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1.
International Journal of Public Health ; 67, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2215483

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the association among framed messages (egoism-, altruism-, and loss-framed information), perceived net benefits (PNB), and willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A between-subject survey experiment was designed to assess the above association. A total of 1,316 individuals were included in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to one control group (receiving non-framed information) and three experimental groups (receiving egoism-, altruism-, and loss-framed information). The participants then reported their vaccination willingness and perceived effectiveness and side effects of vaccination. PNB was determined by subtracting the perceived side effects from perceived effectiveness. Results: Compared with the control group, participants in the experimental groups exhibited stronger vaccination willingness. Higher PNB levels were associated with enhanced vaccination willingness. However, only loss-framed messages indirectly affected vaccination willingness through PNB. Conclusion: PNB can mediate the impact of message framing on vaccination willingness. However, the mediation effect of PNB was only found in the relationship between loss-framed messages and vaccination willingness. Copyright © 2023 Li, Gong, Tang and Zhou.

2.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 85-86, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012682

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic spreads rapidly and globally. To quell the pandemic propagation, rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 is urgently needed. Here, we present a nanopore coupled RT-LAMP method for SARSCoV-2 detection. After comparing all information from the nanopore experiment, we develop a method to use the event rate change of the amplicons translocation event to measure the amplification. As a result, our platform can distinguish positive from negative samples in 15 min with around 65 copies/reaction limit of detection and 100% specificity. We believe that the nanopore coupled RT-LAMP platform would provide a sensitive and specific detection for SARS-COV-2. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

3.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 833-834, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012171

ABSTRACT

The current outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 caused the COVID-19 disease to spread rapidly globally. Specific and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 is needed to prevent the disease from spread. Here, we present a solid-state CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted nanopores (SCAN) system to detect SARS-CoV-2. We introduced a new scheme using current drops and dwell times of ssDNA reporter translocation events to estimate the cleavage activity. We validated this scheme by a statistical model approximating the reporter length distribution over the cleavage reaction. We believe that the SCAN would provide a sensitive and specific detection method for SARS-COV-2. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

4.
Ieee Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978407

ABSTRACT

The upheaval brought by the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic has continued to bring fresh challenges over the past two years. During this COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a need for rapid identification of infected patients and specific delineation of infection areas in computed tomography (CT) images. Although deep supervised learning methods have been established quickly, the scarcity of both image-level and pixel-level labels as well as the lack of explainable transparency still hinder the applicability of AI. Can we identify infected patients and delineate the infections with extreme minimal supervision? Semi-supervised learning has demonstrated promising performance under limited labelled data and sufficient unlabelled data. Inspired by semi-supervised learning, we propose a model-agnostic calibrated pseudo-labelling strategy and apply it under a consistency regularization framework to generate explainable identification and delineation results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model with the combination of limited labelled data and sufficient unlabelled data or weakly-labelled data. Extensive experiments have shown that our model can efficiently utilize limited labelled data and provide explainable classification and segmentation results for decision-making in clinical routine.

5.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops, ICC Workshops 2022 ; : 361-366, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973476

ABSTRACT

Location fingerprinting based on Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) has become a mainstream indoor localization technique due to its advantage of not requiring the installation of new infrastructure and the modification of existing devices, especially given the prevalence of Wi-Fi-enabled devices and the ubiquitous Wi-Fi access in modern buildings. The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML) technologies like Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) makes location fingerprinting more accurate and reliable, especially for large-scale multi-building and multi-floor indoor localization. The application of DNNs for indoor localization, however, depends on a large amount of preprocessed and deliberately-labeled data for their training. Considering the difficulty of the data collection in an indoor environment, especially under the current epidemic situation of COVID-19, we investigate three different methods of RSSI data augmentation based on Multi-Output Gaussian Process (MOGP), i.e., by a single floor, by neighboring floors, and by a single building;unlike Single-Output Gaussian Process (SOGP), MOGP can take into account the correlation among RSSI observations from multiple Access Points (APs) deployed closely to each other (e.g., APs on the same floor of a building) by collectively handling them. The feasibility of the MOGP-based RSSI data augmentation is demonstrated through experiments using a recently-published work based on Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) indoor localization model and the UJIIndoorLoc, i.e., the most popular publicly-available multi-building and multi-floor indoor localization database;the RNN model trained with the UJIIndoorLoc database, augmented by using the whole RSSI data of a building in fitting an MOGP model (i.e., by a single building), outperforms the other two augmentation methods and reduces the mean three-dimensional positioning error from 8.62 m to 8.42 m in comparison to the RNN model trained with the original UJIIndoorLoc database. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 12(5):2206-2223, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1926204

ABSTRACT

Looking retrospectively at the development of humanity, vaccination is an unprecedented medical landmark that saves lives by harnessing the human immune system. During the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination is still the most effective defense modality. The successful clinical application of the lipid nanoparticle-based Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines highlights promising future of nanotechnology in vaccine development. Compared with conventional vaccines, nanovaccines are supposed to have advantages in lymph node accumulation, antigen assembly, and antigen presentation;they also have, unique pathogen biomimicry properties because of well-organized combination of multiple immune factors. Beyond infectious diseases, vaccine nanotechnology also exhibits considerable potential for cancer treatment. The ultimate goal of cancer vaccines is to fully mobilize the potency of the immune system as a living therapeutic to recognize tumor antigens and eliminate tumor cells, and nanotechnologies have the requisite properties to realize this goal. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in vaccine nanotechnology from infectious disease prevention to cancer immunotherapy and highlight the different types of materials, mechanisms, administration methods, as well as future perspectives. (C) 2022 Chinese Pharmaceutical Association and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

7.
Research Handbook on the Belt and Road Initiative ; : 203-214, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857795

ABSTRACT

Thailand plays an important role in BRI due to its strategic location in the China-Indo-China Peninsula Economic Corridor, as well as the strategic fit between BRI and Thailand 4.0 & EEC. COVID-19 dragged the Thai economy into deep contraction and surfaced or intensified challenges to BRI, with both negative and positive implications. The positive implications include a sense of connection, opportunities for supply chain integration and capacity cooperation, and new businesses responding to new behavior of consumers and organizations. BRI in Thailand showed reasonable resilience, demonstrated by the progress of key BRI projects, the momentum of EEC investment, the positive growth of export of Thailand to China and the leading position of Chinese FDI in Thailand. Despite of future uncertainties, the case of Thailand shows there is a bright future for globalization and BRI in the new normal of Covid-19, if countries may join their hands to meet the challenges of supply chain restoration and re-configuration, as well as share the benefits of globalization among the majority of the population. © Joseph Chinyong Liow, Hong Liu and Gong Xue 2021.

8.
Isprs International Journal of Geo-Information ; 11(4):15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820289

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global pandemic, but the prevention and control of the disease in various countries have also entered the normalization stage. To achieve economic recovery and avoid a waste of resources, different regions have developed prevention and control strategies according to their social, economic, and medical conditions and culture. COVID-19 disparities under the interaction of various factors, including interventions, need to be analyzed in advance for effective and precise prevention and control. Considering the United States as the study case, we investigated statistical and spatial disparities based on the impact of the county-level social vulnerability index (SVI) on the COVID-19 infection rate. The county-level COVID-19 infection rate showed very significant heterogeneity between states, where 67% of county-level disparities in COVID-19 infection rates come from differences between states. A hierarchical linear model (HLM) was adopted to examine the moderating effects of state-level social distancing policies on the influence of the county-level SVI on COVID-19 infection rates, considering the variation in data at a unified level and the interaction of various data at different levels. Although previous studies have shown that various social distancing policies inhibit COVID-19 transmission to varying degrees, this study explored the reasons for the disparities in COVID-19 transmission under various policies. For example, we revealed that the state-level restrictions on the internal movement policy significantly attenuate the positive effect of county-level economic vulnerability indicators on COVID-19 infection rates, indirectly inhibiting COVID-19 transmission. We also found that not all regions are suitable for the strictest social distancing policies. We considered the moderating effect of multilevel covariates on the results, allowing us to identify the causes of significant group differences across regions and to tailor measures of varying intensity more easily. This study is also necessary to accomplish targeted preventative measures and to allocate resources.

9.
Education Sciences ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731976

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused increasing concern over health care, part of which involves the role of nutrition. In this study, a nutrition educational board game, featuring quantitative computation, was designed to help students acquire nutrition knowledge and improve dietary behaviors. A group of 22 students in grade 7 of a middle school in Beijing were selected as the participants. A single-group pre-and post-test quasi-experimental design was adopted. Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) questionnaires and interviews were used to investigate students’ changes in dietary knowledge, attitude, and behavior. The influence of gender and body mass index (BMI) on the teaching effectiveness was also explored. The results showed that some dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and behavior significantly increased in the students. Their changes in behavior were mainly related to some aspects that were easier to adjust. In addition, the study also found that females and students with abnormal BMI were more likely to be influenced by the educational game to make positive changes in attitude and behavior. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

10.
Hong Kong Law Journal ; 51:1013-1040, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1695269

ABSTRACT

This article explores sovereign immunities in relation to the most recent litigation against China for damages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These proceedings will inevitably encounter the initial obstacle of state immunity, which is difficult to overcome. It is a recognized principle in international law that a sovereign and its assets are immune from jurisdiction and execution of other sovereigns. This principle is recognized in US domestic law in the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act 1976 (FSIA) . Although the US has adopted the principle of restrictive immunity and allows lawsuits brought against a foreign sovereign in exceptional circumstances, these exceptions are interpreted restrictively. Neither the commercial activity nor the territorial tort exception applies to these proceedings. Even if the US courts assert jurisdiction under the FSIA, enforcement of judgments would be difficult. Although the US Congress has the power to revise the FSIA by inserting a unique COVID-19 exception against China, it may be cautious about taking this radical step. Firstly, this exception may violate customary international law. Secondly, it may trigger a series of serious political and diplomatic consequences and may bring about countermeasures. The legal barriers and diplomatic consequences suggest that attempting to initiate domestic actions against China is neither wise nor pragmatic. The only appropriate means to settle such disputes or seek remedy for damages caused by COVID-19 is through international law mechanisms, including diplomatic means or international adjudication based on consent.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-221, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1598570

ABSTRACT

Introduction Traditional methods of addressing gastroenterology referrals involve giving the referred patient an in office clinic appointment and waiting until the appointment to make consultant recommendations. In September 2019 (prior to the COVID-19 pandemic), our institution started an e-consult system for gastroenterology referrals where every referral was reviewed by a gastroenterologist and decision was made to direct the patient to telemedicine visit or in office visit. We aim to compare the outcomes of this e-consult system with traditional referral response methods. Methods Retrospective cohort study comparing econsults with traditional methods. We randomly selected 350 referrals from September 2019 through January 2020 to form the e-consult cohort and 350 referrals from January 2018 through May 2019 to form the traditional methods cohort. Outcomes of primary interest were observed for one month after referral. Primary outcome was number of patients with emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for primary gastroenterology complaints within 30 days of referral. Secondary outcomes included mean time to first consultant recommendations, endoscopies, and in-person appointments. First consultant recommendations are defined as the first instance of recommendations (such as labs, imaging, endoscopy, or verbal instruction to the patient or referring physician) by a gastroenterology provider pertaining to the referring question after initial referral. Results E-consults were associated with significantly fewer ED visits (4% vs 7.7%, P=0.036) and fewer hospitalizations (1.4% vs 4.3%, p=0.023) within 30 days of referral. E-consults resulted in significantly higher proportion referrals receiving consultant recommendations within 30 days (87% vs 39%, P<0.01). Recommendations were also made in significantly less time with e-consults (4.3 vs 42 days, P<0.01). E-consults were also associated with a greater proportion for endoscopy performed within 30 days (17% vs 4%, P<0.01). Endoscopies were able to be performed in significantly less time after referral with e-consults (61 vs 96 days, P<0.01). Conclusions Gastroenterology referrals seen with e-consults were associated with significantly fewer ED visits and hospitalizations within 30 days of referral when compared to traditional methods. E-consults were also associated with dramatically shorter wait time for consultant recommendations and endoscopies as well as decreased need for in-person clinic appointments. (Table Presented) (Table Presented)

12.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 52(24):7718-7727, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1579910

ABSTRACT

Animals have many uses as a kind of natural resource. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, a series of legislations related to animal are published to protect animal resource, regulate animal breeding, and prevent public health risks caused by animal epidemics. In particular, since the outbreak of COVID-19, the strictest utilization regime of wild animals in history has been established and the revision of several legislations has been initiated, which will also make the utilization of animal traditional Chinese medicine (animal TCM) face stricter scrutiny. In this paper, the influence of existing legislations related to animal on the utilization of animal TCM was discussed, and some suggestions were put forward for the development of animal TCM.

13.
Journal of Management in Engineering ; 38(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437717

ABSTRACT

Epidemics and other public health emergencies significantly impact medical and health service systems. The exploitation of some advanced technologies in Fangcang shelter hospitals - emergency medical service solutions adopted in China during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic - was found to successfully relieve the treatment pressures. However, the implementation of the intelligent Fangcang shelter hospital system remains in the exploratory stage. Herein, this paper aims to obtain experience in the development and utilization of an intelligent system in a Fangcang shelter hospital. To achieve this, a single case study method was adopted to analyze a real case in the Optics Valley Fangcang Shelter Hospital. There were two data collection methods in the case study: (1) interviews;and (2) investigation, including some documents, models, sensors, and the platform. The main contribution of this paper is that it provides qualitative insights on how to implement an intelligent Fangcang shelter hospital system, including the development process and challenges and identifying lessons learned through the utilization of intelligent Fangcang shelter hospital systems. This paper can give a solid reference for the operation of COVID-19 field hospitals and provide clear theoretical guidance for the implementation and development of intelligent Fangcang shelter hospitals. This will help better respond to COVID-19 and similar major public health emergencies in the future. © 2021 American Society of Civil Engineers.

14.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 42(2):190-196 and 218, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1190619

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of Zhikepipa Mixture on the treatment of COVID-19 through network pharmacology analysis and molecular docking technology. Methods: First, we performed the network pharmacology method to screen active compounds and targets so as to explore the mixture's potential mechanisms in the treatment of COVID-19. In line with ADME screening index, like oral bioavailability (OB) ≥30% or drug likeness index (DL) ≥0.18, the active compounds against COVID-19 related targets were selected to construct the 'herb-compound-target' network. Mechanism prediction of Zhikepipa mixture in the treatment of COVID-19 was analyzed by the interaction of the target sites, the bioinformatic annotation, and the metabolic pathway. Then, we used a molecular docking model to evaluate the binding ability between active compounds and 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro) receptor-binding domain (PBD ID 6LU7), which was involved in mediating viral replication and transcription functions. Results: The'herb-compound-target' network showed 34 key compounds and 30 disease targets after overlapping with disease targets. The network topology analysis showed that those selected compounds with higher degree would produce marked anti-inflammatory effects by regulating 30 targets like PTGS1, IL1B, IL6, IL10, CXCL8 and JUN. AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, TNF signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and MAPK signaling pathway were involved in regulating hepatitis B and diabetic complications. In addition, Folium eriobotryae and Radix stemonae played important roles in the network. The molecular docking results showed that nine compounds were identified with higher docking score rank against 2019-nCoV 3CLpro protease, and most of them were attributed to flavonoids. Conclusion: Zhikepipa Mixture could exhibit both anti-inflammatory and anti-virus actions through multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway. © 2021, Editorial Board of Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences). All right reserved.

15.
Regional Studies, Regional Science ; 8(1):51-53, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1078787

ABSTRACT

In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, the Chinese government imposed stringent lockdown measures to minimize the spread of the disease. This paper shows that under these measures, the PM2.5 concentrations were lower in February 2020 than in February 2019. However, after the measures were removed, the PM2.5 concentration returned to the same level as in the previous year, thus implicating that the reduction was temporary. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

16.
IEEE Int. Smart Cities Conf., ISC2 ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-969599

ABSTRACT

Two adaptive group testing models are studied based on zero-error criterion in this paper. Firstly, for the single-stage group testing model, the analytical expression of optimal number of grouping members without integer constraints is given. Secondly, the optimal number of grouping members with integer constraints are given by numerical calculation. Finally, a grouping coefficient-based multistage model and the principles for selecting optimal grouping coefficient are proposed. The results of this paper can help medical institutions to improve group testing efficiency of infection detection of COVID-19. © 2020 IEEE.

17.
Chinese General Practice ; 23(9):1071-1077, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-832018

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 has aroused wide public concern. Both 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV belong to the coronaviridae family, and invade target cells through ACE2.So an in-depth understanding of ACE2 and a series of pathophysiological changes caused by the virus invading the human body may help to discover and explain the corresponding clinical manifestations and then deal with them timely. In addition, ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target, according to this, we can find the corresponding treatment strategy. This article explains the role of ACE2 in multiple organ damage caused by 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV, and blockers targeting ACE2, and inflammation inhibitors, with a view to providing a basis for subsequent related research, diagnosis and treatment, and drug development. Copyright © 2020 by the Chinese General Practice.

18.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 51(7):1694-1703, 2020.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-827887

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify potential SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors from the traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) by molecular docking approach. Method(s): To alternate extensive compounds experimental screening processes, a Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) based molecular docking technology was performed to explore existing drug repurposing possibilities. Molecular docking model with Schrodinger suit 2018 was used to evaluate the binding abilities between TCMSP 13 143 compounds and SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease receptor-binding domain (PBD ID 6LU7), which involving in mediating viral replication and transcription functions. According to the constructed docking system, potential compounds were screened according to docking score, oral bioavailability (OB), and drug-likeness (DL). At last, a compounds-herb-target organ-function network was constructed. Result(s): Compared with 6LU7 original ligand docking score (-7.734), a total of 498 compounds were identified with lower docking score against 6LU7 targets. These compounds were further reduced to 60 high-priority compounds, based on OB (more than 30) and DL (more than 0.18). Meanwhile, these 60 compounds were found to interact with the amino acid residues (GLU166, GLY143, ASP187, CYS145, GLN189, LEU141, etc.) which were critically involved in the 6LU7 domain mainly by hydrogen-bonded interaction. The network exploring results revealed that these potential compounds were mainly attributed to Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Mori Cortex, Rhododendron dauricum, Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix, and Plantaginis Herba, etc., which associates with acute lung syndromes induced by SARS-CoV-2, with the effect of clearing heat and removing toxin, relieving cough and dispelling phlegm and lung-draining and relieving asthma. Conclusion(s): Molecular docking method provides a useful tool for the screening of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors from TCMSP platform. Copyright © 2020, Editorial Office of Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs. All right reserved.

19.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633x20957224, 2020.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-781309

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has forced providers to dramatically scale down in-person clinic visits to enforce social distancing and triage care to the neediest patients. We describe our five-month experience with a hybrid gastroenterology electronic consultation programme starting in 2019 in which we perform electronic consultations for every referral regardless of indication as well as directly initiate telephone-based telehealth visits with patients without the need for in-person clinic. Over five consecutive months, 1243 hybrid electronic consultations were performed with 356 (29%) resulting in a clinic appointment. The remaining 887 (71%) electronic consultations were resolved without need for a clinic visit. Five hundred and fourteen (41%) electronic consultations resulted in a directly scheduled procedure without clinic appointment. Eighty-five per cent of electronic consultations were performed on the same day of referral and 98% of electronic consultations were completed in under 20 min. A hybrid electronic consultation model which pre-emptively reviews all outpatient referrals streamlines access to specialty care. Such a model may be implemented rapidly during the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic as well as serve as a platform for long-term improvement in efficiency of care.

20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 629-633, 2020 May 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5610

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of a family clustering of COVID-19. Methods: Field epidemiological survey was conducted. Results: Case 1 of the long-term residents from Hubei province was the source of infection of this family clustering. There were 6 cases (from case 2 to case 7) infected in the whole incubation period. The incubation period was more than 14 days for 3 of the second-generation cases. Routes of transmission included respiratory droplets (from case 1 transmitted to case 6, from case 1 to her family members) and close contact (from case 1 to other cases in her family). All the age groups were generally susceptible, while elderly were easier to progress to critically ill. Besides respiratory symptoms, there were also gastrointestinal symptoms, of which diarrhea was the most common one. Conclusions: Family clustering had been an important part for COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Family , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Pandemics
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