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1.
J Intern Med ; 294(2): 178-190, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: US progress toward ending the HIV epidemic was disrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of the pandemic on HIV-related mortality and potential disparities. METHODS: Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States (US) Census Bureau, HIV-related mortality data of decedents aged ≥25 years between 2012 and 2021 were analyzed. Excess HIV-related mortality rates were estimated by determining the difference between observed and projected mortality rates during the pandemic. The trends of mortality were quantified with joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 79,725 deaths documented in adults aged 25 years and older between 2012 and 2021, a significant downward trend was noted in HIV-related mortality rates before the pandemic, followed by a surge during the pandemic. The observed mortality rates were 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.1%-25.5%) and 25.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-30.4%) higher than the projected values in 2020 and 2021, respectively. Both of these percentages were higher than that in the general population in 2020 (16.4%, 95%CI: 14.9%-17.9%) and 2021 (19.8%, 95%CI: 18.0%-21.6%), respectively. Increased HIV-related mortality was observed across all age subgroups, but those aged 25-44 years demonstrated the greatest relative increase and the lowest COVID-19-related deaths when compared to middle- and old-aged decedents. Disparities were observed across racial/ethnic subgroups and geographic regions. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic led to a reversal in the attainments made to reduce the prevalence of HIV. Individuals living with HIV were disproportionately affected during the pandemic. Thoughtful policies are needed to address the disparity in excess HIV-related mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , Racial Groups , Forecasting , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mortality
2.
J Affect Disord ; 330: 283-290, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders and suicidal ideation are associated with exposures to COVID-19 pandemic stressors, including lockdown. Limited data is available on the effect of city-wide lockdowns on population mental health. In April 2022, Shanghai entered a city-wide lockdown that sealed 24 million residents in their homes or residential compounds. The rapid initiation of the lockdown disrupted food systems, spurred economic losses, and widespread fear. The associated mental health effects of a lockdown of this magnitude are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation during this unprecedented lockdown. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained via purposive sampling across 16 districts in Shanghai. Online surveys were distributed between April 29 and June 1, 2022. All participants were physically present and residents of Shanghai during the lockdown. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between lockdown-related stressors and study outcomes, adjusting for covariates. FINDINGS: A total of 3230 Shanghai residents who personally experienced the lockdown participated the survey, with 1657 (55.5 %) men, 1563 (44.3 %) women, and 10 (0.02 %) other, and a median age of 32 (IQR 26-39), who were predominately 3242 (96.9 %) Han Chinese. The overall prevalence of depression based on PHQ-9 was 26.1 % (95 % CI, 24.8 %-27.4 %), 20.1 % (18.3 %-22.0 %) for anxiety based on GAD-7, and 3.8 % (2.9 %-4.8 %) for suicidal ideation based on ASQ. The prevalence of all outcomes was higher among younger adults, single people, lower income earners, migrants, those in poor health, and with a previous psychiatric diagnosis or suicide attempt. The odds of depression and anxiety were associated with job loss, income loss, and lockdown-related fear. Higher odds of anxiety and suicidal ideation were associated with being in close contact with a COVID-19 case. Moderate food insecurity was reported by 1731 (51.8 %), and 498 (14.6 %) reported severe food insecurity. Moderate food insecurity was associated with a >3-fold increase in the odds of screening for depression and anxiety and reporting suicidal ideation (aOR from 3.15 to 3.84); severe food insecurity was associated with >5-fold increased odds for depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation (aOR from 5.21 to 10.87), compared to being food secure. INTERPRETATION: Lockdown stressors, including food insecurity, job and income loss, and lockdown-related fears, were associated with increased odds of mental health outcomes. COVID-19 elimination strategies including lockdowns should be balanced against the effects on population wellbeing. Strategies to avoid unneeded lockdown, and policies that can strengthen food systems and protect against economic shocks are needed. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the NYU Shanghai Center for Global Health Equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Prevalence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , China/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 12(1): 5, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) inequity was recognized as a driver of some certain infectious diseases. However, few studies evaluated the association between SES and the burden of overall infections, and even fewer identified preventable mediators. This study aimed to assess the association between SES and overall infectious diseases burden, and the potential roles of factors including lifestyle, environmental pollution, chronic disease history. METHODS: We included 401,009 participants from the UK Biobank (UKB) and defined the infection status for each participant according to their diagnosis records. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to define SES for each participant. We further defined healthy lifestyle score, environment pollution score (EPS) and four types of chronic comorbidities. We used multivariate logistic regression to test the associations between the four above covariates and infectious diseases. Then, we performed the mediation and interaction analysis to explain the relationships between SES and other variables on infectious diseases. Finally, we employed seven types of sensitivity analyses, including considering the Townsend deprivation index as an area level SES variable, repeating our main analysis for some individual or composite factors and in some subgroups, as well as in an external data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, to verify the main results. RESULTS: In UKB, 60,771 (15.2%) participants were diagnosed with infectious diseases during follow-up. Lower SES [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5570] were associated with higher risk of overall infections. Lifestyle score mediated 2.9% of effects from SES, which ranged from 2.9 to 4.0% in different infection subtypes, while cardiovascular disease (CVD) mediated a proportion of 6.2% with a range from 2.1 to 6.8%. In addition, SES showed significant negative interaction with lifestyle score (OR = 0.8650) and a history of cancer (OR = 0.9096), while a significant synergy interaction was observed between SES and EPS (OR = 1.0024). In subgroup analysis, we found that males and African (AFR) with lower SES showed much higher infection risk. Results from sensitivity and validation analyses showed relative consistent with the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Low SES is shown to be an important risk factor for infectious disease, part of which may be mediated by poor lifestyle and chronic comorbidities. Efforts to enhance health education and improve the quality of living environment may help reduce burden of infectious disease, especially for people with low SES.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , Communicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Social Class , Environmental Pollution , Life Style , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 34, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on the immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccination among people living with HIV (PLWH) is limited, especially among those with low CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell) count. This prospective cohort study aimed to assess the humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH compared to HIV negative controls (HNCs) and to determine the impact of CD4 cell count on vaccine response among PLWH. METHODS: The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and the specific IgM and IgG-binding antibody responses to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at the third month after the second dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccination were measured among 138 PLWH and 35 HNCs. Multivariable logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were conducted to identify factors associated with the seroconversion rate of antibodies and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers, respectively. RESULTS: At the end of the third month after two doses of vaccination, the seroconversion rates of IgG were comparable between PLWH (44.9%; 95% CI 36.5-53.3%) and HNCs (60.0%; 95% CI 42.9-77.1%), respectively. The median titers and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 0.57 (IQR: 0.30-1.11) log10 BAU/mL and 29.0% (95% CI 21.3-36.8%), respectively, both lower than those in HNCs (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, and CD4 cell count, the titers and seroconversion rate of nAbs were comparable between PLWH and HNCs (P > 0.05). Multivariable regression analyses showed that CD4 cell count < 200/µL was independently associated with lower titers and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between the CD4 cell count and nAbs titers in PLWH (Spearman's ρ = 0.25, P = 0.0034). CONCLUSION: Our study concluded that the immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH was independently associated with CD4 cell count, PLWH with lower CD4 cell count showed a weaker humoral immune response, especially those with CD4 cell count < 200/µL. This finding suggests that expanding COVID-19 vaccination coverage among PLWH is impendency. In addition, aggressive ART should be carried out for PLWH, especially for those with low CD4 cell count, to improve the immune response to vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(12): e40771, 2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The shortage of medical resources in rural China reflects the health inequity in resource-limited settings, whereas telemedicine could provide opportunities to fill this gap. However, evidence of patient acceptance of telemedicine services from low- and middle-income countries is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the profile of patient end-user telemedicine use and identify factors influencing telemedicine service use in rural China. METHODS: Our study followed a mixed methods approach, with a quantitative cross-sectional survey followed by in-depth semistructured interviews to describe telemedicine use and its associated factors among rural residents in Guangdong Province, China. In the quantitative analysis, explanatory variables included environmental and context factors, household-level factors, individual sociodemographic factors, access to digital health care, and health needs and demand factors. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses using Firth logistic regression to examine the correlations of telemedicine uptake. A thematic approach was used, guided by the Social Cognitive Theory for the qualitative analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2101 households were recruited for the quantitative survey. With a mean age of 61.4 (SD 14.41) years, >70% (1364/2101, 72.94%) of the household respondents were male. Less than 1% (14/2101, 0.67%) of the respondents reported experience of using telemedicine. The quantitative results supported that villagers living with family members who had a fever in the past 2 weeks (adjusted odds ratio 6.96, 95% CI 2.20-21.98; P=.001) or having smartphones or computers (adjusted odds ratio 3.71, 95% CI 0.64-21.32; P=.14) had marginally higher telemedicine uptake, whereas the qualitative results endorse these findings. The results of qualitative interviews (n=27) also supplemented the potential barriers to telemedicine use from the lack of knowledge, trust, demand, low self-efficacy, and sufficient physical and social support. CONCLUSIONS: This study found extremely low use of telemedicine in rural China and identified potential factors affecting telemedicine uptake. The main barriers to telemedicine adoption among rural residents were found, including lack of knowledge, trust, demand as well as low self-efficacy, and insufficient physical and social support. Our study also suggests strategies to facilitate telemedicine engagement in low-resource settings: improving digital literacy and self-efficacy, building trust, and strengthening telemedicine infrastructure support.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Delivery of Health Care , Smartphone , China
6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 64, 2023 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV(PLWH) are deemed more vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the uninfected population. Vaccination is an effective measure for COVID-19 control, yet, little knowledge exists about the willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV in China to be vaccinated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the willingness of MSM living with HIV to receive COVID-19 vaccination in six cities of Guangdong, China, from July to September 2020. Factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: In total, we recruited 944 HIV-positive MSM with a mean age of 29.2 ± 7.7 years. Of all participants, 92.4% of them were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants who were separated, divorced, or widowed (adjusted OR: 5.29, 95%CI: 1.02-27.48), had an annual income higher than 9,000 USD (adjusted OR: 1.70, 95%CI: 1.01-2.86), had ever taken an HIV self-test (adjusted OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.07-2.95), had ever disclosed sexual orientation to a doctor/nurse (adjusted OR: 3.16, 95%CI: 1.33-7.50), had ever disclosed sexual orientation to others besides their male partners (adjusted OR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.29-3.69) were more willing to receive the vaccine. Sex with a female partner in the past six months decreased the likelihood of willingness to receive the vaccine (adjusted OR: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.95). Economic burden, worry that my health condition could not bear the risk of receiving COVID-19 vaccines, and concern that the vaccination would affect the immune status and antiretroviral therapy were the main reasons for unwillingness to receive vaccination. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that HIV-positive MSM had a high willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination. Targeted interventions such as health education should be conducted among MSM with HIV infection to enhance COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Homosexuality, Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , China/epidemiology
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
8.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093207

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34];seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001;seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.

9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938156, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080286

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has dramatically impacted people's health, especially mental health. This study aimed to compare the psychological status of pregnant women before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Participants were recruited (from September 29, 2019, to November 5, 2020) and screened by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The study participants were categorized into three groups based on two turning-points: January 23, 2020, when China initiated a locked-down strategy, and May 11, 2020, when Shanghai started to ease the COVID-19 measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with depression and anxiety in pregnant women. We used enter method for variable selection; only variables with P <0.10 were included in the final model. Results: We recruited 478 pregnant women. After the outbreak, the depression rate (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) increased by 12.3% (from 35.4 to 47.7%), and the anxiety rate (GAD-7 ≥ 5) was stable (13.3 vs. 16.2%). The multivariable logistic regression results further confirmed that the odds of depression in pregnant women increased 81% after the outbreak (aOR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.16-2.84). However, the median depression scale score was still statistically higher after the pandemic situation was stable (5.0 vs. 4.0) compared to the outbreak period. Conclusion: The depression rate increased among pregnant women after the outbreak and was not recovered after the ease of COVID-19 measures in Shanghai. Health institutes should pay attention to the long-term influence of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , China/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275127, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054355

ABSTRACT

Despite many innovative ideas generated in response to COVID-19, few studies have examined community preferences for these ideas. Our study aimed to determine university community members' preferences for three novel ideas identified through a crowdsourcing open call at the University of North Carolina (UNC) for making campus safer in the pandemic, as compared to existing (i.e. pre-COVID-19) resources. An online survey was conducted from March 30, 2021 -May 6, 2021. Survey participants included UNC students, staff, faculty, and others. The online survey was distributed using UNC's mass email listserv and research directory, departmental listservs, and student text groups. Collected data included participant demographics, COVID-19 prevention behaviors, preferences for finalist ideas vs. existing resources in three domains (graduate student supports, campus tours, and online learning), and interest in volunteering with finalist teams. In total 437 survey responses were received from 228 (52%) staff, 119 (27%) students, 78 (18%) faculty, and 12 (3%) others. Most participants were older than age 30 years (309; 71%), women (332, 78%), and white (363, 83.1%). Five participants (1%) were gender minorities, 66 (15%) identified as racial/ethnic minorities, and 46 (10%) had a disability. Most participants preferred the finalist idea for a virtual campus tour of UNC's lesser-known history compared to the existing campus tour (52.2% vs. 16.0%). For graduate student supports, 41.4% of participants indicated no preference between the finalist idea and existing supports; for online learning resources, the existing resource was preferred compared to the finalist idea (41.6% vs. 30.4%). Most participants agreed that finalists' ideas would have a positive impact on campus safety during COVID-19 (81.2%, 79.6%, and 79.2% for finalist ideas 1, 2 and 3 respectively). 61 (14.1%) participants indicated interest in volunteering with finalist teams. Together these findings contribute to the development and implementation of community-engaged crowdsourced campus safety interventions during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Crowdsourcing , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Universities , Volunteers
11.
Sex Health ; 19(4): 299-308, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050706

ABSTRACT

Although sexual health programming and clinical sexually transmitted infections (STIs) services have traditionally been developed through 'top-down' approaches, there is emerging evidence that participatory approaches benefit the development and implementation of such services. Although other studies have already highlighted the benefits of participation in research and implementation of clinical STIs services delivery, this narrative review focuses on how community participation in clinical STIs services delivery has been operationalised and on the various aspects of clinical STIs services delivery in which participatory processes have been implemented. A PubMed search was conducted in January 2022 using the search terms that reflected the topic of participatory processes in clinical STIs services delivery to identify relevant papers. Only peer-reviewed papers published in English were reviewed, and no timeframe was selected. After reviewing existing studies, we identified how community participation has been incorporated across stages of clinical STIs service delivery, including planning, developing, delivering, evaluating, and scaling up, as well as gaps and challenges faced in implementing such approaches. This review highlighted how a wide range of participatory processes characterised by varying depths of participation have been used in the above processes. Challenges such as funding, socio-cultural barriers, technical barriers and the digital divide, issues of quality assurance, and standardising the measurement of participation remain, which may impede the uptake of participatory processes in clinical STIs services.


Subject(s)
Sexual Health , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Community Participation , Health Services , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(10): 1484-1492, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has low seasonal influenza vaccination rates among priority populations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate a pay-it-forward strategy to increase influenza vaccine uptake in rural, suburban, and urban settings in China. METHODS: We performed a quasi-experimental pragmatic trial to examine the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward intervention (a free influenza vaccine and an opportunity to donate financially to support vaccination of other individuals) to increase influenza vaccine uptake compared with standard-of-care user-paid vaccination among children (aged between 6 months and 8 years) and older people (≥60 years) in China. Recruitment took place in the standard-of-care group until the expected sample size was reached and then in the pay-it-forward group in primary care clinics from a rural site (Yangshan), a suburban site (Zengcheng), and an urban site (Tianhe). Participants were introduced to the influenza vaccine by project staff using a pamphlet about influenza vaccination and were either asked to pay out-of-pocket at the standard market price (US$8·5-23·2; standard-of-care group) or to donate any amount anonymously (pay-it-forward group). Participants had to be eligible to receive an influenza vaccine and to have not received an influenza vaccine in the past year. The primary outcome was vaccine uptake. Secondary outcomes were vaccine confidence and costs (from the health-care provider perspective). Regression methods compared influenza vaccine uptake and vaccine confidence between the two groups. This trial is registered with ChiCTR, ChiCTR2000040048. FINDINGS: From Sept 21, 2020, to March 3, 2021, 300 enrolees were recruited from patients visiting three primary care clinics. 55 (37%) of 150 people in the standard-of-care group (40 [53%] of 75 children and 15 [20%] of 75 older adults) and 111 (74%) of 150 in the pay-it-forward group (66 [88%] of 75 children and 45 [60%] of 75 older adults) received an influenza vaccine. People in the pay-it-forward group were more likely to receive an influenza vaccine compared with those in the standard-of-care group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 6·7 [95% CI 2·7-16·6] among children and 5·0 [2·3-10·8] among older adults). People in the pay-it-forward group had greater confidence in vaccine safety (aOR 2·2 [95% CI 1·2-3·9]), importance (3·1 [1·6-5·9]), and effectiveness (3·1 [1·7-5·7]). In the pay-it-forward group, 107 (96%) of 111 participants donated money for subsequent vaccinations. The pay-it-forward group had a lower economic cost (calculated as the cost without subtraction of donations) per person vaccinated (US$45·60) than did the standard-of-care group ($64·67). INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward intervention seemed to be effective in improving influenza vaccine uptake and community engagement. Our data have implications for prosocial interventions to enhance influenza vaccine uptake in countries where influenza vaccines are available for a fee. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , Child , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Odds Ratio , Vaccination
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(7)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) researchers have disadvantages when applying for research grants. Crowdfunding may help LMIC researchers to fund their research. Crowdfunding organises large groups of people to make small contributions to support a research study. This manuscript synthesises global qualitative evidence and describes a Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) crowdfunding pilot for LMIC researchers. METHODS: Our global systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis searched six databases for qualitative data. We used a thematic synthesis approach and assessed our findings using the GRADE-CERQual approach. Building on the review findings, we organised a crowdfunding pilot to support LMIC researchers and use crowdfunding. The pilot provided an opportunity to assess the feasibility of crowdfunding for infectious diseases of poverty research in resource-constrained settings. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the qualitative evidence synthesis. We identified seven findings which we organised into three broad domains: public engagement strategies, correlates of crowdfunding success and risks and mitigation strategies. Our pilot data suggest that crowdfunding is feasible in diverse LMIC settings. Three researchers launched crowdfunding campaigns, met their goals and received substantial monetary (raising a total of US$26 546 across all three campaigns) and non-monetary contributions. Two researchers are still preparing for the campaign launch due to COVID-19-related difficulties. CONCLUSION: Public engagement provides a foundation for effective crowdfunding for health research. Our evidence synthesis and pilot data provide practical strategies for LMIC researchers to engage the public and use crowdfunding. A practical guide was created to facilitate these activities across multiple settings.


Subject(s)
Fund Raising , Fund Raising/methods , Humans , Pilot Projects , Research Support as Topic
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes once infected. However, the existing evidence is inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH and patients without HIV. Method: The articles included studies published in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane between December 1, 2019, and December 1, 2021. We included the original studies published in English focusing on observational studies assessing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH. Four independent reviewers extracted data. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology-Modified (STROBE-M) checklist was used for quality assessment. For the results with heterogeneity I2 >75%, a random-effects model was employed. Otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality were compared with and without HIV. Results: We included a total of 32 studies and 71,779,737 study samples, of whom 797,564 (1.11%) were PLWH. Compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, PLWH had comparable risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted Risk Ratio=1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, I2 = 96%, study n=6, n=20,199,805) and risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms (aRR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.16, I2 = 75%, n=10, n=2,243,370). PLWH, if infected with SARS-CoV-2, were found to have an increased risk of mortality compared with people without HIV (aRR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.56, I2 = 76%, study n=16, n=71,032,659). This finding was consistent across different subgroup analyses. Conclusion: PLWH are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality once infected. The local health system should, on the one hand, strengthen COVID-19 prevention and clinical management among PLWH to avoid infection and, on the other hand, sustain the HIV care continuum for PLWH for HIV management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMJ Innovations ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877406

ABSTRACT

Introduction Young people have played a pivotal role as part of the COVID-19 response, including developing health messages and social innovations. Social innovation in health engages multiple stakeholders in linking social change and health improvement. The study examined the feasibility of youth ideas and innovations to address the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic using quantitative and qualitative descriptive analyses. Methods In partnership with the WHO, academic institutions, youth organisations and civil society groups, we conducted a crowdsourcing open call among Filipino youth (15–30 years old) using a structured Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases/Social Innovation in Health Initiative process. The open call had three categories: youth voices to cocreate the post-COVID-19 world (entries were texts, images, videos and music), youth-led COVID-19 social innovations, and youth-led social innovations not related to COVID-19. Each submission was evaluated by three independent judges. Finalists were selected in each of the categories alongside four grand winners. All finalists were invited to attend a 1 day online civic hackathon. Results We received a total of 113 entries (youth voices to cocreate the post-COVID world=76;youth-led COVID-19 social innovations=17;youth-led social innovations not related to COVID-19=20). Twelve entries focused on youth mental health during the pandemic. The online hackathon provided the participants mentorship for further development of their ideas. Finalists were able to produce draft health communication campaigns and improved social innovations. Conclusion Many Filipino youth created exceptional entries in response to the open call. This suggests the feasibility of including youth voices in strategic planning processes. A global youth social innovation call is recommended.

17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 864197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877515

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the current knowledge and application of vital sign zero and the identify-isolate-inform (3I) system among healthcare workers in China in order to provide a reference for future improvement of healthcare workers' awareness of personal protection and prevention and control measures of infectious diseases. Methods: The questionnaire was used to investigate the basic information of health care workers, their knowledge and application of Vital sign zero and the 3I system. A total of 602 forms of health care workers from tertiary hospitals were randomly collected and included for analysis. Results: The survey showed that 45.30% and 57.30% of the healthcare workers from Chinese tertiary hospitals know about vital sign zero and 3I system while 51.80% and 57.30% of them applied these measures in their clinical practices. Logistics regression analysis results showed that healthcare workers aged 35 years old and below were less aware of vital sign zero than those above 50 years old (OR = 0.405, 95% CI: 0.174-0.942, P = 0.036). Compared with those in Northwest China, healthcare workers who worked in East China (OR = 0.147, 95% CI: 0.031-0.702, P = 0.016), Central China (OR = 0.085, 95% CI: 0.018-0.403, P = 0.002), Southwest China (OR = 0.083, 95% CI: 0.014-0.48, P = 0.006) and North China (OR = 0.201, 95% CI: 0.042-0.966, P = 0.045) were less aware of vital sign zero while the healthcare workers in Northeast China (OR=9.714, 95% CI: 1.091-86.521, P = 0.042), East China (OR = 18.049, 95% CI: 2.258-144.259, P = 0.006), Central China (OR = 25.560, 95% CI: 3.210-203.502, P = 0.002), South China (OR = 11.141, 95% CI: 1.395-88.947, P = 0.023), Southwest China (OR = 23.200, 95% CI: 2.524-213.286, P = 0.005) and North China (OR = 14.078, 95% CI: 1.756-112.895, P = 0.013) had a better understanding of the 3I system than those in Northwest China. Healthcare workers with more than 20 years of working experience showed less knowledge of the 3I system than those with less than 5 years of working experience (OR = 0.409, 95% CI: 0.215-0.77, P = 0.006). Conclusion: The current levels of knowledge and application of vital sign zero and the 3I system in the healthcare workers of Chinese tertiary hospitals need to be improved. The concept of vital sign zero should be incorporated into the prevention triage system of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Health Personnel , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Middle Aged , Tertiary Care Centers , Vital Signs
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003930, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low syphilis testing uptake is a major public health issue among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many low- and middle-income countries. Syphilis self-testing (SST) may complement and extend facility-based testing. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of providing SST on increasing syphilis testing uptake among MSM in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An open-label, parallel 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted between January 7, 2020 and July 17, 2020. Men who were at least 18 years of age, had condomless anal sex with men in the past year, reported not testing for syphilis in the last 6 months, and had a stable residence with mailing addresses were recruited from 124 cities in 26 Chinese provinces. Using block randomization with blocks of size 12, enrolled participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) into 3 arms: standard of care arm, standard SST arm, and lottery incentivized SST arm (1 in 10 chance to win US$15 if they had a syphilis test). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who tested for syphilis during the trial period and confirmed with photo verification and between arm comparisons were estimated with risk differences (RDs). Analyses were performed on a modified intention-to-treat basis: Participants were included in the complete case analysis if they had initiated at least 1 follow-up survey. The Syphilis/HIV Duo rapid test kit was used. A total of 451 men were enrolled. In total, 136 (90·7%, 136/150) in the standard of care arm, 142 (94·0%, 142/151) in the standard of SST arm, and 137 (91·3%, 137/150) in the lottery incentivized SST arm were included in the final analysis. The proportion of men who had at least 1 syphilis test during the trial period was 63.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.5% to 71.3%, p = 0.001) in the standard SST arm, 65.7% (95% CI: 57.7% to 73.6%, p = 0.0002) in the lottery incentivized SST arm, and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.8% to 20.7%, p < 0.001) in the standard of care arm. The estimated RD between the standard SST and standard of care arm was 48.7% (95% CI: 37.8% to 58.4%, p < 0.001). The majority (78.5%, 95% CI: 72.7% to 84.4%, p < 0.001) of syphilis self-testers reported never testing for syphilis. The cost per person tested was US$26.55 for standard SST, US$28.09 for the lottery incentivized SST, and US$66.19 for the standard of care. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study duration. Limitation was that the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions may have accentuated demand for decentralized testing. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to standard of care, providing SST significantly increased the proportion of MSM testing for syphilis in China and was cheaper (per person tested). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900022409.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male , Patient Participation/methods , Self-Testing , Syphilis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Male , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , Young Adult
20.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. METHODS: We investigated 1,709 PLWH through a telephone interview and identified 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of the four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWH. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in PLWH is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population prevalence in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19 patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Older PLWH with low CD4 + count, got HIV infected through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed with HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related morbidity rates were comparable between PLWH and the general population. Older age with low CD4 count, an extended period of HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naivety were potential driving forces of COVID-19 prevalence among PLWH. Strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH with weak immune responses are required.

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