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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many clinical studies have identified significant predictors or risk factors for the severity or mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. However, there are very limited reports on the risk factors for requiring oxygen therapy during hospitalization. In particular, we sought to investigate whether plasma glucose and HbA1c levels could be risk factors for oxygen therapy requirement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study was conducted of 131 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Saitama Medical University Hospital between March 2020 and November 2020. To identify the risk factors for oxygen therapy requirement during hospitalization, a stepwise multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed using several clinical parameters commonly obtained on admission, including plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. RESULTS: Of the 131 patients with COVID-19, 33.6% (44/131) received oxygen therapy during hospitalization. According to the logistic regression analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR]: 8.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-46.5, P < 0.05), age (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12, P < 0.01), HbA1c levels (OR: 1.94, 95% CI: 1.09-3.44, P < 0.05), and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.54-3.20, P < 0.01) emerged as independent variables associated with oxygen therapy requirement during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to male sex, age, and serum CRP levels, HbA1c levels on admission may serve as a risk factor for oxygen therapy requirement during the clinical course of COVID-19, irrespective of diabetes history and status. This may contribute to the efficient delegation of limited numbers of hospital beds to patients at risk for oxygen therapy requirement.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6778-6781, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544295

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput, fully automated antigen detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is a viable alternative to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for mass screening during outbreaks. In this study, we compared RT-qPCR for viral load and the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test with reference to the results of the LUMIPULSE® SARS-CoV-2 Ag Test. Of 128 nasopharyngeal swab specimens taken from patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, 49 were positive and 79 were negative according to RT-qPCR. Consistent dose-dependent detection with VITROS® assay was successfully achieved when using nasopharyngeal swab specimens with Ct values of 32.0 or lesser, whereas the CLEIA-based LUMIPULSE® assay was able to detect lower viral loads compared with the VITROS® assay. Our results show that the performance of the VITROS® assay was satisfactory for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19 patients in the clinical setting. Highlights The performance of the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test was sufficient for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19. This test showed high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples with a Ct value of 32 or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 335-341, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410048

ABSTRACT

Fully automated immunoassays for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies that are strongly correlated with neutralization antibodies (nAbs) are clinically important because they enable the assessment of humoral immunity after infection and vaccination. Access SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) II antibody tests are semi-quantitative, fully automated immunoassays that detect anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies and might reflect nAb levels in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies have investigated the clinical utility of these tests in association with nAbs to date. To evaluate the clinical utility of Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests and their correlation with the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) that measures nAbs in patients with COVID-19, we analyzed 54 convalescent serum samples from COVID-19 patients and 89 serum samples from non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of anti-RBD antibodies was detected using Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests, while nAbs were measured by sVNT. The sensitivity and specificity of sVNT were 94.4% and 98.9%, respectively. There were strong positive correlations between the inhibition values of sVNT and the results of the Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM (R = 0.95, R2 = 0.90, p < 0.001) and IgG II antibody tests (R = 0.96, R2 = 0.92, p < 0.001). In terms of the presence of nAbs, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.1% and 98.9% in the IgM assay and 100.0% and 100.0% in the IgG II assay, respectively. The Access SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG II antibody tests showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of nAbs in COVID-19 patients and might be alternatives for measuring nAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6778-6781, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281221

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput, fully automated antigen detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is a viable alternative to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for mass screening during outbreaks. In this study, we compared RT-qPCR for viral load and the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test with reference to the results of the LUMIPULSE® SARS-CoV-2 Ag Test. Of 128 nasopharyngeal swab specimens taken from patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, 49 were positive and 79 were negative according to RT-qPCR. Consistent dose-dependent detection with VITROS® assay was successfully achieved when using nasopharyngeal swab specimens with Ct values of 32.0 or lesser, whereas the CLEIA-based LUMIPULSE® assay was able to detect lower viral loads compared with the VITROS® assay. Our results show that the performance of the VITROS® assay was satisfactory for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19 patients in the clinical setting. Highlights The performance of the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test was sufficient for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19. This test showed high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples with a Ct value of 32 or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3211-3218, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206831

ABSTRACT

We analyzed antibody response patterns according to the level of disease severity in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan. We analyzed 611 serum specimens from 231 patients with COVID-19 (mild, 170; severe, 31; critical, 30). Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against nucleocapsid protein (N) and spike 1 protein (S1) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The peaks of fitting curves for the optical density (OD) values of IgM and IgG antibodies against N appeared simultaneously, while those against S1 were delayed compared with N. The OD values of IgM against N and IgG against both N and S1 were significantly higher in the severe and critical cases than in the mild cases at 11 days after symptom onset. The seroconversion rates of IgG were higher than those of IgM against both N and S1 during the clinical course based on the optimal cut-off values defined in this study. The seroconversion rates of IgG and IgM against N and S1 were higher in the severe and critical cases than in the mild cases. Our findings show that a stronger antibody response occurred in COVID-19 patients with greater disease severity and there were low seroconversion rates of antibodies against N and S1 in the mild cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/classification , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/classification , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/classification , Japan/epidemiology
8.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(3): 115370, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128955

ABSTRACT

Several automated high-throughput immunoassays for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by a semi-quantitative approach have been commercialized. In this study, we describe the timeline of the antibody response in patients with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19. A total of 292 sequential serum samples from 33 Japanese patients were retrospectively analyzed using four test kits for SARS-CoV-2: the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott), Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche Diagnostic), and VITROS® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total and IgG assays (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics). All automated immunoassays could equivalently identify positive sera collected within 2 weeks after symptom onset (99.3%-100%). In addition, the S protein-based automated immunoassay, the VITROS® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total assay, may play a complementary role in evaluating passive antibody therapies or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, although further research is required.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Female , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Immunoassay , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(11): 1098-1106, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has emerged as a threat to human health. Liver dysfunction has been reported to occur frequently in patients with COVID-19, although its significance has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: The subjects were 35 patients with COVID-19, and clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator were classified as having severe COVID-19. RESULTS: All 35 patients were diagnosed as having mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at admission, but the severity aggravated to severe in 8 patients (22.9%) in hospital. Hepatocellular-type liver injury, defined as elevation of the serum AST and/or ALT levels to ≥ 3 times the ULN, was seen in 2 patients (5.7%), and cholestasis-type liver injury, defined as elevation of the serum ALP, γ-GTP and/or total bilirubin levels to ≥ twice the ULN, was seen in 4 patients (11.4%). A total of 9 patients (25.7%) fulfilled the criteria for liver injury. The percentage of patients with liver injury was higher in patients with severe COVID-19 than in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Both the hepatic CT attenuation values and the liver-to-spleen attenuation (L/S) ratios at admission were lower in the former patients than in the latter patients (P < 0.001). ROC curve revealed the optimal cut-off value of the L/S ratio of 1.03 for discriminating between patients with severe and non-severe diseases. The hepatic CT attenuation values increased at the remission phase of the disease as compared to the values at admission (P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Liver dysfunction associated with reduced hepatic CT attenuation values correlated with the disease severity in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Japan , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104446, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-584604

ABSTRACT

With the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there is an urgent need for more rapid and simple detection technologies at the forefront of medical care worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Loopamp® 2019-SARSCoV-2 Detection Reagent Kit, which uses loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. In this protocol, cDNA is synthesized from SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase, followed by DNA amplification under isothermal conditions in one step. The RT-LAMP test kit amplified the targeted RNA of a SARS-CoV-2 isolate with a detection limit of 1.0 × 101 copies/µL, which was comparable to the detection sensitivity of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Comparison with the results of RT-qPCR for 76 nasopharyngeal swab samples from patients with suspected COVID-19 showed a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 97.6 %. In the 24 RNA specimens derived from febrile Japanese patients with or without influenza A, no amplification was observed using RT-LAMP. RT-LAMP could be a simple and easy-to-use diagnostic tool for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Japan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
12.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104393, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the clinical performance of an immunochromatographic (IC) IgM/IgG antibody assay for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and chest computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We examined 139 serum specimens collected from 112 patients with COVID-19 and 48 serum specimens collected from 48 non-COVID-19 patients. The presence of IgM/IgG antibody for SARS-COV2 was determined using the One Step Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) IgM/IgG Antibody Test. Chest CT was performed in COVID-19 patients on admission. FINDINGS: Of the139 COVID-19 serum specimens, IgM was detected in 27.8 %, 48.0 %, and 95.8 % of the specimens collected within 1 week, 1-2 weeks, and >2 weeks after symptom onset and IgG was detected in 3.3 %, 8.0 %, and 62.5 %, respectively. Among the 48 non-COVID-19 serum specimens, 1 generated a false-positive result for IgM. Thirty-eight of the 112 COVID-19 patients were asymptomatic, of whom 15 were positive for IgM, and 74 were symptomatic, of whom 22 were positive for IgM and 7 were positive for IgG. The diagnostic sensitivity of CT scan alone and in combination with the IC assay was 57.9 % (22/38) and 68.4 % (26/38) for the asymptomatic patients and 74.3 % (55/74) and 82.4 % (61/74) for the symptomatic patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: The IC assay had low sensitivity during the early phase of infection, and thus IC assay alone is not recommended for initial diagnostic testing for COVID-19. If RT-qPCR is not available, the combination of chest CT and IC assay may be useful for diagnosing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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