Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 82
Filter
1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017799

ABSTRACT

During July-August 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving 21 residents (all fully vaccinated) and 10 staff (9 fully vaccinated) occurred in a Connecticut nursing home. The outbreak was likely initiated by a fully vaccinated staff member and propagated by fully vaccinated persons. Prior COVID-19 was protective among vaccinated residents.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia. METHODS: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children's of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children's of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

4.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Characterize college student COVID-19 behaviors and attitudes during the early pandemic. Participants: Students on two university campuses in Wisconsin. METHODS: Surveys administered in September and November 2020. RESULTS: Few students (3-19%) participated in most in-person activities during the semester, with eating at restaurants as the exception (72-80%) and attending work (35%) and parties (33%) also reported more frequently. The majority wore masks in public (94-99%), but comparatively fewer (42%) did so at parties. Mask-wearing at parties decreased from September to November (p < 0.05). Students attending parties, or consuming more alcohol, were less concerned and more likely to take COVID-19-associated risks. CONCLUSIONS: Students were motivated to adhere to COVID-19 prevention measures but gathered socially. Though there was frequent public masking, mask-wearing at parties declined in November and may represent pandemic fatigue. High-yield strategies for decreasing viral spread may include changing masking social norms and engaging with students about creative risk-reduction strategies.

5.
Vaccine ; 40(33): 4845-4855, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. However, evidence is emerging on the degree of protection across variants and in high-transmission settings. To better understand the protection afforded by vaccination specifically in a high-transmission setting, we examined household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during a period of high community incidence with predominant SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant, among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts. METHODS: We conducted a household transmission investigation in San Diego County, California, and Denver, Colorado, during January-April 2021. Households were enrolled if they had at least one person with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, demographic information, and vaccination history from all consenting household members. We compared infection risks (IRs), RT-PCR cycle threshold values, SARS-CoV-2 culture results, and antibody statuses among vaccinated and unvaccinated household contacts. RESULTS: We enrolled 493 individuals from 138 households. The SARS-CoV-2 variant was identified from 121/138 households (88%). The most common variants were Alpha (75/121, 62%) and Epsilon (19/121, 16%). There were no households with discordant lineages among household members. One fully vaccinated secondary case was symptomatic (13%); the other 5 were asymptomatic (87%). Among unvaccinated secondary cases, 105/108 (97%) were symptomatic. Among 127 households with a single primary case, the IR for household contacts was 45% (146/322; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 40-51%). The observed IR was higher in unvaccinated (130/257, 49%, 95% CI 45-57%) than fully vaccinated contacts (6/26, 23%, 95% CI 11-42%). A lower proportion of households with a fully vaccinated primary case had secondary cases (1/5, 20%) than households with an unvaccinated primary case (66/108, 62%). CONCLUSIONS: Although SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated household contacts were reported in this high transmission setting, full vaccination protected against SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings further support the protective effect of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight the need for ongoing vaccination among eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , California/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Humans
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 852-858, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912315

ABSTRACT

On April 21, 2022, CDC issued a health advisory† encouraging U.S. clinicians to report all patients aged <10 years with hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities, after identification of similar cases in both the United States (1) and Europe.§ A high proportion of initially reported patients had adenovirus detected in whole blood specimens, thus the health advisory encouraged clinicians to consider requesting adenovirus testing, preferentially on whole blood specimens. For patients meeting the criteria in the health advisory (patients under investigation [PUIs]), jurisdictional public health authorities abstracted medical charts and interviewed patient caregivers. As of June 15, 2022, a total of 296 PUIs with hepatitis onset on or after October 1, 2021, were reported from 42 U.S. jurisdictions. The median age of PUIs was 2 years, 2 months. Most PUIs were hospitalized (89.9%); 18 (6.1%) required a liver transplant, and 11 (3.7%) died. Adenovirus was detected in a respiratory, blood, or stool specimen of 100 (44.6%) of 224 patients.¶ Current or past infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported in 10 of 98 (10.2%) and 32 of 123 (26.0%) patients, respectively. No common exposures (e.g., travel, food, or toxicants) were identified. This nationwide investigation is ongoing. Further clinical data are needed to understand the cause of hepatitis in these patients and to assess the potential association with adenovirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , United States/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908780

ABSTRACT

In April 2021, we assessed mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the context of a COVID-19 outbreak in a skilled nursing facility. Among 28 cases, genomic sequencing was performed on four specimens on four different patients, and all were classified by sequence analysis as the Beta (B.1.351) variant. Adjusted VE among residents was 65% (95% Confidence Interval: 25-84%). These findings underscore the importance of vaccination for prevention of COVID-19 in skilled nursing facilities.

8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(24): 797-802, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903986

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, CDC was notified of a cluster of previously healthy children with hepatitis of unknown etiology evaluated at a single U.S. hospital (1). On April 21, 2022, following an investigation of this cluster and reports of similar cases in Europe (2,3), a health advisory* was issued requesting U.S. providers to report pediatric cases† of hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities. In the United States and Europe, many of these patients have also received positive adenovirus test results (1,3). Typed specimens have indicated adenovirus type 41, which typically causes gastroenteritis (1,3). Although adenovirus hepatitis has been reported in immunocompromised persons, adenovirus is not a recognized cause of hepatitis in healthy children (4). Because neither acute hepatitis of unknown etiology nor adenovirus type 41 is reportable in the United States, it is unclear whether either has recently increased above historical levels. Data from four sources were analyzed to assess trends in hepatitis-associated emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations, liver transplants, and adenovirus stool testing results among children in the United States. Because of potential changes in health care-seeking behavior during 2020-2021, data from October 2021-March 2022 were compared with a pre-COVID-19 pandemic baseline. These data do not suggest an increase in pediatric hepatitis or adenovirus types 40/41 above baseline levels. Pediatric hepatitis is rare, and the relatively low weekly and monthly counts of associated outcomes limit the ability to interpret small changes in incidence. Ongoing assessment of trends, in addition to enhanced epidemiologic investigations, will help contextualize reported cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in U.S. children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Adenoviridae , Adenoviruses, Human , Child , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Spring 2021, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (Alpha) became the predominant variant in the U.S. Research suggests that Alpha has increased transmissibility compared to non-Alpha lineages. We estimated household secondary infection risk (SIR), assessed characteristics associated with transmission, and compared symptoms of persons with Alpha and non-Alpha infections. METHODS: We followed households with SARS-CoV-2 infection for two weeks in San Diego County and metropolitan Denver, January to April 2021. We collected epidemiologic information and biospecimens for serology, RT-PCR, and whole genome sequencing. We stratified SIR and symptoms by lineage, and identified characteristics associated with transmission using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: We investigated 127 households with 322 household contacts; 72 households (56.7%) had member(s) with secondary infections. SIRs were not significantly higher for Alpha (61.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52.4-69.0%]) than non-Alpha (55.6% [CI 44.7-65.9%], P = 0.49). In households with Alpha, persons who identified as Asian or Hispanic/Latino had significantly higher SIRs than those who identified as White (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Close contact (e.g., kissing, hugging) with primary cases was associated with increased transmission for all lineages. Persons with Alpha infection were more likely to report constitutional symptoms than persons with non-Alpha (86.9% vs. 76.8%, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Household SIRs were similar for Alpha and non-Alpha. Comparable SIRs may be due to saturation of transmission risk in households owing to extensive close contact, or true lack of difference in transmission rates. Avoiding close contact within households may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission for all lineages among household members.

10.
J Pediatr ; 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the household secondary infection risk (SIR) of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and non-Alpha lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children. STUDY DESIGN: During January to April 2021, we prospectively followed households with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We collected questionnaires, serial nasopharyngeal swabs for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing and whole genome sequencing, and serial blood samples for serology testing. We calculated SIRs by primary case age (pediatric vs adult), household contact age, and viral lineage. We evaluated risk factors associated with transmission and described symptom profiles among children. RESULTS: Among 36 households with pediatric primary cases, 21 (58%) had secondary infections. Among 91 households with adult primary cases, 51 (56%) had secondary infections. SIRs among pediatric and adult primary cases were 45% and 54%, respectively (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.41-1.54). SIRs among pediatric primary cases with Alpha and non-Alpha lineage were 55% and 46%, respectively (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.51-4.53). SIRs among pediatric and adult household contacts were 55% and 49%, respectively (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.50). Among pediatric contacts, no significant differences in the odds of acquiring infection by demographic or household characteristics were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from children and adult primary cases to household members was frequent. The risk of secondary infection was similar among child and adult household contacts. Among children, household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of secondary infection was not influenced by lineage. Continued mitigation strategies (eg, masking, physical distancing, vaccination) are needed to protect at-risk groups regardless of virus lineage circulating in communities.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Short-term rehabilitation units present unique infection control challenges due to high turnover and medically complex residents. In June 2021, Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a SARS-CoV-2 Delta outbreak in a skilled nursing facility short-term rehabilitation unit. We describe the outbreak and assess vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: Facility electronic medical records were reviewed for residents who spent >1 night on the affected unit between June 10-July 23, 2021, to collect demographics, SARS-CoV-2 test results, underlying medical conditions, vaccination status, and clinical outcomes. COVID-19 VE estimates using Cox proportional hazards models were calculated. RESULTS: Forty (37%) of 109 short-stay rehabilitation unit residents who met inclusion criteria tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 positive case-patients were mostly male (58%) and white (78%) with a median age of 65 (range: 27-92) years; 11 (27%) were immunocompromised. Of residents, 39% (10 cases; 32 non-cases) received 2-doses and 9% (4 cases, 6 non-cases) received 1-dose of mRNA vaccine. Among non-immunocompromised residents, adjusted 2-dose primary-series mRNA VE against symptomatic infection was 80% (95% CI: 15, 95). More cases were hospitalized (33%) or died (38%) than non-cases (10% hospitalized; 16% died). CONCLUSIONS: In this large SARS-CoV-2 Delta outbreak in a high-turnover short term rehabilitation unit, a low vaccination rate and medically complex resident population were noted alongside severe outcomes. VE of 2-dose primary-series mRNA vaccine against symptomatic infection was the highest in non-immunocompromised residents. Health departments can use vaccine coverage data to prioritize facilities for assistance in preventing outbreaks.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336889

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care antigen tests are an important tool for SARS-CoV-2 detection, but they are less clinically sensitive than real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), impacting their efficacy as screening procedures. Our goal in this study was to see whether we could improve this sensitivity by considering antigen test results in combination with other relevant information, namely exposure status and reported symptoms. In November of 2020, we collected 3,419 paired upper respiratory specimens tested by RT-PCR and the Abbott BinaxNOW antigen test at two community testing sites in Pima County, Arizona. We used symptom, exposure, and antigen testing data to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of various symptom definitions in predicting RT-PCR positivity. Our analysis yielded 6 novel multi-symptom case definitions with and without antigen test results, the best of which overall achieved a Youden’s J index of 0.66, as compared with 0.52 for antigen testing alone. Using a random forest as a guide, we show that this definition, along with our others, does not lose the ability to generalize well to new data despite achieving optimal performance in our sample. Our methodology is broadly applicable, and we have made our code publicly available to aid public health practitioners in developing or fine- tuning their own screening rules.

13.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(7): 701-709, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825745

ABSTRACT

Importance: As self-collected home antigen tests become widely available, a better understanding of their performance during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection is needed. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of home antigen tests compared with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture by days from illness onset, as well as user acceptability. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January to May 2021 in San Diego County, California, and metropolitan Denver, Colorado. The convenience sample included adults and children with RT-PCR-confirmed infection who used self-collected home antigen tests for 15 days and underwent at least 1 nasopharyngeal swab for RT-PCR, viral culture, and sequencing. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the daily sensitivity of home antigen tests to detect RT-PCR-confirmed cases. Secondary outcomes included the daily percentage of antigen test, RT-PCR, and viral culture results that were positive, and antigen test sensitivity compared with same-day RT-PCR and cultures. Antigen test use errors and acceptability were assessed for a subset of participants. Results: This study enrolled 225 persons with RT-PCR-confirmed infection (median [range] age, 29 [1-83] years; 117 female participants [52%]; 10 [4%] Asian, 6 [3%] Black or African American, 50 [22%] Hispanic or Latino, 3 [1%] Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, 145 [64%] White, and 11 [5%] multiracial individuals) who completed 3044 antigen tests and 642 nasopharyngeal swabs. Antigen test sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 45%-55%) during the infectious period, 64% (95% CI, 56%-70%) compared with same-day RT-PCR, and 84% (95% CI, 75%-90%) compared with same-day cultures. Antigen test sensitivity peaked 4 days after illness onset at 77% (95% CI, 69%-83%). Antigen test sensitivity improved with a second antigen test 1 to 2 days later, particularly early in the infection. Six days after illness onset, antigen test result positivity was 61% (95% CI, 53%-68%). Almost all (216 [96%]) surveyed individuals reported that they would be more likely to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection if home antigen tests were available over the counter. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study of home antigen tests suggest that sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 was moderate compared with RT-PCR and high compared with viral culture. The results also suggest that symptomatic individuals with an initial negative home antigen test result for SARS-CoV-2 infection should test again 1 to 2 days later because test sensitivity peaked several days after illness onset and improved with repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
AJPM Focus ; : 100004, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819492

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mitigation behaviors are key to preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We identified behaviors associated with secondary transmission from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 primary cases to household contacts and described characteristics associated with reporting these behaviors. Methods: Households with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections were recruited in California and Colorado from January to April 2021. Self-reported behaviors and demographic were collected through interviews. We investigated behaviors associated with transmission, and individual and household characteristics associated with behaviors, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression with Generalized Estimating Equations to account for household clustering. Results: Among household contacts of primary cases, 43.3% (133/307) became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Upon adjusted analysis, household contacts who slept in the same bedroom with the primary case (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.84) and ate food prepared by the primary case (aOR: 1.98 95% CI: 1.02, 3.87) had increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Household contacts in homes ≤2000 ft2 had increased odds of sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case compared to those in homes >2000 ft2 (aOR: 3.97, 95% CI: 1.73, 9.10). Parents, siblings, and other relationships (extended family, friends, or roommate) of the primary case had decreased odds of eating food prepared by the primary case compared to partners. Conclusion: Sleeping in the same bedroom as the primary case and eating food prepared by the primary case were associated with secondary transmission. Household dimension and relationship to primary case were associated with these behaviors. Our findings encourage innovative means to promote adherence to mitigation measures that reduce household transmission.

15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 809356, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792881

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment; this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78-16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.03-4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85; 95%CI = 1.44-97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78; 95%CI = 1.70-19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility; adjusted OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.07-4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Medicare , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787454

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment;this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78–16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17;95%CI = 1.03–4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85;95%CI = 1.44–97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78;95%CI = 1.70–19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility;adjusted OR = 2.15;95%CI = 1.07–4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.

18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 314, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To improve understanding of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examined seroprevalence, incidence of infection, and seroconversion among a cohort of young adults living on university campuses during the fall of 2020. METHODS: At the beginning (semester start) and end (semester end) of an 11-week period, serum collected from 107 students was tested using the qualitative Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG and AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assays. Results were matched to interim weekly surveillance viral testing and symptom data. RESULTS: With the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, 15 (14.0%) students were seropositive at semester start; 29 (27.1%) students were seropositive at semester end; 10 (9.3%) were seropositive at both times. With the AdviseDx SARS-CoV-2 IgG II assay, 17 (16.3%) students were seropositive at semester start, 37 (35.6%) were seropositive at semester end, and 16 (15.3%) were seropositive at both times. Overall, 23 students (21.5%) had positive viral tests during the semester. Infection was identified by serial testing in a large majority of individuals who seroconverted using both assays. Those seropositive at semester end more frequently reported symptomatic infections (56.5%) than asymptomatic infections (30.4%). CONCLUSION: Differences between antibody targets were observed, with more declines in antibody index values below the threshold of positivity with the anti-nucleocapsid assay compared to the anti-spike assay. Serology testing, combined with serial viral testing, can detect seroconversions, and help understand the potential correlates of protection provided by antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Students , Universities
19.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since rotavirus vaccines became available in the United States in 2006, there have been reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations, changes in seasonality, and the emergence of a biennial trend of rotavirus activity. Reductions in other pathogens have been associated with COVID-19 mitigation measures. We assessed ongoing rotavirus disease trends during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We report a 3-week moving average of the number of rotavirus tests, positive tests, and the percent positivity from laboratories reporting to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) from July 2000-June 2021. To complement NREVSS data, we analyzed Google internet search interest in "rotavirus" from July 2004 to June 2021. RESULTS: Declines in rotavirus activity following vaccine introduction and the biennial trend are evident through the 2018-2019 surveillance year. In 2019-2021, rotavirus test positivity was below the historic ranges during the months of typically high rotavirus activity and precipitous declines were noted in March 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In the 15 years since rotavirus vaccine was introduced, the number of laboratory-detected rotavirus infections has been consistently lower than during the pre-vaccine era. During the COVID-19 pandemic, rotavirus activity was suppressed. There may be many rotavirus susceptible children during the 2021-2022 rotavirus season.

20.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736504

ABSTRACT

Self-collected specimens can expand access to SARS-CoV-2 testing. At a large inner-city hospital 1,082 participants self-collected saliva and anterior nasal swab (ANS) samples before healthcare workers collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples on the same day. To characterize patient preferences for self-collection, this investigation explored ability, comfort, and ease of ANS and saliva self-collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing along with associated patient characteristics, including medical history and symptoms of COVID-19. With nearly all participants successfully submitting a specimen, favorable ratings from most participants (at least >79% in ease and comfort), and equivocal preference between saliva and ANS, self-collection is a viable SARS-CoV-2 testing option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Georgia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL