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1.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(3):284-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1893398

ABSTRACT

Objective: To comprehensively analyze the epidemiological characteristics and emergency treatment of a case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), analyze the suspected sources of infection, and provide a basis for the development of emergency treatment measures and prevention and control strategies of SFTS.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 552-555, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655962

ABSTRACT

We identified an individual who was coinfected with two SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the Beta and Delta variants. The ratio of the relative abundance between the two variants was maintained at 1:9 (Beta:Delta) in 14 days. Furthermore, possible evidence of recombinations in the Orf1ab and Spike genes was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 775224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581110

ABSTRACT

With the continuation of the pandemic, many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have appeared around the world. Owing to a possible risk of increasing the transmissibility of the virus, severity of the infected individuals, and the ability to escape the antibody produced by the vaccines, the four SARS-CoV-2 variants of Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) have attracted the most widespread attention. At present, there is a unified conclusion that these four variants have increased the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, but the severity of the disease caused by them has not yet been determined. Studies from June 1, 2020 to October 15, 2021 were considered, and a meta-analysis was carried out to process the data. Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants are all more serious than the wild-type virus in terms of hospitalization, ICU admission, and mortality, and the Beta and Delta variants have a higher risk than the Alpha and Gamma variants. Notably, the random effects of Beta variant to the wild-type virus with respect to hospitalization rate, severe illness rate, and mortality rate are 2.16 (95% CI: 1.19-3.14), 2.23 (95% CI: 1.31-3.15), and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.26-1.74), respectively, and the random effects of Delta variant to the wild-type virus are 2.08 (95% CI: 1.77-2.39), 3.35 (95% CI: 2.5-4.2), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.45-3.21), respectively. Although, the emergence of vaccines may reduce the threat posed by SARS-CoV-2 variants, these are still very important, especially the Beta and Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Phys Fluids (1994) ; 33(9): 092106, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404902

ABSTRACT

Face masks play a critical role in reducing the transmission risk of COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases. Masks made with nanofibers have drawn increasingly more attention because of their higher filtration efficiency, better comfort, and lower pressure drop. However, the interactions and consequences of the nanofibers and microwater droplets remain unclear. In this work, the evolution of fibers made of polymers with different contact angles, diameters, and mesh sizes under water aerosol exposure is systematically visualized. The images show that capillarity is very strong compared with the elasticity of the nanofiber. The nanofibers coalesce irreversibly during the droplet capture stage as well as the subsequent liquid evaporation stage. The fiber coalescence significantly reduces the effective fiber length for capturing aerosols. The nanofiber mesh that undergoes multiple droplet capture/evaporation cycles exhibits a fiber coalescing fraction of 40%-58%. The hydrophobic and orthogonally woven fibers can reduce the capillary forces and decrease the fiber coalescing fraction. This finding is expected to assist the proper design, fabrication, and use of face masks with nanofibers. It also provides direct visual evidence on the necessity to replace face masks frequently, especially in cold environments.

6.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(181): 20210112, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371777

ABSTRACT

Before herd immunity against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is achieved by mass vaccination, science-based guidelines for non-pharmaceutical interventions are urgently needed to reopen megacities. This study integrated massive mobile phone tracking records, census data and building characteristics into a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate COVID-19 spread among 11.2 million individuals living in Shenzhen City, China. After validation by local epidemiological observations, the model was used to assess the probability of COVID-19 resurgence if sporadic cases occurred in a fully reopened city. Combined scenarios of three critical non-pharmaceutical interventions (contact tracing, mask wearing and prompt testing) were assessed at various levels of public compliance. Our results show a greater than 50% chance of disease resurgence if the city reopened without contact tracing. However, tracing household contacts, in combination with mandatory mask use and prompt testing, could suppress the probability of resurgence under 5% within four weeks. If household contact tracing could be expanded to work/class group members, the COVID resurgence could be avoided if 80% of the population wear facemasks and 40% comply with prompt testing. Our assessment, including modelling for different scenarios, helps public health practitioners tailor interventions within Shenzhen City and other world megacities under a variety of suppression timelines, risk tolerance, healthcare capacity and public compliance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Models, Theoretical , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cities , Contact Tracing , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Masks
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 691262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320592

ABSTRACT

In susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic models, with the exponentially distributed duration of exposed/infectious statuses, the mean generation interval (GI, time lag between infections of a primary case and its secondary case) equals the mean latent period (LP) plus the mean infectious period (IP). It was widely reported that the GI for COVID-19 is as short as 5 days. However, many works in top journals used longer LP or IP with the sum (i.e., GI), e.g., >7 days. This discrepancy will lead to overestimated basic reproductive number and exaggerated expectation of infection attack rate (AR) and control efficacy. We argue that it is important to use suitable epidemiological parameter values for proper estimation/prediction. Furthermore, we propose an epidemic model to assess the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 for Belgium, Israel, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). We estimated a time-varying reproductive number [R 0(t)] based on the COVID-19 deaths data and we found that Belgium has the highest AR followed by Israel and the UAE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Belgium , Humans , Israel , SARS-CoV-2 , United Arab Emirates
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 586062, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295713

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the relation between COVID-19-related stressors and mental health among Chinese college students during the pandemic outbreaks, and the possible mediator or moderator between them. Five hundred and fifty Chinese college students were invited to complete an anonymous survey, and the data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0 software. The results shows that the number of stressors has a negative direct and indirect (through risk perception of being infected with COVID-19 disease) impacts on college students' mental health. Adaptive coping is a protective factor of students' mental health, and could be regarded as a buffer that attenuates the negative effect of the COVID-19-related stressors on risk perception of being infected with COVID-19 disease (or mental health). With regard to demographic variables, females, junior and senior students, or students whose family residence was worst hit by the pandemic tend to report poorer mental health during the pandemic outbreak. These findings enrich our understanding about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on college population and have implications for university counseling services during times of acute, large-scale infective disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 663045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285356

ABSTRACT

As the pandemic continues, individuals with re-detectable positive (RP) SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA among recovered COVID-19 patients have raised public health concerns. It is imperative to investigate whether the cases with re-detectable positive (RP) SARS-CoV-2 might cause severe infection to the vulnerable population. In this work, we conducted a systematic review of recent literature to investigate reactivation and reinfection among the discharged COVID-19 patients that are found positive again. Our study, consisting more than a total of 113,715 patients, indicates that the RP-SARS-CoV-2 scenario occurs plausibly due to reactivation, reinfection, viral shedding, or testing errors. Nonetheless, we observe that previously infected individuals have significantly lower risk of being infected for the second time, indicating that reactivation or reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 likely have relatively less impact in the general population than the primary infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection , Virus Shedding
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 194, 2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological test is helpful in confirming and tracking infectious diseases in large population with the advantage of fast and convenience. Using the specific epitope peptides identified from the whole antigen as the detection antigen is sensitive and relatively economical. The development of epitope peptide-based detection kits for COVID-19 patients requires comprehensive information about epitope peptides. But the data on B cell epitope of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is still limited. More importantly, there is a lack of serological data on the peptides in the population. In this study, we aimed to identify the B cell epitope peptides of spike protein and detect the reactivity in serum samples, for further providing data support for their subsequent serological applications. RESULTS: Two B cell linear epitopes, P104 and P82, located in non-RBD region of SARS-CoV-2 S protein were identified by indirect ELISA screening of an overlapping peptide library of the S protein with COVID-19 patients' convalescent serum. And the peptides were verified by testing with 165 serum samples. P104 has not been reported previously; P82 is contained in peptide S21P2 reported before. The positive reaction rates of epitope peptides S14P5 and S21P2, the two non-RBD region epitopes identified by Poh et al., and P82 and P104 were 77.0%, 73.9%, 61.2% and 30.3%, respectively, for 165 convalescent sera, including 30 asymptomatic patients. Although P104 had the lowest positive rate for total patients (30.3%), it exhibited slight advantage for detection of asymptomatic infections (36.7%). Combination of epitopes significantly improved the positive reaction rate. Among all combination patterns, (S14P5 + S21P2 + P104) pattern exhibited the highest positive reaction rate for all patients (92.7%), as well as for asymptomatic infections (86.7%), confirming the feasibility of P104 as supplementary antigen for serological detection. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between epitopes with neutralizing antibody, but only S14P5 had a medium positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titre (rs = 0.510, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our research proved that epitopes on non-RBD region are of value in serological detection especially when combination more than one epitope, thus providing serological reaction information about the four epitopes, which has valuable references for their usage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 633523, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190344

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to examine the main and interactive relations of COVID-19-related stressors, coping, and online learning satisfaction with Chinese adolescents' adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 850 adolescents from three Chinese secondary schools participated in the survey during the pandemic outbreak, and the data were analyzed by hierarchical linear regression. The results show that COVID-19-related stressors were a vulnerability factor in predicting adjustment. Adolescents' adjustment could be attributed to both individual-level (e.g., coping) and class-level (e.g., a class-level indicator of coping) characteristics. Specifically, problem-based coping and online learning satisfaction can promote adolescents' adjustment directly or serve as a buffer against the negative impact of stressors on adjustment, while emotion-based coping is a vulnerability factor in predicting adjustment directly or as a risk factor in strengthening the relation between stressors and adjustment. Compared with male adolescents and adolescents with high socio-economic status, female and impoverished adolescents reported poorer adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings enrich our understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' adjustment and are helpful in improving adolescents' adjustment during the pandemic.

13.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(1): 92-102, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the ongoing epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), China has carried out restrictive disease containment measures across the country. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we collected demographic and epidemiological data of 376 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 among children younger than 18 years of age. Using descriptive statistics and odds ratios, we described the odds of exposure outside the family after the implementation of control measures compared to before. RESULTS: Children diagnosed on or after February 4, 2020, had a lower odds of exposure to COVID-19 outside of the family compared to those diagnosed before February 3, 2020 (OR =0.594, 95% CI: 0.391 to 0.904). In the stratified analysis, children aged 0 to 5 years had the lowest odds of exposure outside of the family (OR =0.420, 95% CI: 0.196 to 0.904) compared to the other age groups assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study on the children infected with COVID-19 as well as their exposure within family provided evidence that the implementation of containment measures was effective in reducing the odds of exposure outside of the family, especially for preschool children. Continuation of these efforts, coupled with tailored prevention and health education messaging for younger aged children, may help to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 among children until other therapeutic interventions or vaccines are available.

15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2368-2378, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910382

ABSTRACT

Managing recovered COVID-19 patients with recurrent-positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results is challenging. We performed a population-based observational study to characterize the viral RNA level and serum antibody responses in recurrent-positive patients and evaluate their viral transmission risk. Of 479 recovered COVID-19 patients, 93 (19%) recurrent-positive patients were identified, characterized by younger age, with a median discharge-to-recurrent-positive length of 8 days. After readmission, recurrent-positive patients exhibited mild (28%) or absent (72%) symptoms, with no disease progression. The viral RNA level in recurrent-positive patients ranged from 1.8 to 5.7 log10 copies/mL (median: 3.2), which was significantly lower than the corresponding values at disease onset. There are generally no significant differences in antibody levels between recurrent-positive and non-recurrent-positive patients, or in recurrent-positive patients over time (before, during, or after recurrent-positive detection). Virus isolation of nine representative specimens returned negative results. Whole genome sequencing of six specimens yielded only genomic fragments. 96 close contacts and 1,200 candidate contacts of 23 recurrent-positive patients showed no clinical symptoms; their viral RNA (1,296/1,296) and antibody (20/20) tests were negative. After full recovery (no longer/never recurrent-positive), 60% (98/162) patients had neutralizing antibody titers of ≥1:32. Our findings suggested that an intermittent, non-stable excretion of low-level viral RNA may result in recurrent-positive occurrence, rather than re-infection. Recurrent-positive patients pose a low transmission risk, a relatively relaxed management of recovered COVID-19 patients is recommended.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(8): 911-919, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, prompted heightened surveillance in Shenzhen, China. The resulting data provide a rare opportunity to measure key metrics of disease course, transmission, and the impact of control measures. METHODS: From Jan 14 to Feb 12, 2020, the Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention identified 391 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 1286 close contacts. We compared cases identified through symptomatic surveillance and contact tracing, and estimated the time from symptom onset to confirmation, isolation, and admission to hospital. We estimated metrics of disease transmission and analysed factors influencing transmission risk. FINDINGS: Cases were older than the general population (mean age 45 years) and balanced between males (n=187) and females (n=204). 356 (91%) of 391 cases had mild or moderate clinical severity at initial assessment. As of Feb 22, 2020, three cases had died and 225 had recovered (median time to recovery 21 days; 95% CI 20-22). Cases were isolated on average 4·6 days (95% CI 4·1-5·0) after developing symptoms; contact tracing reduced this by 1·9 days (95% CI 1·1-2·7). Household contacts and those travelling with a case were at higher risk of infection (odds ratio 6·27 [95% CI 1·49-26·33] for household contacts and 7·06 [1·43-34·91] for those travelling with a case) than other close contacts. The household secondary attack rate was 11·2% (95% CI 9·1-13·8), and children were as likely to be infected as adults (infection rate 7·4% in children <10 years vs population average of 6·6%). The observed reproductive number (R) was 0·4 (95% CI 0·3-0·5), with a mean serial interval of 6·3 days (95% CI 5·2-7·6). INTERPRETATION: Our data on cases as well as their infected and uninfected close contacts provide key insights into the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. This analysis shows that isolation and contact tracing reduce the time during which cases are infectious in the community, thereby reducing the R. The overall impact of isolation and contact tracing, however, is uncertain and highly dependent on the number of asymptomatic cases. Moreover, children are at a similar risk of infection to the general population, although less likely to have severe symptoms; hence they should be considered in analyses of transmission and control. FUNDING: Emergency Response Program of Harbin Institute of Technology, Emergency Response Program of Peng Cheng Laboratory, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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