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1.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(4)2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a third vaccination shows an added effect on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) T-cell responses in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with ocrelizumab or fingolimod. METHODS: This is a substudy of a prospective multicenter study on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated diseases. Patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab, fingolimod, and no disease-modifying therapies and healthy controls were included. The number of interferon (IFN)-γ secreting SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells at multiple time points before and after 3 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations were evaluated. RESULTS: In ocrelizumab-treated patients (N = 24), IFN-γ-producing SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses were induced after 2 vaccinations with median levels comparable to healthy controls (N = 12) and patients with MS without disease-modifying therapies (N = 10). A third vaccination in ocrelizumab-treated patients (N = 8) boosted T-cell responses that had declined after the second vaccination, but did not lead to higher overall T-cell responses as compared to immediately after a second vaccination. In fingolimod-treated patients, no SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were detected after second (N = 12) and third (N = 9) vaccinations. DISCUSSION: In ocrelizumab-treated patients with MS, a third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination had no additive effect on the maximal T-cell response but did induce a boost response. In fingolimod-treated patients, no T-cell responses could be detected following both a second and third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Cellular , Multiple Sclerosis , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Interferon-gamma , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
2.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(5): e338-e350, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829743

ABSTRACT

Background: Disease-specific studies have reported impaired humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders treated with specific immunosuppressants. Disease-overarching studies, and data on recall responses and third vaccinations are scarce. Our primary objective was to investigate the effects of immunosuppressive monotherapies on the humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with prevalent immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Methods: We did a cohort study in participants treated in outpatient clinics in seven university hospitals and one rheumatology treatment centre in the Netherlands as well as participants included in two national cohort studies on COVID-19-related disease severity. We included patients aged older than 18 years, diagnosed with any of the prespecified immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, who were able to understand and complete questionnaires in Dutch. Participants with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders who were not on systemic immunosuppressants and healthy participants were included as controls. Anti-receptor binding domain IgG responses and neutralisation capacity were monitored following standard vaccination regimens and a three-vaccination regimen in subgroups. Hybrid immune responses-ie, vaccination after previous SARS-CoV-2 infection-were studied as a proxy for recall responses. Findings: Between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, we included 3222 participants in our cohort. Sera from 2339 participants, 1869 without and 470 participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were analysed (mean age 49·9 years [SD 13·7]; 1470 [62·8%] females and 869 [37·2%] males). Humoral responses did not differ between disorders. Anti-CD20 therapy, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators, and mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids were associated with lower relative risks for reaching seroconversion following standard vaccination (0·32 [95% CI 0·19-0·49] for anti-CD20 therapy, 0·35 [0·21-0·55] for S1P modulators, and 0·61 [0·40-0·90] for mycophenolate mofetil combined with corticosteroids). A third vaccination increased seroconversion for mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments (from 52·6% after the second vaccination to 89·5% after the third) but not significantly for anti-CD20 therapies (from 36·8% to 45·6%) and S1P modulators (from 35·5% to 48·4%). Most other immunosuppressant groups showed moderately reduced antibody titres after standard vaccination that did not increase after a third vaccination, although seroconversion rates and neutralisation capacity were unaffected. In participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were boosted after vaccination, regardless of immunosuppressive treatment. Interpretation: Humoral responses following vaccination are impaired by specific immunosuppressants. After standard vaccination regimens, patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disorders taking most immunosuppressants show similar seroconversion to controls, although antibody titres might be moderately reduced. As neutralisation capacity and recall responses are also preserved in these patients, this is not likely to translate to loss of (short-term) protection. In patients on immunosuppressants showing poor humoral responses after standard vaccination regimens, a third vaccination resulted in additional seroconversion in patients taking mycophenolate mofetil combination treatments, whereas the effect of a third vaccination in patients on anti-CD20 therapy and S1P modulators was limited. Funding: ZonMw (The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development).

3.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(6): e417-e429, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815345

ABSTRACT

Background: Concerns have been raised regarding the risks of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinated patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases treated with immunosuppressants, but clinical data on breakthrough infections are still scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections between patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases using immunosuppressants, and controls (patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases not taking immunosuppressants and healthy controls) who had received full COVID-19 vaccinations. The secondary objective was to explore determinants of breakthrough infections of the delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2, including humoral immune responses after vaccination. Methods: In this substudy, we pooled data collected in two large ongoing prospective multicentre cohort studies conducted in the Netherlands (Target to-B! [T2B!] study and Amsterdam Rheumatology Center COVID [ARC-COVID] study). Both studies recruited adult patients (age ≥18 years) with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases and healthy controls. We sourced clinical data from standardised electronic case record forms, digital questionnaires, and medical files. We only included individuals who were vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. For T2B!, participants were recruited between Feb 2 and Aug 1, 2021, and for ARC-COVID, participants were recruited between April 26, 2020, and March 1, 2021. In this study we assessed data on breakthrough infections collected between July 1 and Dec 15, 2021, a period in which the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant was the dominant variant in the Netherlands. We defined a SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection as a PCR-confirmed or antigen test-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred at least 14 days after vaccination. All breakthrough infections during this period were assumed to be due to the delta variant due to its dominance during the study period. We analysed post-vaccination serum samples for anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies to assess the humoral vaccination response (T2B! study only) and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies to identify asymptomatic breakthrough infections (ARC-COVID study only). We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to explore potential clinical and humoral determinants associated with the odds of breakthrough infections. The T2B! study is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, Trial ID NL8900, and the ARC-COVID study is registered with Dutch Trial Register, trial ID NL8513. Findings: We included 3207 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases who receive immunosuppressants, and 1807 controls (985 patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease not on immunosuppressants and 822 healthy controls). Among patients receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 53 years (SD 14), 2042 (64%) of 3207 were female and 1165 (36%) were male; among patients not receiving immunosuppressants, mean age was 54 years (SD 14), 598 (61%) of 985 were female and 387 (39%) were male; and among healthy controls, mean age was 57 years (SD 13), 549 (67%) of 822 were female and 273 (33%) were male. The cumulative incidence of PCR-test or antigen-test confirmed SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections was similar in patients on immunosuppressants (148 of 3207; 4·6% [95% CI 3·9-5·4]), patients not on immunosuppressants (52 of 985; 5·3% [95% CI 4·0-6·9]), and healthy controls (33 of 822; 4·0% [95% CI 2·8-5·6]). There was no difference in the odds of breakthrough infection for patients with immune-mediate inflammatory disease on immunosuppressants versus combined controls (ie, patients not on immunosuppressants and healthy controls; adjusted odds ratio 0·88 [95% CI 0·66-1·18]). Seroconversion after vaccination (odds ratio 0·58 [95% CI 0·34-0·98]; T2B! cohort only) and SARS-CoV-2 infection before vaccination (0·34 [0·18-0·56]) were associated with a lower odds of breakthrough infections. Interpretation: The incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases on immunosuppressants was similar to that in controls. However, caution might still be warranted for those on anti-CD20 therapy and those with traditional risk factors. Funding: ZonMw (the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development) and Reade foundation.

4.
RMD Open ; 8(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research on the disease severity of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) has been inconclusive, and long-term prospective data on the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in these patients are lacking. METHODS: Adult patients with rheumatic IMIDs from the Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Amsterdam were invited to participate. All patients were asked to recruit their own sex-matched and age-matched control subject. Clinical data were collected via online questionnaires (at baseline, and after 1-4 and 5-9 months of follow-up). Serum samples were collected twice and analysed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Subsequently, IgG titres were quantified in samples with a positive test result. FINDINGS: In total, 3080 consecutive patients and 1102 controls with comparable age and sex distribution were included for analyses. Patients were more frequently hospitalised compared with controls when infected with SARS-CoV-2; 7% vs 0.7% (adjusted OR: 7.33, 95% CI: 0.96 to 55.77). Only treatment with B-cell targeting therapy was independently associated with an increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalisation (adjusted OR: 14.62, 95% CI: 2.31 to 92.39). IgG antibody titres were higher in hospitalised compared with non-hospitalised patients, and slowly declined with time in similar patterns for patients in all treatment subgroups and controls. INTERPRETATION: We observed that patients with rheumatic IMIDs, especially those treated with B-cell targeting therapy, were more likely to be hospitalised when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Treatment with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs other than B-cell targeting agents is unlikely to have negative effects on the development of long-lasting humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 100, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested incremental short-term adverse events (AE) after repeated vaccination. In this report, we assessed occurrence and risk factors for short-term AEs following repeated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). METHODS: Self-reported daily questionnaires on AEs during the first 7 days after vaccination were obtained of 2259 individuals (2081 patients and 178 controls) participating in an ongoing prospective multicenter cohort study on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with various IMIDs in the Netherlands (T2B-COVID). Relative risks were calculated for potential risk factors associated with clinically relevant AE (rAE), defined as AE lasting longer than 2 days or impacting daily life. RESULTS: In total, 5454 vaccinations were recorded (1737 first, 1992 second and 1478 third vaccinations). Multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis were the largest disease groups. rAEs were reported by 57.3% (95% CI 54.8-59.8) of patients after the first vaccination, 61.5% (95% CI 59.2-63.7) after the second vaccination and 58% (95% CI 55.3-60.6) after the third vaccination. At day 7 after the first, second and third vaccination, respectively, 7.6% (95% CI 6.3-9.1), 7.4% (95% CI 6.2-8.7) and 6.8% (95% CI 5.4-8.3) of patients still reported AEs impacting daily life. Hospital admissions and allergic reactions were uncommon (<0.7%). Female sex (aRR 1.43, 95% CI 1.32-1.56), age below 50 (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23), a preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29) and having an IMID (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.34) were associated with increased risk of rAEs following a vaccination. Compared to the second vaccination, the first vaccination was associated with a lower risk of rAEs (aRR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) while a third vaccination was not associated with increased risk on rAEs (aRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84-1.02). BNT162b2 vaccines were associated with lower risk on rAEs compared to CX-024414 (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: A third SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was not associated with increased risk of rAEs in IMID patients compared to the second vaccination. Patients with an IMID have a modestly increased risk of rAEs after vaccination when compared to controls. Most AEs are resolved within 7 days; hospital admissions and allergic reactions were uncommon. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NL74974.018.20 , Trial ID: NL8900. Registered on 9 September 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
9.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(11): e778-e788, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases, who are often treated with immunosuppressive drugs. We aimed to investigate the effect of different immunosuppressive drugs on antibody development after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases. METHODS: In this study, we used serum samples collected from patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy controls who were included in two ongoing prospective cohort studies in the Netherlands. Participants were eligible for inclusion in this substudy if they had been vaccinated with any COVID-19 vaccine via the Dutch national vaccine programme, which at the time was prioritising vaccination of older individuals. Samples were collected after the first or second COVID-19 vaccination. No serial samples were collected. Seroconversion rates and IgG antibody titres against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between medication use at the time of vaccination and at least until sampling, seroconversion rates, and IgG antibody titres. The studies from which data were collected are registered on the Netherlands Trial Register, Trial ID NL8513, and ClinicalTrials.org, NCT04498286. FINDINGS: Between April 26, 2020, and March 1, 2021, 3682 patients with rheumatic diseases, 546 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 1147 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the two prospective cohort studies. Samples were collected from patients with autoimmune diseases (n=632) and healthy controls (n=289) after their first (507 patients and 239 controls) or second (125 patients and 50 controls) COVID-19 vaccination. The mean age of both patients and controls was 63 years (SD 11), and 423 (67%) of 632 patients with autoimmune diseases and 195 (67%) of 289 controls were female. Among participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion after first vaccination were significantly lower in patients than in controls (210 [49%] of 432 patients vs 154 [73%] of 210 controls; adjusted odds ratio 0·33 [95% CI 0·23-0·48]; p<0·0001), mainly due to lower seroconversion in patients treated with methotrexate or anti-CD20 therapies. After the second vaccination, seroconversion exceeded 80% in all patient treatment subgroups, except among those treated with anti-CD20 therapies (three [43%] of seven patients). We observed no difference in seroconversion and IgG antibody titres between patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who had received a single vaccine dose (72 [96%] of 75 patients, median IgG titre 127 AU/mL [IQR 27-300]) and patients without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who had received two vaccine doses (97 [92%] of 106 patients, median IgG titre 49 AU/mL [17-134]). INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest that seroconversion after a first COVID-19 vaccination is delayed in older patients on specific immunosuppressive drugs, but that second or repeated exposure to SARS-CoV-2, either via infection or vaccination, improves humoral immunity in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, delayed second dosing of COVID-19 vaccines should be avoided in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Future studies that include younger patients need to be done to confirm the generalisability of our results. FUNDING: ZonMw, Reade Foundation, and MS Center Amsterdam.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066833

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe systemic inflammation associated with some stages of COVID-19 and in fatal cases led therapeutic agents developed or used frequently in Rheumatology being at the vanguard of experimental therapeutics strategies. The aim of this project was to elaborate EULAR Points to consider (PtCs) on COVID-19 pathophysiology and immunomodulatory therapies. METHODS: PtCs were developed in accordance with EULAR standard operating procedures for endorsed recommendations, led by an international multidisciplinary Task Force, including rheumatologists, translational immunologists, haematologists, paediatricians, patients and health professionals, based on a systemic literature review up to 15 December 2020. Overarching principles (OPs) and PtCs were formulated and consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: Two OPs and fourteen PtCs were developed. OPs highlight the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need of a multifaceted approach to target the different pathophysiological mechanisms. PtCs 1-6 encompass the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 including immune response, endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers. PtCs 7-14 focus on the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection with immunomodulators. There was evidence supporting the use of glucocorticoids, especially dexamethasone, in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy. No other immunomodulator demonstrated efficacy on mortality to date, with however inconsistent results for tocilizumab. Immunomodulatory therapy was not associated with higher infection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Multifactorial pathophysiological mechanisms, including immune abnormalities, play a key role in COVID-19. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in cases requiring oxygen therapy suggests that immunomodulatory treatment might be effective in COVID-19 subsets. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should continue in ongoing clinical trials delineating optimal immunomodulatory therapy utilisation in COVID-19.

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