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1.
Chemosensors ; 10(7):254, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1917308

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the progress of the global vaccination against the COVID-19 disease, fast, accurate and affordable assays are needed for monitoring the efficiency of developing immunity against the coronavirus at the population level. In this context, we herewith report the proof-of-concept development of an innovative bioelectric biosensor for the ultra-detection (in less than three minutes) of IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike antigen. The biosensor comprises a disposable set of screen-printed electrodes upon which are immobilized cells engineered to bear the S1 protein on their surface. When anti-S1 antibodies are presented to the engineered cell population, a rapid, specific, and selective change of the cell membrane potential occurs;this is in turn recorded by a bespoke portable potentiometer. End results are communicated via Bluetooth to a smartphone equipped with a customized user interface. By using the novel biosensor, anti-S1 antibodies could be detected at concentrations as low as 5 ng/mL. In a preliminary clinical trial, positive results were derived from patients vaccinated or previously infected by the virus. Selectivity over other respiratory viruses was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity to antibodies against rhinovirus. After further clinical validation and extension to also screen IgM, IgA and possible neutralizing antibodies, our approach is intended to facilitate the mass and reliable detection of antibodies in the early stages following vaccination and to monitor the duration and level of acquired immunity both in a clinical and self-testing environment.

2.
J Biol Rhythms ; : 7487304221100951, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902252

ABSTRACT

To examine whether immunization time affects the immune responses elicited by the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, we investigated the possible association between total SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (TAbs-RBD) and neutralizing (NAbs-RBD) antibodies with vaccination time. A cohort of 468 healthcare workers (mean age [±SD]: 48 [±13] years), were included in the study. One month after the second dose, healthcare workers who were vaccinated between 1500-2200 h had higher TAbs-RBD compared to 0700-1100 h and 1100-1500 h (p = 0.006). One month after the third dose, healthcare workers who were vaccinated between 0700-1100 h and 1500-2200 h had significantly higher TAbs-RBD compared to 1100-1500 h (p = 0.034). However, no association of NAbs-RBD with vaccination time was detected after each of the 3 doses (p > 0.4). Despite the possible effect of BNT162b2 vaccination time in TAbs-RBD levels, possibly due to rhythmic expression of clock genes, neutralizing activity was not associated with vaccination time and, therefore, further investigation is required.

3.
J Cyst Fibros ; 21(3): e184-e187, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873121

ABSTRACT

Data regarding immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are limited. We prospectively measured total (TAbs-RBD; U/ml) and neutralizing (NAbs-RBD; %) antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 spike-receptor binding domain (RBD) protein in 33 CF patients and 66 healthy controls with median age (IQR): 19.6 (17.6-24.3) years and 31 (29-36) years, respectively and investigated possible associations with epidemiological and clinical parameters. Compared to healthy controls, CF patients had higher levels of TAbs-RBD and NAbs-RBD after both doses (P-value < 0.001). One month after the second dose, CF patients and controls had TAbs-RBD: median (IQR): 3396 (2443) and 1452 (1231) U/ml, respectively. Similarly, the NAbs-RBD (%) were: 97.30 (1.00) and 95.70 (3.71) %, respectively. CF patients also had fewer local and systemic adverse events (AEs) (P-value < 0.001). Among CF patients, no significant differences in immunogenicity were detected regarding the phenotype, genotype, medications, or severity of the disease. BNT162b2 vaccine was immunogenic with limited reactogenicity in CF patients regardless of the phenotype or severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis , Vaccines , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2174-2180, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640752

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective serosurveillance data in children regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We prospectively investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children during a 16-month period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the four waves of the pandemic, before SARS-CoV-2 adolescents' vaccination. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek pediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19 infection, were randomly collected from 05/2020 to 08/2021. The study period was divided into four 4-month periods representing relevant epidemic waves. Total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for nucleocapsid protein were determined using the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent. A total of 3099 children (0-16 years) were included in the study. A total of 344 (11.1%) seropositive children were detected (males: 205 [59.5%]; median age [interquartile range [IQR]]: 3 years [0.6-10]). Seropositivity rates (%) increased during the four 4-month periods: 1.4%, 8.6%, 17.2%, and 17.6%, respectively. A correlation of seropositivity rates in children with new diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 cases in the community was detected. No significant differences were detected between males and females. Seropositivity was significantly higher in hospitalized than in nonhospitalized children and in non-Greek compared to Greek children (p < 0.001). The lowest seropositivity rate before school opening (9/2021) was detected in the age groups 6-12 years (14.4%) and 12-16 years (16.1%). However, compared with the other age groups, the lowest median antibody titers were observed in children 0-1 year (median [IQR]: 13.9 cut-off index: [4.5-53.9] [p < 0.001]). Although the seropositivity of children was related to the community epidemic waves, the exposure was limited. Low seropositivity rates in school-age children support the need for SARS-CoV-2 immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
5.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5963-5967, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the association of antibody levels elicited after immunization with the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with epidemiological and clinical parameters are limited. METHODS: We prospectively measured the total (TAbs-RBD) and the neutralizing antibodies (NAbs-RBD) against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in a cohort of 268 Healthcare workers before immunization, 20 days after the 1st dose and 30 days after the 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. A statistical analysis for possible association of antibodies' levels with epidemiological and clinical parameters was performed. RESULTS: The mean age (±SD) of the participants was 45.45 years (±11.93) (range: 24-70 years) and 211 (79.9%) were females. Statistically significant differences were detected regarding both TAbs-RBD and NAbs-RBD between the first and second doses of the vaccine (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) percentage (%) of NAbs-RBD after the 1st dose was 51.07% (31.60%) and after the 2nd dose 95.31% (3.70%) (P < 0.001). The correlation between the TAbs-RBD and NAbs-RBD was after the 1st dose, Spearman's, rho: 0.861 (P < 0.001) and after the 2nd dose rho: 0.989 (P < 0.001). Twenty days after the 1st dose, 56/264 (21.2%) of the participants had low levels of NAbs-RBD, while one month after the 2nd dose all of them had protective levels of NAbs-RBD. After the 2nd vaccine dose, a statistically significant negative association of TAbs-RBD was detected for age (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.011), and immunosuppressive medications (P < 0.001), while a positive association was detected for BMI (P = 0.004) and systemic adverse events after immunization (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: A significant correlation of TAbs-RBD and NAbs-RBD was detected after both vaccine doses. Older age, smoking, and immunosuppressive medications negatively affected the final antibody level after SARS-CoV-2 immunization. Our findings emphasize the significance of the 2nd vaccine dose especially in the older age groups.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4755-4760, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of adverse reactions (ARs) after immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) with BNT162b2 vaccine and to associate them with clinical and epidemiological characteristics. METHODS: A form containing demographic and clinical data as well as ARs after both doses of the vaccine was completed, and statistical association analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 502 HCWs (females 78.3%) with mean age (±SD) 48.17 years (±12.97) participated. After the first dose, 404 (80.5%) HCWs reported at least one local AR (LAR) and 366 (72.9%) after the second dose (p-value=0.004). After the first dose, 121 (24.1%) HCWs reported at least one systemic AR (SAR) and 275 (54.8%) after the second dose (p-value<0.0001).In the logistic regression analysis, there was no association of gender or medical history of underlying disease with LARs. There was a negative association of age with the cumulative score (CS) of LARs (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.69-0.96) after the first dose. Females had a positive association with CS of SARs following both doses (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 1.39-4.73 and 2.71, 1.76-4.19, respectively). Age was negatively associated with CS of SARs (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.57-0.76) after the second dose. Severe ARs included Bell's palsy (1) and tinnitus with temporary hearing loss (1). CONCLUSION: The administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine in our HCWs cohort had a good safety profile with the most common ARs being self-limited. An increasing rate of SARs following the second vaccine dose was noticed. Rare but severe possible ARs should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e237, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500393

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is rapidly evolving via mutagenesis, lengthening the pandemic, and threatening the public health. Until August 2021, 12 variants of SARS-CoV-2 named as variants of concern (VOC; Alpha to Delta) or variants of interest (VOI; Epsilon to Mu), with significant impact on transmissibility, morbidity, possible reinfection and mortality, have been identified. The VOC Delta (B.1.617.2) of Indian origin is now the dominant and the most contagious variant worldwide as it provokes a strong binding to the human ACE2 receptor, increases transmissibility and manifests considerable immune escape strategies after natural infection or vaccination. Although the development and administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, based on different technologies (mRNA, adenovirus carrier, recombinant protein, etc.), are very promising for the control of the pandemic, their effectiveness and neutralizing activity against VOCs varies significantly. In this review, we describe the most significant circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2, and the known effectiveness of currently available vaccines against them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Infection ; 50(1): 251-256, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384717

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to access the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) of a tertiary pediatric hospital after the first wave of the pandemic and to compare the results among seven commercially available antibody detection assays, including chemiluminescence (CMIA), electroluminescence (ECLIA), Εnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and rapid immunochromatography (RIC). SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection was performed in serum samples of 1216 HCWs, using a reference CMIA assay and 8/1216 (0.66%) were detected positive. Positive serum samples were further tested with other assays; however, only one sample was positive by all tests. The rest 7 cases were negative with ECLIA and ELISA and gave discordant results with RIC test. Six months later, new serum samples of seropositive HCWs were analyzed with the same 7 tests, with inconsistent results again. Identification of reliable SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests is important to determine the actual number of past infections, the duration of antibodies, and guide public health decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
Pediatr Investig ; : e12283, 2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359814

ABSTRACT

Host immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), especially in children, are still under investigation. Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitute a significant study group of immune responses as they rarely present with severe clinical manifestations, require hospitalization, or develop complications such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The deciphering of children's immune responses during COVID-19 infection will provide information about the protective mechanisms, while new potential targets for future therapies are likely to be revealed. Despite the limited immunological studies in children with COVID-19, this review compares data between adults and children in terms of innate and adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2, discusses the possible reasons why children are mostly asymptomatic, and highlights unanswered or unclear immunological issues. Current evidence suggests that the activity of innate immunity seems to be crucial to the early phases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and adaptive memory immunity is vital to prevent reinfection.

10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302155

ABSTRACT

The availability of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 represents a major step for the mass surveillance of the incidence of infection, especially regarding COVID-19 asymptomatic and/or early-stage patients. Recently, we reported the development of a Bioelectric Recognition Assay-based biosensor able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein expressed on the surface of the virus in just three minutes, with high sensitivity and selectivity. The working principle was established by measuring the change of the electric potential of membrane-engineered mammalian cells bearing the human chimeric spike S1 antibody after attachment of the respective viral protein. In the present study, we applied the novel biosensor to patient-derived nasopharyngeal samples in a clinical set-up, with absolutely no sample pretreatment. More importantly, membrane-engineered cells were pre-immobilized in a proprietary biomatrix, thus enabling their long-term preservation prior to use as well as significantly increasing their ease-of-handle as test consumables. The plug-and-apply novel biosensor was able to detect the virus in positive samples with a 92.8% success rate compared to RT-PCR. No false negative results were recorded. These findings demonstrate the potential applicability of the biosensor for the early, routine mass screening of SARS-CoV-2 on a scale not yet realized.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cell Line , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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