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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939062

ABSTRACT

Information on the efficacy and safety of molnupiravir in daily clinical practice is very scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of fully vaccinated patients with mild to moderate breakthrough COVID-19 treated with molnupiravir between January 2022 and February 2022. Overall, 145 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 71.0 years, and 60.7% were males. The most common underlying condition was a severe cardiovascular disease (37.2%), followed by primary or acquired immunodeficiency (22.8%), and oncological/onco-hematological disease in the active phase (22.1%). At 30 days after breakthrough COVID-19 diagnosis, only 4 out of 145 patients (2.7%) required hospital admission. No patients developed severe COVID-19, were admitted to the ICU, or died during the follow-up period. Adverse events, mild in intensity, occurred in 2 patients (1.4%). Our results support the current evidence establishing positive clinical and safety outcomes of molnupiravir in fully vaccinated patients with mild or moderate breakthrough COVID-19.

2.
J Community Health ; 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899237

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing people living with chronic viral hepatitis is challenging due to the absence of symptoms as long as liver decompensated cirrhosis come out. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infections in a non-selected population, hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in Northern Italy. During the study period 1,429 patients were admitted to hospital for SARS-CoV-2 infection, serologic tests for HBV and/or HCV were available for 382 (27%) patients and 3 were excluded due to their previous known serologic status. Among 379 patients, 235 (62%) were male, median age was 70 years (range 21-103), 360 (95%) were Caucasian. Among them, 372/379 (98%) were screened for HBsAg, 320/379 (84%) for HBcAb. HBsAg was positive in 2/372 (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0006-0.02) patients (only in one HBV-DNA was performed that was negative), while HBcAb was found positive in 55/320 (17%, 95% CI 0.13-0.22). Among 370/379 (98%) patients screened for HCV, 11/370 (3%, 95% CI 0.02-0.05) had positive HCV-Ab. Five out of 11 (45%) were tested for HCV-RNA that resulted positive in two patients (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0006-0.02). Considering this data, even though the screening was performed in only 27% of study population, a tailored screening in people with known risk factors for hepatitis might be preferable to universal screening in low prevalence areas. Also a prompt diagnostic workout should begin in case of clinical or laboratory suspicion of hepatitis and in those starting immunosuppressive treatments.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 121: 172-176, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) still has substantial morbidity and mortality. For non-HIV patients, the course of infection is severe, and management guidelines are relatively recent. We collected all PCP cases (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria) diagnosed in HIV-negative adult inpatients in 2019-2020 at our center in northern Italy. RESULTS: Of 20 cases, nine had microbiologic evidence of probable (real-time polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) and 11 proven (immunofluorescence) PCP on respiratory specimens. Half were female; the median age was 71.5 years; 14 of 20 patients had hematologic malignancies, five had autoimmune/hyperinflammatory disorders, and one had a solid tumor. RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) was 24-37 for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and 32-39 for sputum; Ct was 24-33 on BAL proven cases. Of 20 cases, four received additional diagnoses on BAL. At PCP diagnosis, all patients were not on anti-pneumocystis prophylaxis. We retrospectively assessed prophylaxis indications: 9/20 patients had a main indication, 5/9 because of prednisone treatment ≥ 20 mg (or equivalents) for ≥4 weeks. All patients underwent antimicrobial treatment according to guidelines; 18/20 with concomitant corticosteroids. A total of 4/20 patients died within 28 days from diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Despite appropriate treatment, PCP is still associated to high mortality (20%) among non-HIV patients. Strict adherence to prophylaxis guidelines, awareness of gray areas, and prompt diagnosis can help manage this frequently overlooked infection.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Pneumocystis carinii/genetics , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309368

ABSTRACT

Background: To describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation;the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. Materials and Methods Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58–69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5–90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7–49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3 + 92% (IQR 82–95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014–1.759, p = 0.039). Conclusions In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.

5.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 411-418, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is challenging, and the role of Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated diagnostic accuracy of Aspergillus-PCR in BAL in IPA in three different cohorts: ICU-admitted patients with COVID-19, ICU-admitted patients without COVID-19 and immunocompromised patients. METHODS: All stored available BAL samples collected from three patient groups were tested with Aspergillus-PCR (AsperGenius® ). IPA was diagnosed according to appropriate criteria for each patient group. RESULTS: We included 111 BAL samples from 101 patients: 52 (51%) patients admitted to ICU for COVID-19, 24 (24%) admitted to ICU for other reasons and 25 (25%) immunocompromised. There were 31 cases of IPA (28%). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 64% (95% CI 47-79) and specificity 99% (95% CI 93-100). Aspergillus-PCR sensitivity was 40% (95%CI 19-64) in ICU COVID-19, 67% (95% CI 21-93) in non-COVID-19 ICU patients and 92% (95%CI 67-98) in the immunocompromised. The concordance between positive BAL-GM and BAL-PCR in patients with and without IPA was significantly lower in ICU patients (32%; 43% in COVID-19, 18% in non-COVID-19) than in the immunocompromised (92%), p < .001. CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus-PCR in BAL improves the diagnostic accuracy of BAL-GM in ICU patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aspergillus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Galactose , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Mannans/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470899

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies, such as bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination (BEC), have been proposed for patients with mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have assessed the factors associated with the early administration of BEC or the impact of early BEC treatment on the clinical evolution of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults with COVID-19 who received BEC at three institutions in the Liguria region. The primary endpoint was to investigate the clinical variables associated with early BEC infusion. Secondary endpoints were 30-day overall mortality and the composite endpoint of requirement of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen during the 30-day follow-up period. A total of 127 patients (median age 70 years; 56.7% males) received BEC. Of those, 93 (73.2%) received BEC within 5 days from symptoms onset (early BEC). Patients with a higher Charlson comorbidity index were more likely to receive early treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.45; p = 0.03) in contrast to those reporting fever at presentation (OR 0.26, 0.08-0.82; p = 0.02). Early BEC was associated with lower likelihood of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen (OR 0.19, 0.06-0.65; p = 0.008). Five patients who received early BEC died during the follow-up period, but only one of them due to COVID-19-related causes. Early bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination was more frequently administered to patients with a high Charlson comorbidity index. Despite this, early BEC was associated with a lower rate of hospital admission or need for any supplementary oxygen compared to late administration. These results suggest that efforts should focus on encouraging early BEC use in patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 at risk for complications.

7.
Eur J Intern Med ; 94: 39-44, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of this study is that tocilizumab should affect common signs of infection due to its immunosuppressive properties. Primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the administration of tocilizumab to critically ill patients with COVID-19, led to a different clinical presentation of infectious complications compared to patients who did not receive tocilizumab. Secondary aim was investigating differences in laboratory parameters between groups. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study, enrolling COVID-19 patients who developed a microbiologically confirmed infectious complication [ventilator associated pneumonia or bloodstream infection] after intensive care unit [ICU] admission and either treated with tocilizumab or not [controls]. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included, 25 treated with tocilizumab and 33 controls. Median time from tocilizumab administration to infection onset was 10 days [range 2-26]. Patients were 78% male, with median age 65 years [range 45-79]. At first clinical presentation of the infectious event, the frequency of hypotension [11/25, 44% vs. 11/33, 33%], fever [8/25, 32% vs. 10/33, 30%] or hypothermia [0/25,0%, vs. 2/33, 6%], and oxygen desaturation [6/25, 28% vs 4/33, 12%], as well as the frequency of SOFA score increase of ≥ 2 points [4/25, 16%,vs. 4/33, 12%] was similar in tocilizumab treated patients and controls [p>0.1 for all comparisons]. Among laboratory parameters, C-Reactive Protein elevation was reduced in tocilizumab treated patients compared to controls [8/25, 32% vs. 22/33, 67%, p=0.009]. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of infectious complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU were not affected by tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009448, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190180

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes severe respiratory involvement (COVID-19) in 5-20% of patients through initial immune derangement, followed by intense cytokine production and vascular leakage. Evidence of immune involvement point to the participation of T, B, and NK cells in the lack of control of virus replication leading to COVID-19. NK cells contribute to early phases of virus control and to the regulation of adaptive responses. The precise mechanism of NK cell dysregulation is poorly understood, with little information on tissue margination or turnover. We investigated these aspects by multiparameter flow cytometry in a cohort of 28 patients hospitalized with early COVID-19. Relevant decreases in CD56brightCD16+/- NK subsets were detected, with a shift of circulating NK cells toward more mature CD56dimCD16+KIR+NKG2A+ and "memory" KIR+CD57+CD85j+ cells with increased inhibitory NKG2A and KIR molecules. Impaired cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production were associated with conserved expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors and perforin. Moreover, intense NK cell activation with increased HLA-DR and CD69 expression was associated with the circulation of CD69+CD103+ CXCR6+ tissue-resident NK cells and of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ inflammatory precursors to mature functional NK cells. Severe disease trajectories were directly associated with the proportion of CD34+DNAM-1brightCXCR4+ precursors and inversely associated with the proportion of NKG2D+ and of CD103+ NK cells. Intense NK cell activation and trafficking to and from tissues occurs early in COVID-19, and is associated with subsequent disease progression, providing an insight into the mechanism of clinical deterioration. Strategies to positively manipulate tissue-resident NK cell responses may provide advantages to future therapeutic and vaccine approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 353, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of the study is to describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58-69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5-90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7-49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3+ 92% (IQR 82-95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014-1.759, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Lymphocytes/cytology , Macrophages/cytology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060487

ABSTRACT

The primary objective of this multicenter, observational, retrospective study was to assess the incidence rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in intensive care units (ICU). The secondary objective was to assess predictors of 30-day case-fatality of VAP. From 15 February to 15 May 2020, 586 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the participating ICU. Of them, 171 developed VAP (29%) and were included in the study. The incidence rate of VAP was of 18 events per 1000 ventilator days (95% confidence intervals [CI] 16-21). Deep respiratory cultures were available and positive in 77/171 patients (45%). The most frequent organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27/77, 35%) and Staphylococcus aureus (18/77, 23%). The 30-day case-fatality of VAP was 46% (78/171). In multivariable analysis, septic shock at VAP onset (odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% CI 1.43-7.61, p = 0.005) and acute respiratory distress syndrome at VAP onset (OR 13.21, 95% CI 3.05-57.26, p < 0.001) were associated with fatality. In conclusion, VAP is frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The related high fatality is likely the sum of the unfavorable prognostic impacts of the underlying viral and the superimposed bacterial diseases.

12.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024612

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to evaluate if an independent association exists between liver enzyme elevations (LEE) and the risk of mortality or intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients with COVID-19. This was a single-center observational study, recruiting all consecutive adults with COVID-19. The elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) to the highest level between COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital discharge was categorized according to a standardized toxicity grade scale. In total, 799 patients were included in this study, 39% of which were female, with a mean age of 69.9 (±16.0) years. Of these patients, 225 (28.1%) developed LEE of grade ≥2 after a median of three days (interquartile range (IQR): 0-8 days) from the diagnosis of COVID-19, and they were estimated to have a higher hazard of death or ICU admission (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.88). The clinical and laboratory variables associated with the development of LEE were male sex, higher respiratory rate, higher gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and lower albumin levels at baseline. Among the analyzed treatments, steroids, tocilizumab and darunavir/ritonavir correlated with LEE. In conclusion, LEE were associated with mortality and ICU admission among COVID-19 patients. While the origin of LEE is probably multifactorial, LEE evaluation could add information to the clinical and laboratory variables that are commonly evaluated during the course of COVID-19.

13.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(1): 387-398, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with persistent viral shedding (PVS) in hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study including all consecutive adults hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the first nasopharyngeal swab was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (day 0), additional samples were obtained on days + 3, + 5, + 7 and then once every 7 days until virus detection was negative. PVS was defined as the duration of shedding of at least 21 days after diagnosis. The primary endpoint of this study was the prevalence of PVS. RESULTS: Data were obtained regarding 121 consecutive hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (median age 66 years, male sex 65.3%). Overall, the prevalence of PVS was 38% (46/121 patients). According to univariate analysis, factors associated with PVS were immunosuppression (6.7% vs 21.7%, p = 0.02), increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels (≥ 35 ng/ml) at the time of diagnosis (43.4% vs 67.3%, p = 0.02), time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis (median days 7.0 vs 3.5, p = 0.001), intensive care unit admission (22.7% vs 43.5%, p = 0.02), and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (20.0% vs 41.3%, p = 0.01). The multivariate analysis indicated that immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels at the time of diagnosis, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and need for mechanical ventilation were independent factors associated with PVS. CONCLUSIONS: PVS was detected in up to 38% of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and was strongly associated with immunosuppression, increased IL-6 levels, and the need for mechanical ventilation.

14.
Microorganisms ; 9(1)2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011587

ABSTRACT

The possible negative impact of severe adult respiratory distress caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) on antimicrobial stewardship and infection control has been postulated, but few real-life data are available. The aim of this study was to report our experience with colonization/infection of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) and Candida auris among critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). All COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs at San Martino Policlinico Hospital-IRCCS in Genoa, Italy, were screened from 28 February to 31 May 2020. One-hundred and eighteen patients admitted to COVID-19 ICUs were included in the study. Among them, 12 (10.2%) became colonized/infected with CRPA, 6 (5.1%) with C. auris and 2 (1.6%) with CR-Kp. All patients with CRPA received prior treatment with meropenem, and in 11 (91.7%) infection was not preceded by colonization. Four patients (66.7%) developed C. auris candidemia. A significant spread of resistant pathogens was observed among critically ill COVID-19 patients. Dedicated strategies are warranted to prevent horizontal spread and maintain effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in the setting of COVID-19 care.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1664-1665, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919317

ABSTRACT

We have checked the vaccination history of 389 elderly patients (62.9% males, mean age of 78.5 + 8.4 years) hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Information regarding pneumococcal vaccination was available for 354 patients (91.0%): the overall vaccination coverage rate (VCR) was 19.8% (70/354), 11.3% received only 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), 3.4% were immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), 5.1% received both vaccines. VCR among the elderly population in Liguria Region was 26.2% (118,581/453,082), among them 13.7% received PCV13, 12.4% were immunized with at least one dose of PPSV23. Regarding the 2019-2020 influenza season vaccination data were available for 46 patients: 59% of them were immunized. VCR in the elderly population was 51.7% (234,153/453,082).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Bacterial , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Pandemics , Pneumococcal Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate
16.
J Nephrol ; 34(1): 173-183, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of kidney involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported to be high. Nevertheless, data are lacking about the determinants of acute kidney injury (AKI) and the combined effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and AKI in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We collected data on patient demographics, comorbidities, chronic medications, vital signs, baseline laboratory test results and in-hospital treatment in patients with COVID-19 consecutively admitted to our Institution. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria at urinalysis within 180 days prior to hospital admission. AKI was defined according to KDIGO criteria. The primary and secondary outcomes were the development of AKI and death. RESULTS: Of 777 patients eligible for the study, acute kidney injury developed in 176 (22.6%). Of these, 79 (45%) showed an acute worsening of a preexisting CKD, and 21 (12%) required kidney replacement therapy. Independent associates of AKI were chronic kidney disease, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ventilation support. Among patients with acute kidney injury, 111 died (63%) and its occurrence increased the risk of death by 60% (HR 1.60 [95% IC 1.21-2.49] p = 0.002) independently of potential confounding factors including hypertension, preexisting kidney damage, and comorbidities. Patients with AKI showed a significantly higher rate of deaths attributed to bleeding compared to CKD and the whole population (7.5 vs 1.5 vs 3.5%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Awareness of kidney function, both preexisting CKD and development of acute kidney injury, may help to identify those patients at increased risk of death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
18.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(11): 1537-1544, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, management and outcome of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); and to evaluate risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study from a University tertiary care hospital in northern Italy, included hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 25 March 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 317 individuals were enrolled. Their median age was 71 years and 67.2% were male (213/317). The most common underlying diseases were hypertension (149/317; 47.0%), cardiovascular disease (63/317; 19.9%) and diabetes (49/317; 15.5%). Common symptoms at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis included fever (285/317; 89.9%), shortness of breath (167/317; 52.7%) and dry cough (156/317; 49.2%). An 'atypical' presentation including at least one among mental confusion, diarrhoea or nausea and vomiting was observed in 53/317 patients (16.7%). Hypokalaemia occurred in 25.8% (78/302) and 18.5% (56/303) had acute kidney injury. During hospitalization, 111/317 patients (35.0%) received non-invasive respiratory support, 65/317 (20.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 60/317 (18.5%) required invasive mechanical ventilation. All-cause in-hospital mortality, assessed in 275 patients, was 43.6% (120/275). On multivariable analysis, age (per-year increase OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.10; p < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.07-6.25; p 0.03), and C-reactive protein levels (per-point increase OR 1.009; 95% CI 1.004-1.014; p 0.001) were independent risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 mainly affected elderly patients with predisposing conditions and caused severe illness, frequently requiring non-invasive respiratory support or ICU admission. Despite supportive care, COVID-19 remains associated with a substantial risk of all-cause in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739098

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with anti- severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in a large population of adult volunteers from five administrative departments of the Liguria and Lombardia regions. A total of 3609 individuals were included in this analysis. Participants were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies [Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) class antibodies] at three private laboratories (Istituto Diganostico Varelli, Medical Center, and Casa della Salute di Genova). Demographic data, occupational or private exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, and prior medical history consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected according to a preplanned analysis. The overall seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) was 11.0% [398/3609; confidence interval (CI) 10.0%-12.1%]. Seroprevalence was higher in female inmates than in male inmates (12.5% vs. 9.2%, respectively, p = 0.002), with the highest rate observed among adults aged >55 years (13.2%). A generalized estimating equations model showed that the main risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were the following: an occupational exposure to the virus [Odd ratio (OR) = 2.36; 95% CI 1.59-3.50, p = 0.001], being a long-term care facility resident (OR = 4.53; 95% CI 3.19-6.45, p = 0.001), and reporting previous symptoms of influenza-like illness (OR = 4.86; 95% CI 3.75-6.30, p = 0.001) or loss of sense of smell or taste (OR = 41.00; 95% CI 18.94-88.71, p = 0.001). In conclusion, we found a high prevalence (11.0%) of SARS-CoV-2 infection that is significantly associated with residing in long-term care facilities or occupational exposure to the virus. These findings warrant further investigation into SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence among the Italian population.

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