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1.
ASAIO J ; 68(4): 478-485, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764692

ABSTRACT

Cessation of continuous analgesia and sedation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) receiving venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitates early extubation, family, patient and provider engagement, and mobility. Outcomes associated with an awake ECMO strategy have not been well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes in patients receiving this strategy. This was a retrospective review of ARDS patients receiving awake VV ECMO. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included days requiring ECMO, time from cannulation to extubation, complications, patients requiring tracheostomy, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and discharge disposition. In a subgroup analysis, outcomes were compared between non-COVID and COVID ECMO patients. Sixty-two patients were included with a survival to hospital discharge of 85.5%. Days requiring ECMO was 33.0 (0.0-75.0) and cannulation to extubation was 6.0 (4.0-11.0). Three patients received a tracheostomy (4.8%). Bleeding and infection were reported in 80.6% and 82.3% of patients, respectively. Intensive care unit length of stay was 46.0 days (29.0-90.0) and hospital LOS was 51.0 days (32.0-91.0). Over half of the patients (51.6%) were discharged to an acute rehabilitation facility and 27.4% were discharged home. There was similar survival to hospital discharge between the COVID and non-COVID awake ECMO patients (85% in both groups, p = 1.000). This study highlights the impact of an awake ECMO approach on survival to hospital discharge. Future studies are needed to evaluate this approach as compared to current practice to determine if this should become the standard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Wakefulness
2.
Artif Organs ; 46(8): 1659-1668, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701591

ABSTRACT

In a multicenter, retrospective analysis of 435 patients with refractory COVID-19 placed on V-V ECMO, cannulation by a single, dual-lumen catheter with directed outflow to the pulmonary artery was associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , COVID-19/therapy , Catheterization/methods , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): e388-e394, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Does extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) improve outcomes in ECMO-eligible patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure compared to maximum ventilation alone (MVA)? SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: ECMO is beneficial in severe cases of respiratory failure when mechanical ventilation is inadequate. Outcomes for ECMO-eligible COVID-19 patients on MVA have not been reported. Consequently, a direct comparison between COVID-19 patients on ECMO and those on MVA has not been established. METHODS: A total of 3406 COVID-19 patients treated at two major medical centers in Chicago were studied. One hundred ninety-five required maximum ventilatory support, and met ECMO eligibility criteria. Eighty ECMO patients were propensity matched to an equal number of MVA patients using detailed demographic, physiological, and comorbidity data. Primary outcome was survival and disposition at discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent of patients were decannulated from ECMO. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued in 75% ECMO and 16% MVA patients. Twenty-five percent of patients in the ECMO arm expired, 21% while on ECMO, compared with 74% in the MVA cohort. Mortality was significantly lower across all age and BMI groups in the ECMO arm. Sixty-eight percent ECMO and 26% MVA patients were discharged from the hospital. Fewer ECMO patients required long-term rehabilitation. Major complications such as septic shock, ventilator associated pneumonia, inotropic requirements, acute liver and kidney injuries are less frequent among ECMO patients. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO-eligible patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure demonstrate a 3-fold improvement in survival with ECMO. They are also in a better physical state at discharge and have lower overall complication rates. As such, strong consideration should be given for ECMO when mechanical ventilatory support alone becomes insufficient in treating COVID-19 respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(6): 2107-2116.e6, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics, outcomes, and clinical factors associated with death in patients with COVID-19 requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted. The cohort consisted of adult patients (18 years of age and older) requiring ECMO in the period from March 1, 2020, to September 30, 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality after ECMO initiation assessed with a time to event analysis at 90 days. Multivariable Cox proportional regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 292 patients from 17 centers comprised the study cohort. Patients were 49 (interquartile range, 39-57) years old and 81 (28%) were female. At the end of the follow-up period, 19 (6%) patients were still receiving ECMO, 25 (9%) were discontinued from ECMO but remained hospitalized, 135 (46%) were discharged or transferred alive, and 113 (39%) died during the hospitalization. The cumulative in-hospital mortality at 90 days was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-47%). Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61 per 10 years), renal dysfunction measured according to serum creatinine level (aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.45), and cardiopulmonary resuscitation before ECMO placement (aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01-3.46). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19 necessitating ECMO support, in-hospital mortality occurred in fewer than half of the cases. ECMO might serve as a viable modality for terminally ill patients with refractory COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
7.
JAMA Surg ; 156(4): 403, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049553
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