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1.
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2120-2126, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288499

ABSTRACT

Parental vaccine hesitancy is a key factor influencing children's vaccination against infectious diseases such as the COVID-19. The current study aims to investigate how parent's health literacy and health belief affect parental hesitancy toward the COVID-19 vaccination, and navigate effective measures to help parents make vaccination decision for children. A mixed-mode web survey was conducted among parents of children aged 3-11 years. Parental vaccine hesitancy, health literacy, and health beliefs were assessed. Parallel mediation model examined whether the association between parent's health literacy and vaccine hesitancy was mediated by health beliefs. In total, 11.3% of the 346 participants reported vaccine hesitancy. Hesitant parents were more likely to be he mother (Father: 4.5%; Mother: 12.9%) and with children having allergic issues (Allergic: 18.3%; Non-allergic: 9.8%). Meanwhile, parents with lower health literacy were more likely to show hesitancy towards vaccinating their children (ß = -6.87, 95% CI = [-10.50, -3.11]). This relationship was partially mediated by more perceived barriers in vaccination (ß = -2.53, 95%CI = [-4.09, -1.02]), but not other health beliefs. In other words, parents with better health literacy may perceive fewer barriers in making vaccination decision for their children, thus being less hesitant. Accordingly, healthcare professionals and policy makers could design education service to promote parents' health literacy, and remove the perceived barriers as well as increase their confidence in following the COVID-19 vaccine guidance for children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Child , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Hesitancy , Vaccination , Parents , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 25(1): 21, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259089

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic that has affected nearly 600 million people to date across the world. While COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory illness, cardiac injury is also known to occur. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is uniquely capable of characterizing myocardial tissue properties in-vivo, enabling insights into the pattern and degree of cardiac injury. The reported prevalence of myocardial involvement identified by CMR in the context of COVID-19 infection among previously hospitalized patients ranges from 26 to 60%. Variations in the reported prevalence of myocardial involvement may result from differing patient populations (e.g. differences in severity of illness) and the varying intervals between acute infection and CMR evaluation. Standardized methodologies in image acquisition, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of CMR abnormalities across would likely improve concordance between studies. This consensus document by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) provides recommendations on CMR imaging and reporting metrics towards the goal of improved standardization and uniform data acquisition and analytic approaches when performing CMR in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/etiology
3.
Radiology ; 296(2): E32-E40, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2449

ABSTRACT

Background Chest CT is used in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is an important complement to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic value and consistency of chest CT as compared with RT-PCR assay in COVID-19. Materials and Methods This study included 1014 patients in Wuhan, China, who underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR tests between January 6 and February 6, 2020. With use of RT-PCR as the reference standard, the performance of chest CT in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was assessed. In addition, for patients with multiple RT-PCR assays, the dynamic conversion of RT-PCR results (negative to positive, positive to negative) was analyzed as compared with serial chest CT scans for those with a time interval between RT-PCR tests of 4 days or more. Results Of the 1014 patients, 601 of 1014 (59%) had positive RT-PCR results and 888 of 1014 (88%) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT in suggesting COVID-19 was 97% (95% confidence interval: 95%, 98%; 580 of 601 patients) based on positive RT-PCR results. In the 413 patients with negative RT-PCR results, 308 of 413 (75%) had positive chest CT findings. Of those 308 patients, 48% (103 of 308) were considered as highly likely cases and 33% (103 of 308) as probable cases. At analysis of serial RT-PCR assays and CT scans, the mean interval between the initial negative to positive RT-PCR results was 5.1 days ± 1.5; the mean interval between initial positive to subsequent negative RT-PCR results was 6.9 days ± 2.3. Of the 1014 patients, 60% (34 of 57) to 93% (14 of 15) had initial positive CT scans consistent with COVID-19 before (or parallel to) the initial positive RT-PCR results. Twenty-four of 57 patients (42%) showed improvement on follow-up chest CT scans before the RT-PCR results turned negative. Conclusion Chest CT has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chest CT may be considered as a primary tool for the current COVID-19 detection in epidemic areas. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 731, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study investigated the relationship between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) knowledge and positive aspects of caregiving (PAC), in addition, how caregiving attitude and self-efficacy mediate or moderate this relationship. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine formal caregivers (51males and 178females) who has worked in nursing homes for more than a month were recruited.With a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey, structural questionnaires were implemented to evaluate formal caregiver's BPSD knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and PAC.A 13-item self-developed questionnaire was used to assess caregiver's BPSD knowledge about disease characteristics, care and risks, and treatment needs. Dementia attitude, self-efficacy and positive aspects of caregiving were measured by dementia attitude scale, the General self-efficacy scale, and Chinese version of positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Model 5 in the PROCESS micro was employed in order to verify the mediating effect of attitude and the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between BPSD knowledge and PAC. RESULTS: The results showed that greater BPSD knowledge was associated with increased PAC, and this relationship was fully mediated by increased friendly attitude toward people with dementia. Moreover, direct effect was moderated by self-efficacy, and that only among those with high self-efficacy, the direct effect of BPSD knowledge was found on promoting PAC. CONCLUSIONS: By elucidating the knowledge-attitude-practice pathway in handling patient's BPSD, the current study extends existing literature and provides insights for developing psychoeducation programs among formal caregivers.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Caregivers/psychology , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Self Efficacy
5.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(4): 685-699, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466593

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with myocardial injury caused by ischemia, inflammation, or myocarditis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the noninvasive reference standard for cardiac function, structure, and tissue composition. CMR is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in patients with COVID-19 presenting with myocardial injury and evidence of cardiac dysfunction. Although COVID-19-related myocarditis is likely infrequent, COVID-19-related cardiovascular histopathology findings have been reported in up to 48% of patients, raising the concern for long-term myocardial injury. Studies to date report CMR abnormalities in 26% to 60% of hospitalized patients who have recovered from COVID-19, including functional impairment, myocardial tissue abnormalities, late gadolinium enhancement, or pericardial abnormalities. In athletes post-COVID-19, CMR has detected myocarditis-like abnormalities. In children, multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur 2 to 6 weeks after infection; associated myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysms are evaluable by CMR. At this time, our understanding of COVID-19-related cardiovascular involvement is incomplete, and multiple studies are planned to evaluate patients with COVID-19 using CMR. In this review, we summarize existing studies of CMR for patients with COVID-19 and present ongoing research. We also provide recommendations for clinical use of CMR for patients with acute symptoms or who are recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259400

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. This study aimed to assess the psychological outcomes and their influencing factors among medical and non-medical University students during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey using structured questionnaires was conducted from February 20 to March 20, 2020. Psychological outcomes were assessed according to the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Influencing factors were assessed by COVID-19 knowledge, mindful coping scale, and sense of control scale. Results: Our sample is comprised of 563 University students (male = 172, mean age = 21.52). Among them, 382 are medical students. Among the participants, 12.26, 18.47, and 8.53% have moderate to severe levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, respectively. Compared with the non-medical students, the medical students had a higher knowledge level of COVID-19, a higher sense of awareness, and fewer mental health symptoms. After controlling the covariance, perceived constraints of sense of control were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress among both medical and non-medical students. Prevention of negative emotions by mindful coping was negatively associated with depression and anxiety among non-medical students. Knowledge of COVID-19 is not associated with mental distress among medical and non-medical students. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic in China, the mental health of University students was affected. Our findings suggested that a sense of control is a protective factor for both medical and non-medical students, while mindful coping is a protective factor for only non-medical students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200075, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155972

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate lung burden changes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by using serial CT scan by an automated deep learning method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with COVID-19, who underwent chest CT between January 1 and February 3, 2020, were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into mild, moderate, severe, and critical types, according to their baseline clinical, laboratory, and CT findings. CT lung opacification percentages of the whole lung and five lobes were automatically quantified by a commercial deep learning software and compared with those at follow-up CT scans. Longitudinal changes of the CT quantitative parameter were also compared among the four clinical types. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 52 years ± 15 [standard deviation]; 53.2% males) were evaluated, including six mild, 94 moderate, 20 severe, and six critical cases. CT-derived opacification percentage was significantly different among clinical groups at baseline, gradually progressing from mild to critical type (all P < .01). Overall, the whole-lung opacification percentage significantly increased from baseline CT to first follow-up CT (median [interquartile range]: 3.6% [0.5%, 12.1%] vs 8.7% [2.7%, 21.2%]; P < .01). No significant progression of the opacification percentages was noted from the first follow-up to second follow-up CT (8.7% [2.7%, 21.2%] vs 6.0% [1.9%, 24.3%]; P = .655). CONCLUSION: The quantification of lung opacification in COVID-19 measured at chest CT by using a commercially available deep learning-based tool was significantly different among groups with different clinical severity. This approach could potentially eliminate the subjectivity in the initial assessment and follow-up of pulmonary findings in COVID-19.Supplemental material is available for this article.© RSNA, 2020.

8.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 747-755, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838414

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The 2019 COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to adolescent psychological health. The aim of this study was to survey junior high and high school students in China to better understand the psychological consequences, such as anxiety, depression, and stress, of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey using structural questionnaires was conducted from April 7, 2020, to April 24, 2020. Demographic information and general information related to the pandemic were collected. Psychological consequences were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Influencing factors were assessed by the Brief Resilience Scale and Coping Style Questionnaire. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 493 junior high school students (male = 239, mean age = 13.93 years) and 532 high school students (male = 289, mean age = 17.08 years). Resilience and positive coping were protective factors for the occurrence of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms in junior high and high school students (p < .05). Positive coping was a protective factor for trauma-related distress in junior high school students (p < .05). Negative coping is a risk factor for depression, anxiety, stress symptoms, and trauma-related distress in junior high and high school students (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic in China, more than one fifth of junior high and high school students' mental health was affected. Our findings suggested that resilience and positive coping lead to better psychological and mental health status among students. In contrast, negative coping is a risk factor for mental health.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adolescent Health , Anxiety/psychology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(11): 2330-2339, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-701945

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study evaluated cardiac involvement in patients recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Background: Myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 was previously reported in hospitalized patients. It is unknown if there is sustained cardiac involvement after patients' recovery from COVID-19. Methods: Twenty-six patients recovered from COVID-19 who reported cardiac symptoms and underwent CMR examinations were retrospectively included. CMR protocols consisted of conventional sequences (cine, T2-weighted imaging, and late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]) and quantitative mapping sequences (T1, T2, and extracellular volume [ECV] mapping). Edema ratio and LGE were assessed in post-COVID-19 patients. Cardiac function, native T1/T2, and ECV were quantitatively evaluated and compared with controls. Results: Fifteen patients (58%) had abnormal CMR findings on conventional CMR sequences: myocardial edema was found in 14 (54%) patients and LGE was found in 8 (31%) patients. Decreased right ventricle functional parameters including ejection fraction, cardiac index, and stroke volume/body surface area were found in patients with positive conventional CMR findings. Using quantitative mapping, global native T1, T2, and ECV were all found to be significantly elevated in patients with positive conventional CMR findings, compared with patients without positive findings and controls (median [interquartile range]: native T1 1,271 ms [1,243 to 1,298 ms] vs. 1,237 ms [1,216 to 1,262 ms] vs. 1,224 ms [1,217 to 1,245 ms]; mean ± SD: T2 42.7 ± 3.1 ms vs. 38.1 ms ± 2.4 vs. 39.1 ms ± 3.1; median [interquartile range]: 28.2% [24.8% to 36.2%] vs. 24.8% [23.1% to 25.4%] vs. 23.7% [22.2% to 25.2%]; p = 0.002; p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: Cardiac involvement was found in a proportion of patients recovered from COVID-19. CMR manifestation included myocardial edema, fibrosis, and impaired right ventricle function. Attention should be paid to the possible myocardial involvement in patients recovered from COVID-19 with cardiac symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Edema, Cardiac/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Edema, Cardiac/etiology , Edema, Cardiac/pathology , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology , Ventricular Function, Right
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