative 5 days or more since onset of symptoms., Conclusions: Implementation of a test-based strategy is logistically challenging, increases costs and did not lead to shorter isolation in our institution.

3.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 339-349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725160

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The rapid response of COVID-19 scientific research played a significant role in pandemic prevention and control but failed to block the spread of the pandemic rapidly. Besides the complexity of the virus, the effectiveness of control and prevention measures, and other factors, the adaptation of the mode of conducting scientific research is also crucial for the prevention and control of COVID-19. In this study, a parallel model was used to explore the effects of the rapid scientific response on COVID-19 to assess why pandemics continue to spread under rapid response. Analysis: This study presents the response of scientific research based on country/region and publication dimensions after analyzing COVID-19 studies in the Web of Science and PubMed databases. Co-occurrence analysis of items was used to determine the generation rate of COVID-19 research under different topics to identify the reflected innovation model. Results: More manifestations on rapid response of COVID-19 research, especially compared with the linear model of SARS research, showed that the COVID-19 research followed a parallel or concurrent innovation model. Conclusion: Early multi-stakeholder partnership, convenient information sharing, and improved research competence promote the parallel model in COVID-19. Meanwhile, the uncertainty of the COVID-19 virus and the adverse effect of rapid response may limit the time efficiency of the parallel model. In conclusion, the rapid prevention and control of the pandemic cannot fully rely on scientific research but requires more combined effort under an uncertain global setting.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323568

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the peripheral area) in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 between the epicenter and peripheral areas of pandemic and thereby generate information that would be potentially helpful in formulating clinical practice recommendations to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Sichuan & Wuhan Collaboration Research Group for COVID-19 established two retrospective cohorts that separately reflect the epicenter and peripheral area during the early pandemic. The epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients in the two groups were compared. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with regard to the outcomes. Results: The Wuhan (epicenter) cohort included 710 randomly selected patients, and the peripheral (Sichuan) cohort included 474 consecutive patients. A higher proportion of patients from the periphery had upper airway symptoms, whereas a lower proportion of patients in the epicenter had lower airway symptoms and comorbidities. Patients in the epicenter had a higher risk of death (aOR=7.64), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR=1.66), delayed time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission (aOR=6.29 and aOR=8.03, respectively), and prolonged duration of viral shedding (aOR=1.64). Conclusions: The worse outcomes in the epicenter could be explained by the prolonged time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission. This could potentially have been associated with elevated systemic inflammation secondary to organ dysfunction and prolonged duration of virus shedding independent of age and comorbidities. Thus, early supportive care could achieve better clinical outcomes.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322512

ABSTRACT

Background: Since winter of 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in China and rapidly spread throughout the entire world, many fever clinics were rearranged and enlarged to triage febrile patients in China. Methods This study included fever clinic visits of Sichuan Provincial Peoples’ Hospital to summarize the characteristics of these febrile patients retrospectively. Results From 24th January to 31th March, 1034 fever clinic visits with 530 male and 504 female, were triaged, treated and recorded. About 64.9% of them were checked with body temperature higher than 37.3℃. Cough (25.0%) and sore throat (19.2%) were the most common symptoms in addition to fever. Chest CT scan was ordered for 900 patients, and 172 cases (16.6%) were found ground grass opacity, 134 (13.0%) found local patchy shadowing, and 26 (2.5%) found bilateral patchy shadowing. At last 851 patients (82.3%) were excluded for COVID-19 or other severe diseases. Eighty patients (7.7%) were admitted to hospitalization for other conditions. One hundred and three (9.9%) patients were suspected or confirmed of COVID-19 at fever clinic, and then admitted to isolation ward. Conclusions The result of this study again verified the extraordinary role of fever clinics in pandemics. When confronted with a mass of unknown febrile patients, a well organized fever clinic may avoid the frustration of all medical staffs.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(4): 1144-1155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685345

ABSTRACT

High glucose (HG) is one of the basic factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which leads to high morbidity and disability. During DN, the expression of glomerular glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) increases, but the relationship between HG and GLUT1 is unclear. Glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) have multiple roles in HG-induced DN. Here, we report prominent glomerular dysfunction, especially GMC abnormalities, in DN mice, which is closely related to GLUT1 alteration. In vivo studies have shown that BBR can alleviate pathological changes and abnormal renal function indicators of DN mice. In vitro, BBR (30, 60 and 90 µmol/L) not only increased the proportion of G1 phase cells but also reduced the proportion of S phase cells under HG conditions at different times. BBR (60 µmol/L) significantly reduced the expression of PI3K-p85, p-Akt, p-AS160, membrane-bound GLUT1 and cyclin D1, but had almost no effect on total protein. Furthermore, BBR significantly declined the glucose uptake and retarded cyclin D1-mediated GMC cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. This study demonstrated that BBR can inhibit the development of DN, which may be due to BBR inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/AS160/GLUT1 signalling pathway to regulate HG-induced abnormal GMC proliferation and the cell cycle, supporting BBR as a potential therapeutic drug for DN.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies , Animals , Berberine/pharmacology , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Diabetic Nephropathies/pathology , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 1/genetics , Glucose Transporter Type 1/metabolism , Mesangial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 83-96.e4, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating cross-reactivity. However, a case-control study indicates that baseline hCCCoV antibody levels are not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rather, higher magnitudes of pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies correlate with more SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following infection, an indicator of greater disease severity. Additionally, immunization with hCCCoV spike proteins before SARS-CoV-2 immunization impedes the generation of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Together, these data suggest that pre-existing hCCCoV antibodies hinder SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based immunity following infection and provide insight on how pre-existing coronavirus immunity impacts SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical considering emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telocytes (TCs) are experimentally evidenced as an alternative of cell therapies for organ tissue injury and repair. The aims of the present studies are to explore direct roles of TCs and the roles of TC-derived exosomes in support of experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in vivo or in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The roles of TCs in experimental ALI were firstly estimated. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p110δ and α/δ/ß isoform inhibitors were used in study dynamic alterations of bio-behaviors, and in expression of functional factors of TCs per se and TC-co-cultured airway epithelial cells during the activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TC-driven exosomes were furthermore characterized for intercellular communication by which activated or non-activated TCs interacted with epithelia. RESULTS: Our results showed that TCs mainly prevented from lung tissue edema and hemorrhage and decreased the levels of VEGF-A and MMP9 induced by LPS. Treatment with CAL101 (PI3K p110δ inhibitor) and LY294002 (PI3Kα/δ/ß inhibitor) could inhibit TC movement and differentiation and increase the number of dead TCs. The expression of Mtor, Hif1α, Vegf-a, or Mmp9 mRNA increased in TCs challenged with LPS, while Mtor, Hif1α, and Vegf-a even more increased after adding CAL101 or Mtor after adding LY. The rate of epithelial cell proliferation was higher in co-culture of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and TCs than that in HBE alone under conditions with or without LPS challenge or when cells were treated with LPS and CAL101 or LY294002. The levels of mTOR, HIF1α, or VEGF-A significantly increased in mono-cultured or co-cultured cells, challenged with LPS as compared with those with vehicle. LPS-pretreated TC-derived exosomes upregulated the expression of AKT, p-AKT, HIF1α, and VEGF-A protein of HBE. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of TCs ameliorated the severity of lung tissue edema accompanied by elevated expression of VEGF-A. TCs could nourish airway epithelial cells through nutrients produced from TCs, increasing epithelial cell proliferation, and differentiation as well as cell sensitivity to LPS challenge and PI3K p110δ and α/δ/ß inhibitors, partially through exosomes released from TCs.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination there is significant variability between individuals in protective antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2, and within individuals against different virus variants. However, host demographic or clinical characteristics that predict variability in cross-reactive antibody levels are not well-described. These data could inform clinicians, researchers, and policy makers on the populations most likely to require vaccine booster shots. METHODS: In an institutional review board-approved prospective observational cohort study of staff at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, we identified participants with plasma samples collected after SARS-CoV-2 infection, after mRNA vaccination, and after vaccination following infection, and quantitated IgG levels by ELISA to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) from five important SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan Hu-1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.617.2). We used regression models to identify factors that contributed to cross-reactive IgG against one or multiple viral variants. RESULTS: Following infection, a minority of the cohort generated cross-reactive antibodies, IgG antibodies that bound all tested variants. Those that did had increased disease severity, poor metabolic health, and were of a particular ancestry. Vaccination increased the levels of cross-reactive IgG levels in all populations including immunocompromised, elderly and persons with poor metabolic health. Younger people with a healthy weight mounted the highest responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide important new information on individual antibody responses to infection/vaccination that could inform clinicians on the populations that may require follow-on immunization.

10.
Cell host & microbe ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564429

ABSTRACT

A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoV) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Lin et al. analyze hCCCoV antibodies in the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection, finding pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies may hinder SARS-CoV-2 effective immunity following infection.

11.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 40(4): 244-250, 2021 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504274

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has rerouted the healthcare ecosystem by accelerating digital health, and rapid adoption of eHealth is partly influenced by eHealth literacy (eHL). This study aims to examine patients' eHL in relation to their "technology readiness"-an innate attitude that is underexplored in clinical research. A total of 276 adult inpatients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease were surveyed cross-sectionally in 2019 using self-reported questionnaires: eHealth Literacy Scale and Technology Readiness Index (2.0). The study found moderate eHL (mean, 27.38) and moderate technology readiness (mean, 3.03) among patients. The hierarchical regression model shows that lower eHL scores were associated with patients of minor ethnicity (Malaysian Chinese), with an unemployed status, and having >1 cardiovascular risk (ß = -0.136 to -0.215, R2 = 0.283, Ps < .005). Technology readiness is a strong determinant of eHL (ΔR2 = 0.295, P < .001) with its subdomains (optimism, innovativeness, and discomfort) significantly influencing eHL (|ß| = 0.28-0.40, Ps < .001), except for the insecurity subdomain. Deployment of eHealth interventions that incorporate assessment of patients' eHL and technology readiness will enable targeted strategies, especially in resource-limited settings hit hard by the pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Telemedicine , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecosystem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Technology
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0105921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495012

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has since caused a global pandemic resulting in millions of cases and deaths. Diagnostic tools and serological assays are critical for controlling the outbreak, especially assays designed to quantitate neutralizing antibody levels, considered the best correlate of protection. As vaccines become increasingly available, it is important to identify reliable methods for measuring neutralizing antibody responses that correlate with authentic virus neutralization but can be performed outside biosafety level 3 (BSL3) laboratories. While many neutralizing assays using pseudotyped virus have been developed, there have been few studies comparing the different assays to each other as surrogates for authentic virus neutralization. Here, we characterized three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and three pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) neutralization assays and assessed their concordance with authentic virus neutralization. The most accurate assays for predicting authentic virus neutralization were luciferase- and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralizations, followed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing pseudotyped virus neutralization, and then the ELISAs. IMPORTANCE The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Prior infection or vaccination can be detected by the presence of antibodies in the blood. Antibodies in the blood are also considered to be protective against future infections from the same virus. The "gold standard" assay for detecting protective antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, this assay can only be performed under highly restrictive biocontainment conditions. We therefore characterized six antibody-detecting assays for their correlation with authentic virus neutralization. The significance of our research is in outlining the advantages and disadvantages of the different assays and identifying the optimal surrogate assay for authentic virus neutralization. This will allow for more accurate assessments of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 following infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus/immunology
13.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 179: 114020, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486938

ABSTRACT

Adjuvant is an essential component in subunit vaccines. Many agonists of pathogen recognition receptors have been developed as potent adjuvants to optimize the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. Recently discovered cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway has attracted much attention as it is a key mediator for modulating immune responses. Vaccines adjuvanted with STING agonists are found to mediate a robust immune defense against infections and cancer. In this review, we first discuss the mechanisms of STING agonists in the context of vaccination. Next, we present recent progress in novel STING agonist discovery and the delivery strategies. We next highlight recent work in optimizing the efficacy while minimizing toxicity of STING agonist-assisted subunit vaccines for protection against infectious diseases or treatment of cancer. Finally, we share our perspectives of current issues and future directions in further developing STING agonists for adjuvanting subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Membrane Proteins/agonists , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 753940, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463477

ABSTRACT

Lung macrophages play important roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, pathogen clearance and immune regulation. The different types of pulmonary macrophages and their roles in lung diseases have attracted attention in recent years. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), including tissue-resident alveolar macrophages (TR-AMs) and monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (Mo-AMs), as well as interstitial macrophages (IMs) are the major macrophage populations in the lung and have unique characteristics in both steady-state conditions and disease states. The different characteristics of these three types of macrophages determine the different roles they play in the development of disease. Therefore, it is important to fully understand the similarities and differences among these three types of macrophages for the study of lung diseases. In this review, we will discuss the physiological characteristics and unique functions of these three types of macrophages in acute and chronic lung diseases. We will also discuss possible methods to target macrophages in lung diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(9): ofab420, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437840

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines administered after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody is unknown, and "antibody interference" might hinder immune responses leading to vaccine failure. In an institutional review board-approved prospective study, we found that an individual who received mRNA COVID-19 vaccination <40 days after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody therapy for symptomatic COVID-19 had similar postvaccine antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) for 4 important SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as other participants who were also vaccinated following COVID-19. Vaccination against COVID-19 shortly after COVID-19-specific monoclonal antibody can boost and expand antibody protection, questioning the need to delay vaccination in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The St. Jude Tracking of Viral and Host Factors Associated with COVID-19 study; NCT04362995; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04362995.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438574

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic since its onset has had a dramatic and often devastating impact, both physical and psychological, on all healthcare workers. This study aimed to assess the impact of psychological distress that COVID-19 has on nurses, as well as the coping strategies that they employed. This is a cross-sectional national online survey. A total of 859 nurses actively involved in caring for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in Malaysia participated in the study. More than three-quarters of the nurses experienced stress (77.2%). A total of 88.7% and 7.2% of nurses revealed a moderate and high stress level, respectively. Approximately one in eight (12.1%) nurses reported feeling depressed. Nurses working in the outpatient departments reported significantly higher stress levels than nurses working in inpatient care departments. Nurses having chronic health problems reported significantly higher depression levels than nurses with no chronic health problem. Highly stressed or depressed nurses tend to adopt avoidance coping strategies while religion and emotional support were used regardless of the stress or depression levels experienced. The findings of the study provide insight into the mental health and coping strategies of nurses actively involved in caring for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in Malaysia. This would be of tremendous help to nursing administrators in implementing mental health services for nurses during and following the COVID-19 global pandemic.

17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 121, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the era of evidence-based policy-making (EBPM), scientific outputs and public policy should engage with each other in a more interactive and coherent way. Notably, this is becoming increasingly critical in preparing for public health emergencies. METHODS: To explore the coevolution dynamics between science and policy (SAP), this study explored the changes in, and development of, COVID-19 research in the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, from 30 December 2019 to 26 June 2020. In this study, VOSviewer was adopted to calculate the link strength of items extracted from scientific publications, and machine learning clustering analysis of scientific publications was carried out to explore dynamic trends in scientific research. Trends in relevant policies that corresponded to changing trends in scientific research were then traced. RESULTS: The study observes a salient change in research content as follows: an earlier focus on "children and pregnant patients", "common symptoms", "nucleic acid test", and "non-Chinese medicine" was gradually replaced with a focus on "aged patients", "pregnant patients", "severe symptoms and asymptomatic infection", "antibody assay", and "Chinese medicine". "Mental health" is persistent throughout China's COVID-19 research. Further, our research reveals a correlation between the evolution of COVID-19 policies and the dynamic development of COVID-19 research. The average issuance time of relevant COVID-19 policies in China is 8.36 days after the launching of related research. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stage of the outbreak in China, the formulation of research-driven-COVID-19 policies and related scientific research followed a similar dynamic trend, which is clearly a manifestation of a coevolution model (CEM). The results of this study apply more broadly to the formulation of policies during public health emergencies, and provide the foundation for future EBPM research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China , Humans , Public Health , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369668

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viruses is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets. Notably, some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have ocular manifestations, including conjunctival hyperaemia, chemosis, epiphora, and increased secretions. However, the association between SARS-CoV-2 and ocular surface diseases is poorly described. Between May 2020 and March 2021, a total of 2, 0157 participants from six districts of China were enrolled. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleoprotein using magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassays. Throat swabs were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-PCR assays in a designated virology laboratory. Fisher exact, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were performed. Of 2, 0157 serum samples tested, 1, 755 (8.71%) were from ocular surface diseases, 1, 2550 (62.26%) from no-ocular surface diseases (ocular diseases except ocular surface diseases), 5, 852 (29.03%) from no-ocular diseases. SARS-CoV-2 prevalence for the combined measure was 0.90% (182/2, 0157). Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the population with ocular surface diseases (2.28%, 40/1755) compared with no-ocular surface diseases (0.70%, 88/1, 2550), and no-ocular diseases (0.92%, 54/5, 852). Similar results were also observed with respect to sex, age, time, and districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that ocular surface diseases [ocular surface diseases vs. no-ocular diseases (p=0.001, OR =1.467, 95% CI=1.174-1.834); ocular surface diseases vs. no-ocular surface diseases (p<0.001, OR =2.170, 95% CI=1.434-3.284)] were associated with increased risk of susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a word, there was a significant association between ocular surface disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, increasing awareness of eye protection during the pandemic is necessary, especially for individuals with ocular surface diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cohort Studies , Eye Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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