Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Nat Immunol ; 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284754

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells are essential for protection against viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity of CD4+ T cells to mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is poorly understood. Here, we isolated 159 SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell clones from healthcare workers previously infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) and defined 21 epitopes in spike, membrane and nucleoprotein. Lack of CD4+ T cell cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic beta-coronaviruses suggested these responses arose from naïve rather than pre-existing cross-reactive coronavirus-specific T cells. Of the 17 epitopes located in the spike protein, 10 were mutated in VOCs and CD4+ T cell clone recognition of 7 of them was impaired, including 3 of the 4 epitopes mutated in omicron. Our results indicated that broad targeting of epitopes by CD4+ T cells likely limits evasion by current VOCs. However, continued genomic surveillance is vital to identify new mutations able to evade CD4+ T cell immunity.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 65, 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infects ~ 95% of the population worldwide and is known to cause adverse health outcomes such as Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and multiple sclerosis. There is substantial interest and investment in developing infection-preventing vaccines for EBV. To effectively deploy such vaccines, it is vital that we understand the risk factors for infection. Why particular individuals do not become infected is currently unknown. The current literature, describes complex, often conflicting webs of intersecting factors-sociodemographic, clinical, genetic, environmental-, rendering causality difficult to decipher. We aimed to use Mendelian randomization (MR) to overcome the issues posed by confounding and reverse causality to determine the causal risk factors for the acquisition of EBV. METHODS: We mapped the complex evidence from the literature prior to this study factors associated with EBV serostatus (as a proxy for infection) into a causal diagram to determine putative risk factors for our study. Using data from the UK Biobank of 8422 individuals genomically deemed to be of white British ancestry between the ages of 40 and 69 at recruitment between the years 2006 and 2010, we performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) of EBV serostatus, followed by a Two Sample MR to determine which putative risk factors were causal. RESULTS: Our GWAS identified two novel loci associated with EBV serostatus. In MR analyses, we confirmed shorter time in education, an increase in number of sexual partners, and a lower age of smoking commencement, to be causal risk factors for EBV serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Given the current interest and likelihood of a future EBV vaccine, these factors can inform vaccine development and deployment strategies by completing the puzzle of causality. Knowing these risk factors allows identification of those most likely to acquire EBV, giving insight into what age to vaccinate and who to prioritise when a vaccine is introduced.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/genetics , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/prevention & control , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Vaccination , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
4.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 40-49, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585824

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is generally mild or asymptomatic in children but a biological basis for this outcome is unclear. Here we compare antibody and cellular immunity in children (aged 3-11 years) and adults. Antibody responses against spike protein were high in children and seroconversion boosted responses against seasonal Beta-coronaviruses through cross-recognition of the S2 domain. Neutralization of viral variants was comparable between children and adults. Spike-specific T cell responses were more than twice as high in children and were also detected in many seronegative children, indicating pre-existing cross-reactive responses to seasonal coronaviruses. Importantly, children retained antibody and cellular responses 6 months after infection, whereas relative waning occurred in adults. Spike-specific responses were also broadly stable beyond 12 months. Therefore, children generate robust, cross-reactive and sustained immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 with focused specificity for the spike protein. These findings provide insight into the relative clinical protection that occurs in most children and might help to guide the design of pediatric vaccination regimens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Protection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans
5.
iScience ; 24(11): 103215, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446746

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening disease occurring several weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Deep immune profiling showed acute MIS-C patients had highly activated neutrophils, classical monocytes and memory CD8+ T-cells, with increased frequencies of B-cell plasmablasts and double-negative B-cells. Post treatment samples from the same patients, taken during symptom resolution, identified recovery-associated immune features including increased monocyte CD163 levels, emergence of a new population of immature neutrophils and, in some patients, transiently increased plasma arginase. Plasma profiling identified multiple features shared by MIS-C, Kawasaki Disease and COVID-19 and that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may be preferable to IL-1 or TNF-α. We identified several potential mechanisms of action for IVIG, the most commonly used drug to treat MIS-C. Finally, we showed systemic complement activation with high plasma C5b-9 levels is common in MIS-C suggesting complement inhibitors could be used to treat the disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL