Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Addiction ; 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recreational cannabis was legalized in Canada in October 2018. Initially, the Government of Ontario (Canada's largest province) placed strict limits on the number of cannabis retail stores before later removing these limits. This study measured changes in cannabis-attributable emergency department (ED) visits over time, corresponding to different regulatory periods. DESIGN: Interrupted time-series design using population-level data. Two policy periods were considered; recreational cannabis legalization with strict store restrictions (RCL, 17 months) and legalization with no store restrictions [recreational cannabis commercialization (RCC), 15 months] which coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic. Segmented Poisson regression models were used to examine immediate and gradual effects in each policy period. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 15-105 years (n = 13.8 million) between January 2016 and May 2021. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly counts of cannabis-attributable ED visits per capita and per all-cause ED visits in individuals aged 15+ (adults) and 15-24 (young adults) years. FINDINGS: We observed a significant trend of increasing cannabis-attributable ED visits pre-legalization. RCL was associated with a significant immediate increase of 12% [incident rate ratio (IRR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.23] in rates of cannabis-attributable ED visits followed by significant attenuation of the pre-legalization slope (monthly slope change IRR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-0.99). RCC and COVID-19 were associated with immediate significant increases of 22% (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.37) and 17% (IRR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.37) in rates of cannabis-attributable visits and the proportion of all-cause ED visits attributable to cannabis, respectively, with insignificant increases in monthly slopes. Similar patterns were observed in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: In Ontario, Canada, cannabis-attributable emergency department visits stopped increasing over time following recreational cannabis legalization with strict retail controls but then increased during a period coinciding with cannabis commercialization and the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317662

ABSTRACT

Background: Changes in the use of alcohol and other substances during COVID-19 is of considerable public health interest. This study examined changes in per capita alcohol, cannabis and other essential retail sales across Canada during the early phase of COVID-19, and associations between these changes and different jurisdictional approaches to drug control.Methods: A time series analysis was used to examine trends in monthly per capita alcohol, cannabis, and essential and non-essential retail sales before and during the first three months of COVID-19 for 12 jurisdictions across Canada. We compared observed sales during the first three months of COVID-19 to predicted sales based on model outputs using pre-COVID-19 trends. Next, we used difference in difference models to estimate the associations between different models of alcohol and cannabis retail systems and changes in retail sales during COVID-19.Findings: In Canada, observed per capita sales were significantly greater than predicted for alcohol (+9.6%) and cannabis (+14.1%) during March 2020, and consistent with predicted sales in April and May 2020. Essential retail sales were significantly less than predicted during March to May 2020 (average of -7.4%). During COVID-19, per capita alcohol sales in jurisdictions with a private retail system increased significantly (+$8.5 on average, 95%CIs;2.1,15.6) after accounting for changes over time. In contrast, the relative change in per capita alcohol sales in jurisdictions with a public retail model prior to and during COVID-19 was, on average, $13.3 lower (95% CIs;-22.6,-4.0) compared to the changes in jurisdictions with a private retail model. Similar trends were observed for cannabis sales with respect to retail model.Interpretation: There was a modest increase in alcohol and cannabis purchasing during the first three months of COVID-19. Changes in sales were influenced by pre-existing policies, and jurisdictions with a private retail model had greater than expected alcohol and cannabis sales compared to jurisdictions with a public model. This study adds to the body of research showing that government-run retail models for alcohol and cannabis provide protection for public health.Funding Statement: There is no funding to disclose for this project. Declaration of Interests: The authors have all completed ICMJE conflict of interest forms. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: This project was approved by the Public Health Ontario Ethics Review Board file number 2020-038.01.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143160, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640613

ABSTRACT

Importance: Physicians self-report high levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression, and surveys suggest these symptoms have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is not known whether pandemic-related stressors have led to increases in health care visits related to mental health or substance use among physicians. Objective: To evaluate the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in outpatient health care visits by physicians related to mental health and substance use and explore differences across physician subgroups of interest. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using health administrative data collected from the universal health system (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) of Ontario, Canada, from March 1, 2017, to March 10, 2021. Participants included 34 055 physicians, residents, and fellows who registered with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario between 1990 and 2018 and were eligible for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan during the study period. Autoregressive integrated moving average models and generalized estimating equations were used in analyses. Exposures: The period during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 11, 2020, to March 10, 2021) compared with the period before the pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-person, telemedicine, and virtual care outpatient visits to a psychiatrist or family medicine and general practice clinicians related to mental health and substance use. Results: In the 34 055 practicing physicians (mean [SD] age, 41.7 [10.0] years, 17 918 [52.6%] male), the annual crude number of visits per 1000 physicians increased by 27%, from 816.8 before the COVID-19 pandemic to 1037.5 during the pandemic (adjusted incident rate ratio per physician, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19). The absolute proportion of physicians with 1 or more mental health and substance use visits within a year increased from 12.3% before to 13.4% during the pandemic (adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). The relative increase was significantly greater in physicians without a prior mental health and substance use history (adjusted incident rate ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.60-1.85) than in physicians with a prior mental health and substance use history. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a substantial increase in mental health and substance use visits among physicians. Physician mental health may have worsened during the pandemic, highlighting a potential greater requirement for access to mental health services and system level change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Physicians/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Depression , Family Practice , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Ontario , Psychiatry , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2162, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple survey reports suggest that alcohol use has increased in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, less is known about how per capita alcohol sales, which predict population-level alcohol use, have changed and whether changes in alcohol sales differ from changes in sales of other products due to pandemic factors. METHODS: We obtained monthly retail sales data by industry from Statistics Canada, for the six largest provinces in Canada (containing 93% of the national population), between January 2010 and November 2020, representing time before and 9 months after the start of the pandemic in Canada. We used an interrupted time series analysis to estimate pandemic impacts on the dollar value of monthly per capita (per individuals 15+ years) alcohol, essential and non-essential retail sales. We adjusted our analyses for pre-pandemic sales trends, inflation, seasonality and changing population demographics over time. RESULTS: During the first 9 months of the pandemic, the values of per capita alcohol, essential and non-essential sales were, respectively, 13.2% higher, 3.6% higher and 13.1% lower than the average values during the same period in the prior 3 years. Interrupted time series models showed significant level change for the value of monthly per capita alcohol sales (+$4.86, 95% CIs: 2.88, 6.83), essential sales (-$59.80, 95% CIs: - 78.47, - 41.03) and non-essential sales (-$308.70, 95% CIs: - $326.60, - 290.79) during the pandemic. Alcohol sales were consistently elevated during the pandemic, and the pre- and post-pandemic slopes were comparable. In contrast, essential and non-essential retail sales declined in the early months of the pandemic before returning to regular spending levels. CONCLUSION: During the first 9 months of the pandemic, per capita alcohol sales were moderately elevated in Canada. In contrast, non-essential sales were lower than prior years, driven by large decreases during the initial months of the pandemic. These findings suggest that the pandemic was associated with increased population-level alcohol consumption, which may lead to increased alcohol-related harms. Ongoing research is needed to examine how factors, including pandemic-related stressors and specific alcohol sales-related policies, may have influenced changes in alcohol use and harms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholic Beverages , Canada/epidemiology , Commerce , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Campbell Systematic Reviews ; 17(3):1-245, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1351205

ABSTRACT

Background: By 2030, the global population of people older than 60 years is expected to be higher than the number of children under 10 years, resulting in major health and social care system implications worldwide. Without a supportive environment, whether social or built, diminished functional ability may arise in older people. Functional ability comprises an individual's intrinsic capacity and people's interaction with their environment enabling them to be and do what they value. Objectives: This evidence and gap map aims to identify primary studies and systematic reviews of health and social support services as well as assistive devices designed to support functional ability among older adults living at home or in other places of residence. Search Methods: We systematically searched from inception to August 2018 in: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AgeLine, Campbell Library, ASSIA, Social Science Citation Index and Social Policy & Practice. We conducted a focused search for grey literature and protocols of studies (e.g., ProQuest Theses and Dissertation Global, conference abstract databases, Help Age, PROSPERO, Cochrane and Campbell libraries and ClinicalTrials.gov). Selection Criteria: Screening and data extraction were performed independently in duplicate according to our intervention and outcome framework. We included completed and on-going systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials of effectiveness on health and social support services provided at home, assistive products and technology for personal indoor and outdoor mobility and transportation as well as design, construction and building products and technology of buildings for private use such as wheelchairs, and ramps. Data Collection and Analysis: We coded interventions and outcomes, and the number of studies that assessed health inequities across equity factors. We mapped outcomes based on the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) adapted categories: intrinsic capacities (body function and structures) and functional abilities (activities). We assessed methodological quality of systematic reviews using the AMSTAR II checklist. Main Results: After de-duplication, 10,783 records were screened. The map includes 548 studies (120 systematic reviews and 428 randomized controlled trials). Interventions and outcomes were classified using domains from the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Most systematic reviews (n = 71, 59%) were rated low or critically low for methodological quality. The most common interventions were home-based rehabilitation for older adults (n = 276) and home-based health services for disease prevention (n = 233), mostly delivered by visiting healthcare professionals (n = 474). There was a relative paucity of studies on personal mobility, building adaptations, family support, personal support and befriending or friendly visits. The most measured intrinsic capacity domains were mental function (n = 269) and neuromusculoskeletal function (n = 164). The most measured outcomes for functional ability were basic needs (n = 277) and mobility (n = 160). There were few studies which evaluated outcome domains of social participation, financial security, ability to maintain relationships and communication. There was a lack of studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and a gap in the assessment of health equity issues. Authors' Conclusions: There is substantial evidence for interventions to promote functional ability in older adults at home including mostly home-based rehabilitation for older adults and home-based health services for disease prevention. Remotely delivered home-based services are of greater importance to policy-makers and practitioners in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This map of studies published prior to the pandemic provides an initial resource to identify relevant homebased services which may be of interest for policy-makers and practitioners, such as home-based rehabilitation and social support, although these interventions would likely require further adaptation for online delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need to strengthen assessment of social support and mobility interventions and outcomes related to making decisions, building relationships, financial security, and communication in future studies. More studies are needed to assess LMIC contexts and health equity issues.

7.
Vaccine ; 39(37): 5265-5270, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) residents are prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination. We report monthly mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visit incidence rates (IRs) during 2010-2020 to provide context for COVID-19 vaccine safety assessments. METHODS: We observed outcomes among all NH residents in Ontario using administrative databases. IRs were calculated by month, sex, and age group. Comparisons between months were assessed using one-sample t-tests; comparisons by age and sex were assessed using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2019, there were 83,453 (SD: 652.4) NH residents per month, with an average of 2.3 (SD: 0.28) deaths, 3.1 (SD: 0.16) hospitalizations, and 3.6 (SD: 0.17) ED visits per 100 residents per month. From March to December 2020, mortality IRs were increased, but hospitalization and ED visit IRs were reduced (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We identified consistent monthly mortality, hospitalization, and ED visit IRs during 2010-2019. Marked differences in these rates were observed during 2020, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Nursing Homes , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 226: 108877, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293716

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little detailed sociodemographic information is available about how alcohol use and associated health care visits have changed during COVID-19. Therefore, we assessed how rates of emergency department (ED) visits due to alcohol have changed during COVID-19 by age and sex and for individuals living in urban and rural settings and low and high-income neighborhoods. METHODS: Our cohort included 13,660,516 unique Ontario residents between the ages of 10-105. We compared rates and characteristics of ED visits due to alcohol, identified using ICD-10 codes, from March 11-August 31 2020 to the same period in the prior 3 years. We used negative binomial regressions to examine to examine changes is visits during COVID-19 after accounting for temporal and seasonal trends. RESULTS: During COVID-19, the average monthly rate of ED visits due to alcohol decreased by 17.2 % (95 % CI -22.7, -11.3) from 50.5-40.9 visits per 100,000 individuals. In contrast, the proportion of all-cause ED visits due to alcohol increased by 11.4 % (95 % CI 7.7, 15.3) from 15.0 visits to 16.3 visits per 1000 all cause ED visits. Changes in ED visits due to alcohol were similar for men in women. Decreases in visits were larger for younger adults compared to older adults and pre-COVID-19 disparities in rates of ED visits due to alcohol between urban and rural settings and low and high-income neighborhoods widened. ED visits related to harms from acute intoxication showed the largest declines during COVID-19, particularly in younger adults and urban and high-income neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: ED visits due to alcohol decreased during the first six months of COVID-19, but to a lesser extent than decreases in all-cause ED visits. Our data suggest a widening of geographic and income-based disparities in alcohol harms in Ontario during COVID-19 which may require immediate and long-term interventions to mitigate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alcohol Drinking , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , International Classification of Diseases , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL