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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093207

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34];seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001;seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.

3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080286

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has dramatically impacted people's health, especially mental health. This study aimed to compare the psychological status of pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Participants were recruited (from September 29, 2019, to November 5, 2020) and screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The study participants were categorized into three groups based on two turning-points: January 23, 2020, when China initiated a locked-down strategy, and May 11, 2020, when Shanghai started to ease the COVID-19 measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with depression and anxiety in pregnant women. We used enter method for variable selection; only variables with P <0.10 were included in the final model. Results: We recruited 478 pregnant women. After the outbreak, the depression rate (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) increased by 12.3% (from 35.4 to 47.7%), and the anxiety rate (GAD-7 ≥ 5) was stable (13.3 vs. 16.2%). The multivariable logistic regression results further confirmed that the odds of depression in pregnant women increased 81% after the outbreak (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.16-2.84). However, the median depression scale score was still statistically higher after the pandemic situation was stable (5.0 vs. 4.0) compared to the outbreak period. Conclusion: The depression rate increased among pregnant women after the outbreak and was not recovered after the ease of COVID-19 measures in Shanghai. Health institutes should pay attention to the long-term influence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , China/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054355

ABSTRACT

Despite many innovative ideas generated in response to COVID-19, few studies have examined community preferences for these ideas. Our study aimed to determine university community members' preferences for three novel ideas identified through a crowdsourcing open call at the University of North Carolina (UNC) for making campus safer in the pandemic, as compared to existing (i.e. pre-COVID-19) resources. An online survey was conducted from March 30, 2021 -May 6, 2021. Survey participants included UNC students, staff, faculty, and others. The online survey was distributed using UNC's mass email listserv and research directory, departmental listservs, and student text groups. Collected data included participant demographics, COVID-19 prevention behaviors, preferences for finalist ideas vs. existing resources in three domains (graduate student supports, campus tours, and online learning), and interest in volunteering with finalist teams. In total 437 survey responses were received from 228 (52%) staff, 119 (27%) students, 78 (18%) faculty, and 12 (3%) others. Most participants were older than age 30 years (309; 71%), women (332, 78%), and white (363, 83.1%). Five participants (1%) were gender minorities, 66 (15%) identified as racial/ethnic minorities, and 46 (10%) had a disability. Most participants preferred the finalist idea for a virtual campus tour of UNC's lesser-known history compared to the existing campus tour (52.2% vs. 16.0%). For graduate student supports, 41.4% of participants indicated no preference between the finalist idea and existing supports; for online learning resources, the existing resource was preferred compared to the finalist idea (41.6% vs. 30.4%). Most participants agreed that finalists' ideas would have a positive impact on campus safety during COVID-19 (81.2%, 79.6%, and 79.2% for finalist ideas 1, 2 and 3 respectively). 61 (14.1%) participants indicated interest in volunteering with finalist teams. Together these findings contribute to the development and implementation of community-engaged crowdsourced campus safety interventions during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crowdsourcing , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Universities , Volunteers
5.
Sex Health ; 19(4): 299-308, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050706

ABSTRACT

Although sexual health programming and clinical sexually transmitted infections (STIs) services have traditionally been developed through 'top-down' approaches, there is emerging evidence that participatory approaches benefit the development and implementation of such services. Although other studies have already highlighted the benefits of participation in research and implementation of clinical STIs services delivery, this narrative review focuses on how community participation in clinical STIs services delivery has been operationalised and on the various aspects of clinical STIs services delivery in which participatory processes have been implemented. A PubMed search was conducted in January 2022 using the search terms that reflected the topic of participatory processes in clinical STIs services delivery to identify relevant papers. Only peer-reviewed papers published in English were reviewed, and no timeframe was selected. After reviewing existing studies, we identified how community participation has been incorporated across stages of clinical STIs service delivery, including planning, developing, delivering, evaluating, and scaling up, as well as gaps and challenges faced in implementing such approaches. This review highlighted how a wide range of participatory processes characterised by varying depths of participation have been used in the above processes. Challenges such as funding, socio-cultural barriers, technical barriers and the digital divide, issues of quality assurance, and standardising the measurement of participation remain, which may impede the uptake of participatory processes in clinical STIs services.


Subject(s)
Sexual Health , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Community Participation , Health Services , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(10): 1484-1492, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has low seasonal influenza vaccination rates among priority populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a pay-it-forward strategy to increase influenza vaccine uptake in rural, suburban, and urban settings in China. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pragmatic trial to examine the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward intervention (a free influenza vaccine and an opportunity to donate financially to support vaccination of other individuals) to increase influenza vaccine uptake compared with standard-of-care user-paid vaccination among children (aged between 6 months and 8 years) and older people (≥60 years) in China. Recruitment took place in the standard-of-care group until the expected sample size was reached and then in the pay-it-forward group in primary care clinics from a rural site (Yangshan), a suburban site (Zengcheng), and an urban site (Tianhe). Participants were introduced to the influenza vaccine by project staff using a pamphlet about influenza vaccination and were either asked to pay out-of-pocket at the standard market price (US$8·5-23·2; standard-of-care group) or to donate any amount anonymously (pay-it-forward group). Participants had to be eligible to receive an influenza vaccine and to have not received an influenza vaccine in the past year. The primary outcome was vaccine uptake. Secondary outcomes were vaccine confidence and costs (from the health-care provider perspective). Regression methods compared influenza vaccine uptake and vaccine confidence between the two groups. This trial is registered with ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000040048. FINDINGS: From Sept 21, 2020, to March 3, 2021, 300 enrolees were recruited from patients visiting three primary care clinics. 55 (37%) of 150 people in the standard-of-care group (40 [53%] of 75 children and 15 [20%] of 75 older adults) and 111 (74%) of 150 in the pay-it-forward group (66 [88%] of 75 children and 45 [60%] of 75 older adults) received an influenza vaccine. People in the pay-it-forward group were more likely to receive an influenza vaccine compared with those in the standard-of-care group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6·7 [95% CI 2·7-16·6] among children and 5·0 [2·3-10·8] among older adults). People in the pay-it-forward group had greater confidence in vaccine safety (aOR 2·2 [95% CI 1·2-3·9]), importance (3·1 [1·6-5·9]), and effectiveness (3·1 [1·7-5·7]). In the pay-it-forward group, 107 (96%) of 111 participants donated money for subsequent vaccinations. The pay-it-forward group had a lower economic cost (calculated as the cost without subtraction of donations) per person vaccinated (US$45·60) than did the standard-of-care group ($64·67). INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward intervention seemed to be effective in improving influenza vaccine uptake and community engagement. Our data have implications for prosocial interventions to enhance influenza vaccine uptake in countries where influenza vaccines are available for a fee. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Child , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Odds Ratio , Vaccination
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(7)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers have disadvantages when applying for research grants. Crowdfunding may help LMIC researchers to fund their research. Crowdfunding organises large groups of people to make small contributions to support a research study. This manuscript synthesises global qualitative evidence and describes a Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) crowdfunding pilot for LMIC researchers. METHODS: Our global systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis searched six databases for qualitative data. We used a thematic synthesis approach and assessed our findings using the GRADE-CERQual approach. Building on the review findings, we organised a crowdfunding pilot to support LMIC researchers and use crowdfunding. The pilot provided an opportunity to assess the feasibility of crowdfunding for infectious diseases of poverty research in resource-constrained settings. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the qualitative evidence synthesis. We identified seven findings which we organised into three broad domains: public engagement strategies, correlates of crowdfunding success and risks and mitigation strategies. Our pilot data suggest that crowdfunding is feasible in diverse LMIC settings. Three researchers launched crowdfunding campaigns, met their goals and received substantial monetary (raising a total of US$26 546 across all three campaigns) and non-monetary contributions. Two researchers are still preparing for the campaign launch due to COVID-19-related difficulties. CONCLUSION: Public engagement provides a foundation for effective crowdfunding for health research. Our evidence synthesis and pilot data provide practical strategies for LMIC researchers to engage the public and use crowdfunding. A practical guide was created to facilitate these activities across multiple settings.


Subject(s)
Fund Raising , Fund Raising/methods , Humans , Pilot Projects , Research Support as Topic
8.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 33, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV (PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear. METHODS: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study in Wuchang district of Wuhan city. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Sinopharm, WIBP-CorV, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd) at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70. RESULTS: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days' follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs. HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 EU/mL, 95% CI 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI 64-97)]. There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count with effective antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes once infected. However, the existing evidence is inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH and patients without HIV. Method: The articles included studies published in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane between December 1, 2019, and December 1, 2021. We included the original studies published in English focusing on observational studies assessing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH. Four independent reviewers extracted data. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology-Modified (STROBE-M) checklist was used for quality assessment. For the results with heterogeneity I2 >75%, a random-effects model was employed. Otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality were compared with and without HIV. Results: We included a total of 32 studies and 71,779,737 study samples, of whom 797,564 (1.11%) were PLWH. Compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, PLWH had comparable risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted Risk Ratio=1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, I2 = 96%, study n=6, n=20,199,805) and risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms (aRR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.16, I2 = 75%, n=10, n=2,243,370). PLWH, if infected with SARS-CoV-2, were found to have an increased risk of mortality compared with people without HIV (aRR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.56, I2 = 76%, study n=16, n=71,032,659). This finding was consistent across different subgroup analyses. Conclusion: PLWH are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality once infected. The local health system should, on the one hand, strengthen COVID-19 prevention and clinical management among PLWH to avoid infection and, on the other hand, sustain the HIV care continuum for PLWH for HIV management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Innovations ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877406

ABSTRACT

Introduction Young people have played a pivotal role as part of the COVID-19 response, including developing health messages and social innovations. Social innovation in health engages multiple stakeholders in linking social change and health improvement. The study examined the feasibility of youth ideas and innovations to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic using quantitative and qualitative descriptive analyses. Methods In partnership with the WHO, academic institutions, youth organisations and civil society groups, we conducted a crowdsourcing open call among Filipino youth (15–30 years old) using a structured Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases/Social Innovation in Health Initiative process. The open call had three categories: youth voices to cocreate the post-COVID-19 world (entries were texts, images, videos and music), youth-led COVID-19 social innovations, and youth-led social innovations not related to COVID-19. Each submission was evaluated by three independent judges. Finalists were selected in each of the categories alongside four grand winners. All finalists were invited to attend a 1 day online civic hackathon. Results We received a total of 113 entries (youth voices to cocreate the post-COVID world=76;youth-led COVID-19 social innovations=17;youth-led social innovations not related to COVID-19=20). Twelve entries focused on youth mental health during the pandemic. The online hackathon provided the participants mentorship for further development of their ideas. Finalists were able to produce draft health communication campaigns and improved social innovations. Conclusion Many Filipino youth created exceptional entries in response to the open call. This suggests the feasibility of including youth voices in strategic planning processes. A global youth social innovation call is recommended.

12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 864197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877515

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the current knowledge and application of vital sign zero and the identify-isolate-inform (3I) system among healthcare workers in China in order to provide a reference for future improvement of healthcare workers' awareness of personal protection and prevention and control measures of infectious diseases. Methods: The questionnaire was used to investigate the basic information of health care workers, their knowledge and application of Vital sign zero and the 3I system. A total of 602 forms of health care workers from tertiary hospitals were randomly collected and included for analysis. Results: The survey showed that 45.30% and 57.30% of the healthcare workers from Chinese tertiary hospitals know about vital sign zero and 3I system while 51.80% and 57.30% of them applied these measures in their clinical practices. Logistics regression analysis results showed that healthcare workers aged 35 years old and below were less aware of vital sign zero than those above 50 years old (OR = 0.405, 95% CI: 0.174-0.942, P = 0.036). Compared with those in Northwest China, healthcare workers who worked in East China (OR = 0.147, 95% CI: 0.031-0.702, P = 0.016), Central China (OR = 0.085, 95% CI: 0.018-0.403, P = 0.002), Southwest China (OR = 0.083, 95% CI: 0.014-0.48, P = 0.006) and North China (OR = 0.201, 95% CI: 0.042-0.966, P = 0.045) were less aware of vital sign zero while the healthcare workers in Northeast China (OR=9.714, 95% CI: 1.091-86.521, P = 0.042), East China (OR = 18.049, 95% CI: 2.258-144.259, P = 0.006), Central China (OR = 25.560, 95% CI: 3.210-203.502, P = 0.002), South China (OR = 11.141, 95% CI: 1.395-88.947, P = 0.023), Southwest China (OR = 23.200, 95% CI: 2.524-213.286, P = 0.005) and North China (OR = 14.078, 95% CI: 1.756-112.895, P = 0.013) had a better understanding of the 3I system than those in Northwest China. Healthcare workers with more than 20 years of working experience showed less knowledge of the 3I system than those with less than 5 years of working experience (OR = 0.409, 95% CI: 0.215-0.77, P = 0.006). Conclusion: The current levels of knowledge and application of vital sign zero and the 3I system in the healthcare workers of Chinese tertiary hospitals need to be improved. The concept of vital sign zero should be incorporated into the prevention triage system of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Health Personnel , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , Vital Signs
13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003930, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low syphilis testing uptake is a major public health issue among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many low- and middle-income countries. Syphilis self-testing (SST) may complement and extend facility-based testing. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of providing SST on increasing syphilis testing uptake among MSM in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An open-label, parallel 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted between January 7, 2020 and July 17, 2020. Men who were at least 18 years of age, had condomless anal sex with men in the past year, reported not testing for syphilis in the last 6 months, and had a stable residence with mailing addresses were recruited from 124 cities in 26 Chinese provinces. Using block randomization with blocks of size 12, enrolled participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) into 3 arms: standard of care arm, standard SST arm, and lottery incentivized SST arm (1 in 10 chance to win US$15 if they had a syphilis test). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who tested for syphilis during the trial period and confirmed with photo verification and between arm comparisons were estimated with risk differences (RDs). Analyses were performed on a modified intention-to-treat basis: Participants were included in the complete case analysis if they had initiated at least 1 follow-up survey. The Syphilis/HIV Duo rapid test kit was used. A total of 451 men were enrolled. In total, 136 (90·7%, 136/150) in the standard of care arm, 142 (94·0%, 142/151) in the standard of SST arm, and 137 (91·3%, 137/150) in the lottery incentivized SST arm were included in the final analysis. The proportion of men who had at least 1 syphilis test during the trial period was 63.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.5% to 71.3%, p = 0.001) in the standard SST arm, 65.7% (95% CI: 57.7% to 73.6%, p = 0.0002) in the lottery incentivized SST arm, and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.8% to 20.7%, p < 0.001) in the standard of care arm. The estimated RD between the standard SST and standard of care arm was 48.7% (95% CI: 37.8% to 58.4%, p < 0.001). The majority (78.5%, 95% CI: 72.7% to 84.4%, p < 0.001) of syphilis self-testers reported never testing for syphilis. The cost per person tested was US$26.55 for standard SST, US$28.09 for the lottery incentivized SST, and US$66.19 for the standard of care. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study duration. Limitation was that the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions may have accentuated demand for decentralized testing. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to standard of care, providing SST significantly increased the proportion of MSM testing for syphilis in China and was cheaper (per person tested). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900022409.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male , Patient Participation/methods , Self-Testing , Syphilis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Male , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , Young Adult
15.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. METHODS: We investigated 1,709 PLWH through a telephone interview and identified 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of the four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWH. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in PLWH is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population prevalence in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19 patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Older PLWH with low CD4 + count, got HIV infected through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed with HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related morbidity rates were comparable between PLWH and the general population. Older age with low CD4 count, an extended period of HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naivety were potential driving forces of COVID-19 prevalence among PLWH. Strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH with weak immune responses are required.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 446, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open online forums like Reddit provide an opportunity to quantitatively examine COVID-19 vaccine perceptions early in the vaccine timeline. We examine COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit following vaccine scientific announcements, in the initial phases of the vaccine timeline. METHODS: We collected all posts on Reddit (reddit.com) from January 1 2020 - December 14 2020 (n=266,840) that contained both COVID-19 and vaccine-related keywords. We used topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence within topics after the release of vaccine trial data. Social network analysis was also conducted to determine the relationship between Reddit communities (subreddits) that shared COVID-19 vaccine posts, and the movement of posts between subreddits. RESULTS: There was an association between a Pfizer press release reporting 90% efficacy and increased discussion on vaccine misinformation. We observed an association between Johnson and Johnson temporarily halting its vaccine trials and reduced misinformation. We found that information skeptical of vaccination was first posted in a subreddit (r/Coronavirus) which favored accurate information and then reposted in subreddits associated with antivaccine beliefs and conspiracy theories (e.g. conspiracy, NoNewNormal). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can inform the development of interventions where individuals determine the accuracy of vaccine information, and communications campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine perceptions, early in the vaccine timeline. Such efforts can increase individual- and population-level awareness of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding vaccines and thereby improve attitudes about vaccines, especially in the early phases of vaccine roll-out. Further research is needed to understand how social media can contribute to COVID-19 vaccination services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003928, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Digital network-based methods may enhance peer distribution of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits, but interventions that can optimize this approach are needed. We aimed to assess whether monetary incentives and peer referral could improve a secondary distribution program for HIVST among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between October 21, 2019 and September 14, 2020, a 3-arm randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted online among 309 individuals (defined as index participants) who were assigned male at birth, aged 18 years or older, ever had male-to-male sex, willing to order HIVST kits online, and consented to take surveys online. We randomly assigned index participants into one of the 3 arms: (1) standard secondary distribution (control) group (n = 102); (2) secondary distribution with monetary incentives (SD-M) group (n = 103); and (3) secondary distribution with monetary incentives plus peer referral (SD-M-PR) group (n = 104). Index participants in 3 groups were encouraged to order HIVST kits online and distribute to members within their social networks. Members who received kits directly from index participants or through peer referral links from index MSM were defined as alters. Index participants in the 2 intervention groups could receive a fixed incentive ($3 USD) online for the verified test result uploaded to the digital platform by each unique alter. Index participants in the SD-M-PR group could additionally have a personalized peer referral link for alters to order kits online. Both index participants and alters needed to pay a refundable deposit ($15 USD) for ordering a kit. All index participants were assigned an online 3-month follow-up survey after ordering kits. The primary outcomes were the mean number of alters motivated by index participants in each arm and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants in each arm. These were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression to determine the group differences in the mean number of alters and the mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants. Analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. We also conducted an economic evaluation using microcosting from a health provider perspective with a 3-month time horizon. The mean number of unique tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.57 ± 0.96 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) in the control group, compared with 0.98 ± 1.38 in the SD-M group (mean difference [MD] = 0.41),and 1.78 ± 2.05 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 1.21). The mean number of newly tested alters motivated by index participants was 0.16 ± 0.39 (mean ± SD) in the control group, compared with 0.41 ± 0.73 in the SD-M group (MD = 0.25) and 0.57 ± 0.91 in the SD-M-PR group (MD = 0.41), respectively. Results indicated that index participants in intervention arms were more likely to motivate unique tested alters (control versus SD-M: incidence rate ratio [IRR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.82 to 4.89, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.29 to 4.63, p-value < 0.001) and newly tested alters (control versus SD-M: IRR = 4.22, 95% CI = 1.93 to 9.23, p-value < 0.001; control versus SD-M-PR: IRR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.92 to 6.37, p-value < 0.001) to conduct HIVST. The proportion of newly tested testers among alters was 28% in the control group, 42% in the SD-M group, and 32% in the SD-M-PR group. A total of 18 testers (3 index participants and 15 alters) tested as HIV positive, and the HIV reactive rates for alters were similar between the 3 groups. The total costs were $19,485.97 for 794 testers, including 450 index participants and 344 alter testers. Overall, the average cost per tester was $24.54, and the average cost per alter tester was $56.65. Monetary incentives alone (SD-M group) were more cost-effective than monetary incentives with peer referral (SD-M-PR group) on average in terms of alters tested and newly tested alters, despite SD-M-PR having larger effects. Compared to the control group, the cost for one more alter tester in the SD-M group was $14.90 and $16.61 in the SD-M-PR group. For newly tested alters, the cost of one more alter in the SD-M group was $24.65 and $49.07 in the SD-M-PR group. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study. Limitations include the digital network approach might neglect individuals who lack internet access. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives alone and the combined intervention of monetary incentives and peer referral can promote the secondary distribution of HIVST among MSM. Monetary incentives can also expand HIV testing by encouraging first-time testing through secondary distribution by MSM. This social network-based digital approach can be expanded to other public health research, especially in the era of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900025433.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Testing/instrumentation , Homosexuality, Male , Reimbursement, Incentive , Self-Testing , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , China , Costs and Cost Analysis , HIV Testing/economics , HIV Testing/methods , Humans , Male
18.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595569

ABSTRACT

Background: Solidarity, such as community connectedness and social cohesion, may be useful in improving HIV testing uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of solidarity on HIV testing before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and HIV testing willingness during COVID-19 among MSM in China. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and solidarity items' information from the participants. We first used factor analysis to reveal the principal component of the solidarity items and then used logistic regression to study the impact of solidarity on HIV testing, by adjusting the possible confounding factors, such as age and education. Results: Social cohesion and community connectedness were revealed by the factor analysis. MSM with high community connectedness were more willing to undergo HIV testing before the epidemic adjusted by age [odds ratio (OR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13]. The community connectedness was also related to the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic, with adjustments of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03-1.15). People who did not test for HIV before the COVID-19 epidemic were more willing to have the HIV test during the epidemic, which was correlated with the community connectedness, and the OR value was 1.14 (95%: 1.03-1.25). Conclusion: A high level of community connectedness helped to increase the HIV testing rate before COVID-19 and the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic among MSM. Strategies can strengthen the role of the community in the management and service of MSM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 92, 2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551214

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine among adult people living with HIV (PLWH). In total, 259 PLWH who received at least one dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine were enrolled, and post-vaccination adverse events (AEs) were evaluated seven days following each vaccination dose. The overall AE frequency was 22.8% after dose one, which was higher than after dose two (10.2%) (P < 0.001). No severe side event or vaccine safety concern was observed. Our finding was essential in reducing vaccine hesitancy among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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