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1.
World journal of gastroenterology ; 28(5):570-587, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood AIM We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis RESULTS A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation CONCLUSION Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient’s severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.

2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(5): 570-587, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient's severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Baltimore , Bilirubin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 606-615, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical phenotype of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection that remains poorly understood. METHODS: Hospitalized children <18 years of age with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (N = 53) were recruited into a prospective cohort study; 32 had confirmed COVID-19, with 16 meeting the US Centers for Disease Control criteria for MIS-C. Differences in nasopharyngeal viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) levels, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, and cytokine/chemokine profiles were examined, including after adjustments for age and sex. RESULTS: The median ages for those with and without MIS-C were 8.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.5-13.9) and 2.2 years (IQR, 1.1-10.5), respectively (P = .18), and nasopharyngeal levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (median 63 848.25 copies/mL versus 307.1 copies/mL, P = .66); 75% of those with MIS-C were antibody positive compared with 44% without (P = .026). Levels of 14 of 37 cytokines/chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1RA, IL-2RA, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, IP-10, macrophage-inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MCP-2, MIP-1ß, eotaxin) were significantly higher in children with MIS-C compared to those without, irrespective of age or sex (false discovery rate <0.05; P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The distinct pattern of heightened cytokine/chemokine dysregulation observed with MIS-C, compared with acute COVID-19, occurs across the pediatric age spectrum and with similar levels of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , Serologic Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
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