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1.
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2097083

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has led to a drastic increase in the frequency of videoconferencing used for work, school, and socialization. To date, the user experience impact of this increased screen time is unknown. We surveyed 489 participants (M age = 24.19, Range = 18–72) to determine which factors best predict visual and body discomfort. Along with gender, screen time, and level of subjective meeting fatigue, meeting duration significantly predicted visual discomfort. In contrast, meeting frequency (along with the level of meeting engagement, subjective meeting fatigue, and other covariates) significantly predicted bodily discomfort. These results highlight the need for greater ergonomic evaluation of work-from-home setups, as well as point to a need for shorter, fewer, and more engaging video meetings for the average worker from home. [ FROM AUTHOR]

2.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Based on SST, one might predict that older adults' well-being would be less negatively impacted by Covid-19-stress, as with other stressors, than younger people. However, whether sleep quality, which is negatively affected by aging, is similarly protected from the negative consequences of Covid-19-stress with age is unknown. Here, we examined the association between Covid-19-stress, above and beyond general-stress, and sleep quality and how it varies by age. METHOD: From December 2020 to April 2021, 386 adults reported their Covid-19-stress, sleep quality, and resilience in an online study. RESULTS: While older age was related to lower Covid-19-stress, Covid-19-stress was associated with worse sleep quality with greater age. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that at least some aspects of one's well-being may be more susceptible to the negative consequences of stress with increasing age. Our results might be better understood via SAVI model, which posits that older adults have increased susceptibility to prolonged and unavoidable stress.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2127561, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097207

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a greater risk of maternal and newborn morbidity and maternal death. In Kenya, pregnant and lactating women (PLW) were ineligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines until August 2021. How shifts in policy influence vaccine behaviors, such as health worker recommendations and vaccine uptake, is not well documented. We conducted qualitative interviews with PLW, health workers, and policymakers in Kenya to understand how different stakeholders' perceptions of national policy regarding COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy shaped vaccine behaviors and decision-making. Policymakers and health workers described pervasive uncertainty and lack of communication about the national policy, cited vaccine safety as their primary concern for administering COVID-19 vaccines to PLW, and expressed that PLW were inadequately prioritized in the COVID-19 vaccine program. PLW perceived the restrictive policy as indicative of a safety risk, resulting in vaccine hesitancy and potentially exacerbated inequities in vaccine access. These findings support the need for the development and dissemination of effective vaccine communication guidelines and the prioritization of PLW in COVID-19 vaccination policies and campaigns. To ensure PLW do not face the same inequities in future epidemics, data on infectious disease burdens and vaccine uptake should be collected systematically among pregnant women, and PLW should be included in future vaccine trials.

4.
New Zealand Medical Journal ; 135(1560):105-113, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2072947

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), is a rare post-infectious complication of COVID-19. We describe an illustrative case of MIS-A in an otherwise well, SARS-CoV-2 unvaccinated 25-year-old Tongan man who presented to hospital 30 days after mild COVID-19 illness. We highlight the progression of his illness, including treatment in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for cardiogenic shock, and detail temporal evolution of clinical, laboratory and radiographic features of his illness. Clinicians should be alert for possible MIS-A in the weeks after a surge in COVID-19 cases. Copyright © 2022 New Zealand Medical Association. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Social Issues ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2063859

ABSTRACT

In 2020, COVID‐19 in tandem with racial tensions spurred by various occurrences throughout the nation proved detrimental to minoritized persons. Black women, who are often the heads of households, familial and communal caregivers, and organizers, were tasked with protecting themselves, their families, and their communities from racialized violence and infection. This article explores the idea of safety and the responsibilities of Black women to ensure, secure, and maintain safety. The intersection of these two forces creates dual inequities. Whether sacrificing safety for the sake of racial equality or experiencing medical racism while seeking treatment for COVID‐19, the duality of Being black and a woman during two prevalent threats exacerbate existing inequities. Using symbolic interactionism to illustrate the function of structures and roles in defining Black women's positionality and intersectionality to examine the policies and systems that act on the lives of these women, we discuss the ways in which Black women created safety for themselves and their families at the intersection of both threats emphasizing the inequity in home, health, and financial outcomes among Black women. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Social Issues is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062082

ABSTRACT

In September 2021, a cluster of 6 patients with nosocomial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified in a transplant unit. A visitor and 11 healthcare workers also tested positive for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Genomic sequencing identified 3 separate introductions of SARS-CoV-2 with related transmission among the identified patients and healthcare workers.

7.
Re-Constructing the Global Network Economy: Building Pathways to Resilience in Local Economies ; : 1-248, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055820

ABSTRACT

This book looks at how to build more resilience into socio-economic networks within local communities. Understanding the relationships between attachment to place, complex systems and patterns of knowledge creation is not straightforward, but these relationships are emerging as the challenges that we face in bridging the gap between the social worlds that we inhabit and an emerging digital world. These issues have been brought into even sharper focus through changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. On the one hand, forced familiarity with communication technologies is driving globalisation forwards, whilst on the other, the crisis has created awareness of dependencies and heightened desires for more local solutions. Plenty of books have been written about the rise of digital networks and the decline of local communities. This book takes a radical approach by identifying how these trends fit together and provides examples of how digital networks can be made to work for the local as well as the global economy. Using a case study approach, the book offers a clear-sighted view of the role of relational capital in specific places and organisations and shows the transformational impact that they can have at a micro level. The book deliberately seeks to shake up preconceived ideas and is ideal for strategy practitioners and policy makers within governments and NGOs involved in connecting local to wider network economies. © 2023 Andrew Taylor and Adam Bronstone. All rights reserved.

8.
JMIR Ment Health ; 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique opportunity to examine social media and technology use during a time in which technology served as adolescents' primary form of socialization. The literature is mixed regarding how increased screen time during this period affected adolescent mental health and well-being. The mechanisms by which screen time use affected adolescent psychosocial outcomes is also unknown. OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of how social media and technology use, social connectivity, and emotional well-being intersected during pandemic-related school closures. METHODS: English-speaking adolescents ages 13-17 were recruited on Instagram for a brief screening survey; 39 participants were purposefully selected to complete a semi-structured interview regarding their social media/technology use during the pandemic. Interview summaries were abstracted from recordings and deductive codes were created for the primary question stems. These codes were subsequently reviewed for main themes. RESULTS: Main themes were 1) Adolescent social media and technology use during school closures usually allowed for more and easier social connectivity, but the amount and relative ease of connectivity differed according to purpose and type of use. 2) Emotions, particularly those of stress and happiness, were connected to whether adolescents actively or passive engaged with social media and technology. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a nuanced relationship between social media and technology use and adolescent social support and emotional well-being, including during the pandemic. Specifically, how adolescents use and/or engage with online platforms greatly influences their ability to connect with others as well as feelings of stress and happiness. In the context of the ongoing pandemic and as technology in general remains at the core of the adolescent experience, future research should continue to examine how adolescents navigate and utilize online spaces, in beneficial and harmful ways. This will inform education and interventions that foster healthy social media and technology habits.

9.
MRS bulletin ; : 1-5, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1623917

ABSTRACT

In immediate response to the COVID-19 health emergency, the Materials Science and Engineering (MatSE) department at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)—similar to most educational institutions around the world—followed health experts’ advice to quickly pivot from in-person instruction to remote instruction in an effort to prevent the spread of the virus. This means all learning activities that have conventionally taken place in classrooms, such as lectures, seminars, and laboratory practices, were adjusted accordingly during the academic years of 2019–2020 and 2020–2021;the modification of teaching methods started in March 2020.

10.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25234, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006479

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was a novel virus that originated in China in November 2019 and is most known for its respiratory compromise; however, many patients have experienced vascular thrombosis as sequelae of COVID-19. It is thought that the virus causes endothelial cell damage and increased platelet and leukocyte adhesion, causing a hypercoagulable state. While the most common presentation of hypercoagulability associated with COVID-19 is venous thrombosis, there are reports of patients who present with acute limb ischemia. We present a case of acute leg ischemia in an otherwise asymptomatic patient with no atherosclerotic risk factors.

11.
The International journal of pharmacy practice ; 30(Suppl 1):i22-i23, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998763

ABSTRACT

Introduction Housebound patients may face challenges to their medicines management due to reduced household mobility and potential lack of access to healthcare services. Previous literature has explored the medication-related needs of housebound patients from pharmacists’ perspectives (1-2). However little work has focussed on the patient/family perspective. In this study, we used data obtained from those staying at home as much as possible during the COVID-19 pandemic to fill this gap. Aim To explore home medicine practices and safety for people who were housebound during the COVID19 pandemic and to create guidance, from the patient/family perspective, for enabling pharmacists to facilitate safe medicine practices for this population. Methods Interviews were carried out with people who were taking at least one long term medication and met the criteria for ‘shielding’ and/or were over 70 years of age during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK and/or their family carers. Respondents were recruited through patient and public involvement representatives, the research team’s networks, and support groups. Potential participants were approached via personal contact and social media. Interviews were conducted by telephone or video conferencing and participants asked about their medicines management while staying at home. Inductive thematic analysis was carried out. Patient and public involvement representatives were involved in the data analysis alongside the researchers. Results Fifty people were interviewed (16 males, 34 females;mean age 68 years, range 26–93 years). Interview data suggested diversity of experiences of medicines management while staying at home. Some respondents reported no or little change, others an initial crisis followed by re-stabilisation, and others that the pandemic was a tipping point, exacerbating underlying challenges and having negative effects on their health and wellbeing. Medicine safety issues reported included omitted doses and less-effective formulations being used. Participants also described experiencing high levels of anxiety related to obtaining medicines, monitoring medicines and feeling at risk of contracting COVID-19 while accessing medicine-related healthcare services. Key factors identified as facilitating a smooth transition included patients’ own agency, support from family, friends and community, good communication with pharmacy staff, continuity of pharmacy services and synchronisation of medicines supply so that a maximum of one collection/delivery was required each month. Conclusion The study findings that we have presented relate to the UK only;this may limit the generalisability of our findings to other countries. Findings from Ireland are in the process of being analysed and will provide a basis of comparison. In addition, more females took part than males, despite efforts to address this. However, our findings suggest pharmacy staff can support medicines management for people who are housebound by synchronisation of medicines supply, delivering medicines where possible, developing/raising awareness of alternative means of communication, providing continuity of pharmacy services and signposting any community support available. References (1) Kayyali R, Funnell G, Harrap N, Patel A. Can community pharmacy successfully bridge the gap in care for housebound patients? Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2019;15:425-439. (2) Latif A, Mandane B, Anderson E, Barraclough C, Travis S. Optimizing medicine use for people who are homebound: an evaluation of a pilot domiciliary Medicine Use Review (dMUR) service in England. Integr Pharm Res Pract 2018;7:33-40.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4610, 2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977995

ABSTRACT

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, based on the first published full-length sequence (Wuhan-1). AZD1222 has been shown to have 74% vaccine efficacy against symptomatic disease in clinical trials. However, variants of concern (VoCs) have been detected, with substitutions that are associated with a reduction in virus neutralizing antibody titer. Updating vaccines to include S proteins of VoCs may be beneficial, even though current real-world data is suggesting good efficacy following boosting with vaccines encoding the ancestral S protein. Using the Syrian hamster model, we evaluate the effect of a single dose of AZD2816, encoding the S protein of the Beta VoC, and efficacy of AZD1222/AZD2816 as a heterologous primary series against challenge with the Beta or Delta variant. Minimal to no viral sgRNA could be detected in lungs of vaccinated animals obtained at 3- or 5- days post inoculation, in contrast to lungs of control animals. In Omicron-challenged hamsters, a single dose of AZD2816 or AZD1222 reduced virus shedding. Thus, these vaccination regimens are protective against the Beta, Delta, and Omicron VoCs in the hamster model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-504010

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is one of the major routes contributing to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Successful aerosol transmission occurs when people release respiratory particles carrying infectious virus in the fine aerosol size range. It remains poorly understood how infection influences the physiological host factors that are integral to this process. Here we assessed the changes in breathing, exhaled droplets, and released virus early after infection with the Alpha and Delta variants in the Syrian hamster. Infection with the two variants led to only nuanced differences in viral tissue titers, disease severity, or shedding magnitude. Both variants led to a short window of detectable virus in the air between 24 h and 48 h, which was poorly reflected by upper respiratory shedding measured in oropharyngeal swabs. The loss of viable air samples coincided with changes in airway constriction as measured by whole body plethysmography, and a decrease of fine aerosols produced in the 1-10 m aerodynamic diameter range. We found that male sex was associated with greater viral replication in the upper respiratory tract and virus shedding in the air. This coincided with an exhaled particle profile shifted towards smaller droplets, independent of variant. Transmission efficiency of Alpha and Delta did not differ on average but exhibited clear variation among donor individuals, including a superspreading event. Transmission leading to substantial dual infections only occurred when both viruses were shed by the same donor and exposure was prolonged. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that quantitative and qualitative assessment of exhaled aerosols may be critical for understanding the limitations and determinants of efficient airborne transmission, thus allowing us to control the pandemic with non-pharmaceutical interventions. SignificanceAirborne transmission is one of the major routes for SARS-CoV-2, however underlying host and virus parameters remain poorly understood. Here, we provide direct experimental evidence that the quantitative and qualitative assessment of exhaled aerosols are critical to understand the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission. We show that after infection, the Alpha and Delta variants of concern displayed a short window of detectable virus in the air in contrast to prolonged shedding measured in oropharyngeal swabs. The limited window coincided with changes in airway constriction, and a sex dependent decrease of fine aerosols produced in the 1-10 m aerodynamic diameter range. Dual airborne infections only occurred when both viruses were shed by the same donor and after prolonged exposure.

14.
Cureus ; 14(6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1957880

ABSTRACT

Introduction As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, it may be useful to elucidate its impact on services in the emergency department (ED). This research project aims to identify and analyze changes in patient presentations and disease severity within the ED at Hurley Medical Center (HMC) in Flint, Michigan, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods The study is a retrospective chart review focusing on adults 18 years and above who presented to HMC’s ED. The data collected for the study was obtained from patient charts from February 1, 2019, to July 31, 2019, and from February 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Data from the years 2019 and 2020 were analyzed using a combination of independent t-test, chi-square analysis, and regression modeling. Results There were a total of 59,345 visits analyzed within the study;33,648 ED visits within the study were in 2019 compared to 25,697 visits in 2020. There was a significant difference in patient sex between 2019 and 2020 with a larger percentage of males presenting in 2020 versus 2019 (p<0.001). Dispositions also significantly differed in 2020 compared to 2019 with more patients being admitted or dying in the ED (p<0.001). Patients who presented to the ED often presented with more severe illness in 2020 as reflected in increased length of stay in 2020 (p=0.01) and increased case mix index (p<0.001). Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced the total number of ED visits to HMC in Flint, Michigan, in 2020 than in 2019. Notably, patients were more likely to have a longer length of stay, present with more severe illness, and be admitted or die in the ED when compared to 2019. The results from this study can be used for future planning for the next public health emergency.

15.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-502072

ABSTRACT

Omicron has demonstrated a competitive advantage over Delta in vaccinated people. To understand this, we designed a transmission chain experiment using naive, intranasally (IN) or intramuscularly (IM) vaccinated, and previously infected (PI) hamsters. Vaccination and previous infection protected animals from disease and virus replication after Delta and Omicron dual challenge. A gradient in transmission blockage was observed: IM vaccination displayed moderate transmission blockage potential over three airborne chains (approx. 70%), whereas, IN vaccination and PI blocked airborne transmission in >90%. In naive hamsters, Delta completely outcompeted Omicron within and between hosts after dual infection in onward transmission. Although Delta also outcompeted Omicron in the vaccinated and PI transmission chains, an increase in Omicron competitiveness was observed in these groups. This correlated with the increase in the strength of the humoral response against Delta, with the strongest response seen in PI animals. These data highlight the continuous need to assess the emergence and spread of novel variants in populations with pre-existing immunity and address the additional evolutionary pressure this may exert on the virus.

16.
Journal of Student Financial Aid ; 51(1):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918418

ABSTRACT

In Spring 2020, during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of students facing financial hardships increased as job losses mounted and schools closed their campuses. Schools, the federal government, and other organizations stepped in to help students deal with emergencies;but there are often hurdles to quickly getting emergency aid into the hands of students. While Title IV of the Higher Education Act provides a viable response mechanism through its emergency aid provisions, these provisions are underutilized. In this paper, we discuss ways in which schools can more effectively use professional judgment authority to quickly get emergency aid to students when they need it. We also discuss ways in which Congress can improve federal policy by removing needless restrictions.

17.
Am J Crim Justice ; : 1-19, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914019

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors explore how young adults navigated the dual challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic and jail reentry in a large urban environment. Fifteen young adults (aged 18-25) participated in up to nine monthly semi-structured interviews to discuss their experiences of reentry during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., spring and summer 2020). Participants held mixed attitudes and beliefs about COVID-19. Several participants viewed the pandemic as a hoax, while others took the pandemic more seriously, particularly if their friends and family members had contracted the virus. Yet nearly all participants viewed the pandemic as having a relatively minimal impact on their lives compared to the weight of their reentry challenges and probation requirements. Young adults described COVID-19 stay-at-home orders as limiting their exposure to negative influences and facilitating compliance with probation requirements. However, resource closures due to COVID-19, including schools, employment programs, and social services presented barriers to reentry success. The authors draw upon these findings to pose implications for interventions supporting young adult reentry. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12103-022-09683-8.

18.
Front Psychol ; 11: 601899, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892684
19.
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891337

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore challenges and opportunities of shifting from physical to virtual employment support delivery prompted by the Covid-19 pandemic. It investigates associated changes in the nature and balance of support and implications for beneficiary engagement with programmes and job search. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on longitudinal interviews conducted with beneficiaries and delivery providers from a neighbourhood-based employment support initiative in an English region with a strong manufacturing heritage between 2019 and 2021. The initiative established prior to the Covid-19 pandemic involved a strong physical presence locally but switched to virtual delivery during Covid-19 lockdowns. Findings: Moving long-term to an entirely virtual model would likely benefit some beneficiaries closer to or already in employment. Conversely, others, particularly lone parents, those further from employment, some older people and those without computer/Internet access and/or digital skills are likely to struggle to navigate virtual systems. The study emphasises the importance of blending the benefits of virtual delivery with aspects of place-based physical support. Originality/value: Previous studies of neighbourhood-based employment policies indicate the benefits of localised face-to-face support for transforming communities. These were conducted prior to the Covid-19 pandemic and the more widespread growth of virtual employment support. This study fills a gap regarding understanding the challenges and opportunities for different groups of beneficiaries when opportunities for physical encounters decline abruptly and support moves virtually. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880452
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