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2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 909-910, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849987
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333072

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the intensity and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) by diagnosis, treatment and adapted vaccination schedules. Methods SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was measured longitudinally in a large prospective cohort of healthy controls (HC) and IMID patients between December 2020 and 2021. Demographic and disease-specific data were recorded. Humoral response was compared across treatment and disease groups, and with respect to receipt of booster vaccinations. Age and sex adjusted SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was modelled over time. Marginal mean antibody levels and marginal risks of poor response were calculated at weekly intervals starting from week-8 after the first vaccination up to week 40. Results Among 5076 individuals registered, 2535 IMID patients and 1198 HC were eligible for this analysis. Mean antibody levels were higher in HC compared to IMIDs at all-time points, with peak antibody response in HC more than twice that in IMIDs (12.48 (11.52-13.52) vs. 5.71 (5.46-5.97)). Poor response to vaccination was observed in IMID patients treated with agents affecting B- and T-cell functions. Mean differences in antibody response between IMID diseases were small. After additional vaccinations, IMID patients could achieve higher antibody levels than HC vaccinated according to the two-dose schedule, even-though initial antibody levels were lower. Conclusions IMID patients show a lower and less durable SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response and are at risk to lose humoral immune protection. Adjusted vaccination schedules with earlier boosters and/or more frequent re-doses could better protect IMID patients.

4.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753693

ABSTRACT

Only limited data are available regarding the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in HIV-1+ patients. Therefore, we investigated the humoral immune response after BNT162b2-mRNA vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-1+ patients on antiretroviral therapy compared to HIV-1-uninfected subjects. Serum and saliva samples were analysed by SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs and a surrogate neutralization assay. While all subjects developed anti-spike IgG and IgA and neutralizing antibodies in serum after two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, the HIV-1+ subjects displayed significantly lower neutralizing capacity and anti-spike IgA in serum compared to HIV-1-uninfected subjects. Serum levels of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing activity were significantly higher in vaccinees compared to SARS-CoV-2 convalescents irrespective of HIV-1 status. Among SARS-CoV-2 convalescents, there was no significant difference in spike-specific antibody response between HIV-1+ and uninfected subjects. In saliva, anti-spike IgG and IgA antibodies were detected both in vaccinees and convalescents, albeit at lower frequencies compared to the serum and only rarely with detectable neutralizing activity. In summary, our study demonstrates that the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy, however, lower vaccine induced neutralization activity indicates a lower functionality of the humoral vaccine response in HIV-1+ patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310070

ABSTRACT

Background: There are few data on disease characteristics and outcome of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). In this cohort study, we aimed to report the disease characteristics and variables associated with COVID-19 outcome among patients with IRDs. Methods: : Between April and June, 2020, 167 adult IRD patients with COVID-19 were registered from 31 centers in 14 cities in Turkey. Disease outcome was classified in 4 categories;(i) outpatient management, (ii) hospitalization without oxygen requirement, (iii) hospitalization with oxygen requirement, and (iv) intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine variables associated with a worse outcome. Results: : 165 patients (mean age: 50 ± 15.6 years, 58.2% female) were included. Twenty-four patients (14.5%) recovered under outpatient management, 141 (85.5%) were hospitalized, 49 (30%) required inpatient oxygen support, 22 (13%) were treated in the ICU (17 received invasive mechanic ventilation) and 16 (10%) died. Glucocorticoid use (OR: 4.53, 95%CI 1.65-12.76), chronic kidney disease (OR: 12.8, 95%CI 2.25-103.5), pulmonary disease (OR: 2.66, 95%CI 1.08-6.61) and obesity (OR: 3.7, 95%CI 1.01-13.87) were associated with a worse outcome. Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) do not seem to affect COVID-19 outcome while conventional synthetic DMARDs may have a protective effect (OR: 0.36, 95%CI 0.17-0.75). Estimates for the associations between IRD diagnoses and outcome were inconclusive. Conclusions: : Among IRD patients with COVID-19, comorbidities and glucocorticoid use were associated with a worse outcome, while biologic DMARDs do not seem to be associated with a worse outcome.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321594

ABSTRACT

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) of the joints, gut and skin are treated with inhibitors of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Investigating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in IMIDs we observed a significantly reduced incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IMID patients treated with cytokine inhibitors compared to patients receiving no such inhibitors and two healthy control populations, despite similar social exposure. Hence, cytokine inhibitors seem to at least partially protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.Authors David Simon and Koray Tascilar contributed equally to this work. Authors Markus F. Neurath and Georg Schett share senior authorship.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 783-790, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589173

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) treatment on the prevalence, seroconversion rate, and longevity of the humoral immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). METHODS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were measured in a prospective cohort of health care professional controls and non-health care controls and IMID patients receiving no treatment or receiving treatment with conventional or biologic DMARDs during the first and second COVID-19 waves. Regression models adjusting for age, sex, sampling time, and exposure risk behavior were used to calculate relative risks (RRs) of seropositivity. Seroconversion rates were assessed in participants with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody response longevity was evaluated by reassessing participants who tested positive during the first wave. RESULTS: In this study, 4,508 participants (2,869 IMID patients and 1,639 controls) were analyzed. The unadjusted RR (0.44 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.31-0.62]) and adjusted RR (0.50 [95% CI 0.34-0.73]) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were significantly lower in IMID patients treated with bDMARDs compared to non-health care controls (P < 0.001), primarily driven by treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, interleukin-17 (IL-17) inhibitors, and IL-23 inhibitors. Adjusted RRs for untreated IMID patients (1.12 [95% CI 0.75-1.67]) and IMID patients receiving conventional synthetic DMARDs (0.70 [95% CI 0.45-1.08]) were not significantly different from non-health care controls. Lack of seroconversion in PCR-positive participants was more common among bDMARD-treated patients (38.7%) than in non-health care controls (16%). Overall, 44% of positive participants lost SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by follow-up, with higher rates in IMID patients treated with bDMARDs (RR 2.86 [95% CI 1.43-5.74]). CONCLUSION: IMID patients treated with bDMARDs have a lower prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, seroconvert less frequently after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may exhibit a reduced longevity of their humoral immune response.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
8.
Liver Int ; 42(3): 607-614, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated associations between baseline use of immunosuppressive drugs and severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of AIH patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively collected from 15 countries. The outcomes of AIH patients who were on immunosuppression at the time of COVID-19 were compared to patients who were not on AIH medication. The clinical courses of COVID-19 were classified as (i)-no hospitalization, (ii)-hospitalization without oxygen supplementation, (iii)-hospitalization with oxygen supplementation by nasal cannula or mask, (iv)-intensive care unit (ICU) admission with non-invasive mechanical ventilation, (v)-ICU admission with invasive mechanical ventilation or (vi)-death and analysed using ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: We included 254 AIH patients (79.5%, female) with a median age of 50 (range, 17-85) years. At the onset of COVID-19, 234 patients (92.1%) were on treatment with glucocorticoids (n = 156), thiopurines (n = 151), mycophenolate mofetil (n = 22) or tacrolimus (n = 16), alone or in combinations. Overall, 94 (37%) patients were hospitalized and 18 (7.1%) patients died. Use of systemic glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.73, 95% CI 1.12-25.89) and thiopurines (aOR 4.78, 95% CI 1.33-23.50) for AIH was associated with worse COVID-19 severity, after adjusting for age-sex, comorbidities and presence of cirrhosis. Baseline treatment with mycophenolate mofetil (aOR 3.56, 95% CI 0.76-20.56) and tacrolimus (aOR 4.09, 95% CI 0.69-27.00) were also associated with more severe COVID-19 courses in a smaller subset of treated patients. CONCLUSION: Baseline treatment with systemic glucocorticoids or thiopurines prior to the onset of COVID-19 was significantly associated with COVID-19 severity in patients with AIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis, Autoimmune , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/complications , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To test whether patients with immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMIDs), who did not respond to two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, develop protective immunity, if a third vaccine dose is administered. METHODS: Patients with IMID who failed to seroconvert after two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were subjected to a third vaccination with either mRNA or vector-based vaccines. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, neutralising activity and T cell responses were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks after revaccination and also evaluated seprarately in rituximab (RTX) and non-RTX exposed patients. RESULTS: 66 non-responders were recruited, 33 treated with RTX, and 33 non-exposed to RTX. Overall, 49.2% patients seroconverted and 50.0% developed neutralising antibody activity. Seroconversion (78.8% vs 18.2%) and neutralising activity (80.0% vs 21.9%) was higher in non-RTX than RTX-treated patients with IMID, respectively. Humoral vaccination responses were not different among patients showing positive (59.3%) or negative (49.7%) T cell responses at baseline. Patients remaining on mRNA-based vaccines showed similar vaccination responses compared with those switching to vector-based vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data strongly argue in favor of a third vaccination in patients with IMID lacking response to standard vaccination irrespective of their B cell status.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(1): 33-37, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: B cell depletion is an established therapeutic principle in a wide range of autoimmune diseases. However, B cells are also critical for inducing protective immunity after infection and vaccination. We undertook this study to assess humoral and cellular immune responses after infection with or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with B cell depletion and controls who are B cell-competent. METHODS: Antibody responses (tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and T cell responses (tested using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were assessed in a limited number of previously infected (n = 6) and vaccinated (n = 8) autoimmune disease patients with B cell depletion, as well as previously infected (n = 30) and vaccinated (n = 30) healthy controls. RESULTS: As expected, B cell and T cell responses to the nucleocapsid protein were observed only after infection, while respective responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 were found after both infection and vaccination. A SARS-CoV-2 antibody response was observed in all vaccinated controls (30 of 30 [100%]) but in none of the vaccinated patients with B cell depletion (0 of 8). In contrast, after SARS-CoV-2 infection, both the patients with B cell depletion (spike S1, 5 of 6 [83%]; nucleocapsid, 3 of 6 [50%]) and healthy controls (spike S1, 28 of 30 [93%]; nucleocapsid, 28 of 30 [93%]) developed antibodies. T cell responses against the spike S1 and nucleocapsid proteins were found in both infected and vaccinated patients with B cell depletion and in the controls. CONCLUSION: These data show that B cell depletion completely blocks humoral but not T cell SARS-CoV-2 vaccination response. Furthermore, limited humoral immune responses are found after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with B cell depletion.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Depletion/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology
11.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(5): 909-910, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490706
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438758

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as BNT162b2 (Comirnaty®), have proven to be highly immunogenic and efficient but also show marked reactogenicity, leading to adverse effects (AEs). Here, we analyzed whether the severity of AEs predicts the antibody response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Healthcare workers without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, who received a prime-boost vaccination with BNT162b2, completed a standardized electronic questionnaire on the duration and severity of AEs. Serum specimens were collected two to four weeks after the boost vaccination and tested with the COVID-19 ELISA IgG (Vircell-IgG), the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG CLIA (DiaSorin-IgG) and the iFlash-2019-nCoV NAb surrogate neutralization assay (Yhlo-NAb). A penalized linear regression model fitted by machine learning was used to correlate AEs with antibody levels. Eighty subjects were enrolled in the study. Systemic, but not local, AEs occurred more frequently after the boost vaccination. Elevated SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels were measured in 92.5% of subjects with Vircell-IgG and in all subjects with DiaSorin-IgG and Yhlo-NAb. Gender, age and BMI showed no association with the antibody levels or with the AEs. The linear regression model identified headache, malaise and nausea as AEs with the greatest variable importance for higher antibody levels (Vircell-IgG and DiaSorin-IgG). However, the model performance for predicting antibody levels from AEs was very low for Vircell-IgG (squared correlation coefficient r2 = 0.04) and DiaSorin-IgG (r2 = 0.06). AEs did not predict the surrogate neutralization (Yhlo-NAb) results. In conclusion, AEs correlate only weakly with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody levels after COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA.

13.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e724-e736, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373323

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases were considered to be at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19. Data collected over the past year, however, suggest that a diagnosis of inflammatory arthritis, psoriasis, or inflammatory bowel diseases does not increase risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe COVID-19 compared with people without these diseases. Furthermore, substantial data suggest that certain medications frequently used in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, in particular cytokine inhibitors, might even lower the risk for severe COVID-19. Conversely, glucocorticoids and potentially B-cell-depleting treatments seem to worsen COVID-19 outcomes. Additionally, the first data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with these diseases suggest that tolerability of vaccination in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases is good, although the immune response to vaccination can be somewhat reduced in this patient group, particularly those taking methotrexate or CD20-targeted treatment.

15.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1339-1344, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the humoral and cellular immune response to messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) on immunomodulatory treatment. METHODS: Established patients at New York University Langone Health with IMID (n=51) receiving the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were assessed at baseline and after second immunisation. Healthy subjects served as controls (n=26). IgG antibody responses to the spike protein were analysed for humoral response. Cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 was further analysed using high-parameter spectral flow cytometry. A second independent, validation cohort of controls (n=182) and patients with IMID (n=31) from Erlangen, Germany, were also analysed for humoral immune response. RESULTS: Although healthy subjects (n=208) and patients with IMID on biologic treatments (mostly on tumour necrosis factor blockers, n=37) demonstrate robust antibody responses (over 90%), those patients with IMID on background methotrexate (n=45) achieve an adequate response in only 62.2% of cases. Similarly, patients with IMID on methotrexate do not demonstrate an increase in CD8+ T-cell activation after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: In two independent cohorts of patients with IMID, methotrexate, a widely used immunomodulator for the treatment of several IMIDs, adversely affected humoral and cellular immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Although precise cut-offs for immunogenicity that correlate with vaccine efficacy are yet to be established, our findings suggest that different strategies may need to be explored in patients with IMID taking methotrexate to increase the chances of immunisation efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 as has been demonstrated for augmenting immunogenicity to other viral vaccines.

16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1312-1316, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To better understand the factors that influence the humoral immune response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). METHODS: Patients and controls from a large COVID-19 study, with (1) no previous history of COVID-19, (2) negative baseline anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test and (3) SARS-CoV-2 vaccination at least 10 days before serum collection were measured for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Demographic, disease-specific and vaccination-specific data were recorded. RESULTS: Vaccination responses from 84 patients with IMID and 182 controls were analysed. While all controls developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, five patients with IMID failed to develop a response (p=0.003). Moreover, 99.5% of controls but only 90.5% of patients with IMID developed neutralising antibody activity (p=0.0008). Overall responses were delayed and reduced in patients (mean (SD): 6.47 (3.14)) compared with controls (9.36 (1.85); p<0.001). Estimated marginal means (95% CI) adjusted for age, sex and time from first vaccination to sampling were 8.48 (8.12-8.85) for controls and 6.90 (6.45-7.35) for IMIDs. Significantly reduced vaccination responses pertained to untreated, conventionally and anticytokine treated patients with IMID. CONCLUSIONS: Immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 are delayed and reduced in patients with IMID. This effect is based on the disease itself rather than concomitant treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 651715, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The course of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been of special concern in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) due to the immune dysregulation that may be associated with these diseases and the medications used for IRDs, that may affect innate immune responses. OBJECTIVE: In this cohort study, we aimed to report the disease characteristics and variables associated with COVID-19 outcome among Turkish patients with IRDs. METHODS: Between April and June, 2020, 167 adult IRD patients with COVID-19 were registered from 31 centers in 14 cities in Turkey. Disease outcome was classified in 4 categories; (i) outpatient management, (ii) hospitalization without oxygen requirement, (iii) hospitalization with oxygen requirement, and (iv) intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine variables associated with a worse outcome. RESULTS: 165 patients (mean age: 50 ± 15.6 years, 58.2% female) were included. Twenty-four patients (14.5%) recovered under outpatient management, 141 (85.5%) were hospitalized, 49 (30%) required inpatient oxygen support, 22 (13%) were treated in the ICU (17 received invasive mechanic ventilation) and 16 (10%) died. Glucocorticoid use (OR: 4.53, 95%CI 1.65-12.76), chronic kidney disease (OR: 12.8, 95%CI 2.25-103.5), pulmonary disease (OR: 2.66, 95%CI 1.08-6.61) and obesity (OR: 3.7, 95%CI 1.01-13.87) were associated with a worse outcome. Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) do not seem to affect COVID-19 outcome while conventional synthetic DMARDs may have a protective effect (OR: 0.36, 95%CI 0.17-0.75). Estimates for the associations between IRD diagnoses and outcome were inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Among IRD patients with COVID-19, comorbidities and glucocorticoid use were associated with a worse outcome, while biologic DMARDs do not seem to be associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Regression Analysis , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/mortality , Rheumatic Diseases/physiopathology , Turkey
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3774, 2020 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672188

ABSTRACT

Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) of the joints, gut and skin are treated with inhibitors of inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Investigating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in IMIDs we observe a reduced incidence of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in IMID patients treated with cytokine inhibitors compared to patients receiving no such inhibitors and two healthy control populations, despite similar social exposure. Hence, cytokine inhibitors seem to at least partially protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Immune System Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk
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