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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 836492, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875412

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 can be associated with a prothrombotic state, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is purported to directly promote platelet activation via the S1 subunit and is cleaved from host cells during infection. High plasma concentrations of S1 subunit are associated with disease progression and respiratory failure during severe COVID-19. There is limited evidence on whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced spike protein is similarly cleaved and on the immediate effects of vaccination on host immune responses or hematology parameters. We investigated vaccine-induced S1 subunit cleavage and effects on hematology parameters using AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a simian, replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine. We observed S1 subunit cleavage in vitro following AZD1222 transduction of HEK293x cells. S1 subunit cleavage also occurred in vivo and was detectable in sera 12 hours post intramuscular immunization (1x1010 viral particles) in CD-1 mice. Soluble S1 protein levels decreased within 3 days and were no longer detectable 7-14 days post immunization. Intravenous immunization (1x109 viral particles) produced higher soluble S1 protein levels with similar expression kinetics. Spike protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry 14 days post intramuscular immunization. Intramuscular immunization resulted in transiently lower platelet (12 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts relative to vehicle. Similarly, intravenous immunization resulted in lower platelet (24-72 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts, and increased neutrophil (2 hours) counts. The responses observed with either route of immunization represent transient hematologic changes and correspond to expected innate immune responses to adenoviral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1283-1283, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848947
3.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S206-S206, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848548
4.
Respirology ; 27(SUPPL 1):179, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816641

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 lockdown measures implemented in March 2020 markedly reduced hospitalisations of infants with respiratory infections at Kidz First Hospital. There was no characteristic winter peak of respiratory infections with only three hospitalisations during 1 March-31 August with a positive PCR result for RSV and one for influenza. The commencement of quarantine-free travel between Australia and New Zealand started in April 2021 and within 2 weeks there was a positive PCR panel for RSV at Kidz First, the first RSV positive test for over a year with case numbers steadily increasing thereafter. Methods: To confirm the return of the winter peak we examined respiratory viral PCR test results and infant lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) hospitalization data from 1 January 2015, through 31 July 2021. All specimens submitted by Kidz First clinicians for respiratory viral PCR testing were identified. ICD codes were used to identify infants <2 years of age hospitalized for >3 h with a LRTI. Results: During the months of March-July the number of inpatient hospitalisations at Kidz First varied from 944 in 2015 to 706 in 2018. There was a dramatic reduction to 144 hospitalisations in 2020 but this has rebounded back to 730 in 2021. The number of positive PCR panels for RSV increased to 803(52%) with a much higher percentage than any previous year. There were no PCR positive tests for influenza A or B. The percentage of positive PCR panels for adenovirus (7%), parainfluenza (4%) and rhinovirus/ enterovirus (53%) have remained similar to previous years. Clinician-directed investigation of infants with respiratory infections has increased in response to COVID-19. Conclusion: Easing of COVID-19 restrictions and commencement of quarantine-free travel with Australia has likely resulted in the return of RSV and LRTI hospitalisations rates similar to previous winter peaks.

5.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1813054

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 can be associated with a prothrombotic state, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is purported to directly promote platelet activation via the S1 subunit and is cleaved from host cells during infection. High plasma concentrations of S1 subunit are associated with disease progression and respiratory failure during severe COVID-19. There is limited evidence on whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced spike protein is similarly cleaved and on the immediate effects of vaccination on host immune responses or hematology parameters. We investigated vaccine-induced S1 subunit cleavage and effects on hematology parameters using AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a simian, replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine. We observed S1 subunit cleavage in vitro following AZD1222 transduction of HEK293x cells. S1 subunit cleavage also occurred in vivo and was detectable in sera 12 hours post intramuscular immunization (1x1010 viral particles) in CD-1 mice. Soluble S1 protein levels decreased within 3 days and were no longer detectable 7–14 days post immunization. Intravenous immunization (1x109 viral particles) produced higher soluble S1 protein levels with similar expression kinetics. Spike protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry 14 days post intramuscular immunization. Intramuscular immunization resulted in transiently lower platelet (12 hours) and white blood cell (12–24 hours) counts relative to vehicle. Similarly, intravenous immunization resulted in lower platelet (24–72 hours) and white blood cell (12–24 hours) counts, and increased neutrophil (2 hours) counts. The responses observed with either route of immunization represent transient hematologic changes and correspond to expected innate immune responses to adenoviral infection.

6.
International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations ; 13(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1700479

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a renewed interest in expanding the capabilities of remote collaboration tools. Studies show the importance of noticing peripheral cues, pointing to or manipulating real-world objects in face-to-face meetings. This case study investigated the opportunities of combining traditional video conferencing with a multi-user VR platform to enable the interactive collaborative design of a VR training experience between multiple stakeholders working from their homes. In this article, the authors reflect on the experience and contribute a fully online and immersive collaborative design workflow for future VR development projects. The authors believe this workflow is of benefit for remote collaboration in general, but particularly in severely restricted environments when face-to-face meetings are impossible. Copyright © 2021, IGI Global.

7.
Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S143, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1699099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are successful reports of the use of telemedicine in nephrology (TN), which would facilitate the access of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) from the primary health centers (PHCs) to the nephrologist. Since 2019, TN has been implemented in Chile as a public health policy with national coverage. The process and outcome indicators associated with the Chilean National TN Program among PHCs and reference nephrologists are described. Methods: Descriptive study of asynchronous telemedicine care performed from urban and rural PHCs (574) (municipal health centers) to 17 nephrologists from Hospital Digital, between January 01, 2019 and June 30, 2021. The percentage of the rural population in Chile is 12.1%. Teleconsultations are sent by the PHCs doctor through a digital platform that contains clinical information, laboratory tests and treatments. The nephrologist in a deferred time, responds in the same way and decides between the options: 1) Counter-refer the patient to PHCs requesting more information or with treatment recommendations;2) Refer to a hospital for more complex studies or treatments. The following were analyzed: 1. Distribution by age, sex and comorbidities;2. Response times;3. Prevalence of CKD by stages;4. Destination post evaluation TN;5. Level of relevance of PHCs consultations. Results: In total, 12.705 asynchronous telemedicine visits were performed (2019: 50.8 %;2020: 31.9 %;2021:17.3%. During the Covid-19 pandemic, attention for TN was maintained although restricted by the health crisis in the public health network. The mean age was 65.9 (SD: 13.2) years;80% were older than 60 years;57%% women. CKD stages: S1 (8.5%%);S2 (16.2%);S3 (53.6%);S4 (17.9%) and S5 (3.7%). Comorbidities: diabetes 56%, hypertension 90.7%, dyslipidemia 65%, overweight 29.2% and obesity 38.7%. The average response time was 91 hrs. (range 1- 173). In total, 7.954 patients (62.6%) were referred to PHCs with recommendations, without requiring transfers to another center. In turn, 4.751 patients (37.4%) required face-to-face nephrological evaluation (58.1% high priority for CKD in stages 4-5). The relevance of the consultations according to the nephrologist's evaluation was considered high 23.1% and median 49.3%. Conclusions: The implementation of TN as a public policy has made it possible to facilitate expeditious access, evaluation and timely treatment of patients with CKD from urban and rural PHCs and prioritize face-to-face care by a nephrologist for those with greater risk or severity. Most of the patients evaluated (62.8%) were referred to PHCs, optimizing the limited space and high demand of face-to-face care per specialist. During the Covid-19 pandemic period, the use of TN was restricted but allowed continuity of control of patients with CKD and decongest PHCs and emergency care centers. Future studies should evaluate the impact of TN in the follow-up of patients screened with CKD, especially in stages 3-5, the decrease in travel-related CO2 emissions due to reduced displacement, the level of patient´s satisfaction/PHCs teams, and the evaluation effective cost of this care modality. No conflict of interest

8.
Ashrae Journal ; 63:40-42, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1695262

ABSTRACT

Mechanical engineers and building managers were suddenly thrust into the very center of protecting public health when infectious disease scientists conclusively showed that SARS-CoV-2 could be airborne for distances greater than 6 ft (2 m). Managing the indoor environment, and specifically indoor air quality, to limit the spread of infectious disease is now relevant to all occupied buildings, not just health-care facilities. This presents an opportunity and a responsibility for building professionals. This column highlights some challenges and opportunities in bridging the silos of mechanical engineering and medicine.

9.
McCrone, J. T.; Hill, V.; Bajaj, S.; Pena, R. E.; Lambert, B. C.; Inward, R.; Bhatt, S.; Volz, E.; Ruis, C.; Dellicour, S.; Baele, G.; Zarebski, A. E.; Sadilek, A.; Wu, N.; Schneider, A.; Ji, X.; Raghwani, J.; Jackson, B.; Colquhoun, R.; O'Toole, Á, Peacock, T. P.; Twohig, K.; Thelwall, S.; Dabrera, G.; Myers, R.; Faria, N. R.; Huber, C.; Bogoch, I. I.; Khan, K.; du Plessis, L.; Barrett, J. C.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barclay, W. S.; Chand, M.; Connor, T.; Loman, N. J.; Suchard, M. A.; Pybus, O. G.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Martinez Nunez, R. T.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Estee Torok, M.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Spencer Chapman, M. H.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Fryer, H.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Alikhan, N. F.; Bridgett, S.; Cook, K. F.; Fearn, C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; El Bouzidi, K.; Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326827

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases1-3. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions4,5. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruct the emergence of Delta, and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England, in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Through analysis of human movement, contact tracing, and virus genomic data, we find that the focus of geographic expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced >1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers from India reduced onward transmission from importations;however the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England had been already seeded before restrictions were introduced. In England, increasing inter-regional travel drove Delta's nationwide dissemination, with some cities receiving >2,000 observable lineage introductions from other regions. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing, not the number of importations, was associated with faster relative growth of Delta. Among US states, we find that regions that previously experienced large waves also had faster Delta growth rates, and a model including interactions between immunity and human behaviour could accurately predict the rise of Delta there. Delta's invasion dynamics depended on fine scale spatial heterogeneity in immunity and contact patterns and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce transmission of current and future VOCs such as Omicron.

10.
Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Nunez, R. T. M.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Torok, M. E.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Chapman, M. H. S.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Fearn, N. C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; Bouzidi, K. El, Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; Harrison, I.; Gifford, L.; Molnar, Z.; Auckland, C.; Evans, C.; Johnson, K.; Partridge, D. G.; Raza, M.; Baker, P.; Bonner, S.; Essex, S.; Murray, L. J.; Lawton, A. I.; Burton-Fanning, S.; Payne, B. A. I.; Waugh, S.; Gomes, A. N.; Kimuli, M.; Murray, D. R.; Ashfield, P.; Dobie, D.; Ashford, F.; Best, A.; Crawford, L.; Cumley, N.; Mayhew, M.; Megram, O.; Mirza, J.; Moles-Garcia, E.; Percival, B.; Driscoll, M.; Ensell, L.; Lowe, H. L.; Maftei, L.; Mondani, M.; Chaloner, N. J.; Cogger, B. J.; Easton, L. J.; Huckson, H.; Lewis, J.; Lowdon, S.; Malone, C. S.; Munemo, F.; Mutingwende, M.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326811

ABSTRACT

The scale of data produced during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been unprecedented, with more than 5 million sequences shared publicly at the time of writing. This wealth of sequence data provides important context for interpreting local outbreaks. However, placing sequences of interest into national and international context is difficult given the size of the global dataset. Often outbreak investigations and genomic surveillance efforts require running similar analyses again and again on the latest dataset and producing reports. We developed civet (cluster investigation and virus epidemiology tool) to aid these routine analyses and facilitate virus outbreak investigation and surveillance. Civet can place sequences of interest in the local context of background diversity, resolving the query into different 'catchments' and presenting the phylogenetic results alongside metadata in an interactive, distributable report. Civet can be used on a fine scale for clinical outbreak investigation, for local surveillance and cluster discovery, and to routinely summarise the virus diversity circulating on a national level. Civet reports have helped researchers and public health bodies feedback genomic information in the appropriate context within a timeframe that is useful for public health.

11.
23rd IEEE Conference on Business Informatics, CBI 2021 ; 2:71-77, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672578

ABSTRACT

Over the past 15 years, the United States has faced two major economic events - the 2008 financial meltdown and the 2019 Shadow Bank crisis. Now, it faces a new financial emergency brought on by COVID-19. Financial intermediaries comprise institutions such as banks, mutual funds, insurance companies, real estate investment trusts, among others, and are a significant part of economic stability. 'Too big to fail' has become a well-known phrase. Therefore, being able to predict the financial distress of a financial intermediary is very important. Traditionally, the Altman Z-score (or a variation thereof), has been used to predict bankruptcy. It uses 5 key financial ratios to create an index score, or Z-score. Predicting financial distress, however, also accounts for companies that may not be currently on the path to bankruptcy, but may be in the future. Contemporary research has shown that combining sentiment analysis with ratio analysis improves the prediction. Our methodology uses both financial ratios and sentiment, but also includes the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), and the keywords 'Going Concern' and 'Concentration Risk'. Using a Convolutional Neural Network, we classified financial intermediaries as either distressed or not distressed with an accuracy of 88.24%. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
Iowa Orthop J ; 41(2):40-44, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1602560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent events have resulted in rapid rises in the use of telemedicine in orthopaedic surgery, despite limited evidence regarding patient preferences or concerns. The purpose of this study is to determine access to and, ability to use telemedicine technology in an adult hip preservation patient population, as well as determine associations with patient characteristics. Additionally, we seek to understand patients' perceived benefits, risks and preferences of telemedicine. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey administered on patients scheduled to undergo joint preservation surgery by one of three surgeons at a single academic institution. Both preoperative and postoperative established patients were included and called for a telephone administered survey if a date of surgery was scheduled between October 1, 2019 and March 30, 2020 and were 18 years or older. The survey had seven sections with 45 questions relating to demographics, technology access, videoconferencing capability, confidence using technology, telehealth experiences, perceptions. RESULTS: 101 patients completed the survey (48% response rate, 101/212). Overall, 99% of participants reported using the internet, 94% reporting owning a device capable of videoconferencing, and 86% of patients had participated in a video call in the past year. When asked for their preferred method for a physician visit: 79% ranked in-person as their first choice and 16% ranked a videoconference visit as their first choice. Perceived benefits of telemedicine visits included reduced travel to appointments (97% agree) and reduced cost of attending appointments (69% agree). However, patients were concerned that they would not establish the same patient-physician connection (51% agree) and would not receive the same level of care (38% agree) through telemedicine visits versus in person visits. CONCLUSION: The majority of hip preservation patients have access to and are capable of using the technology required for telemedicine visits. However, patients still prefer to have in person visits over concerns that they will not establish the same patient-physician connection and will not receive the same level of care. Telemedicine visits in hip preservation patients may be most attractive to return patients with an established doctor-patient relationship, particularly those with concerns for long distances of travel and associated costs.Level of Evidence: III.

13.
Sci Adv ; 7(49): eabl8213, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553714

ABSTRACT

Vaccines derived from chimpanzee adenovirus Y25 (ChAdOx1), human adenovirus type 26 (HAdV-D26), and human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-C5) are critical in combatting the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. As part of the largest vaccination campaign in history, ultrarare side effects not seen in phase 3 trials, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), a rare condition resembling heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), have been observed. This study demonstrates that all three adenoviruses deployed as vaccination vectors versus SARS-CoV-2 bind to platelet factor 4 (PF4), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of HIT. We have determined the structure of the ChAdOx1 viral vector and used it in state-of-the-art computational simulations to demonstrate an electrostatic interaction mechanism with PF4, which was confirmed experimentally by surface plasmon resonance. These data confirm that PF4 is capable of forming stable complexes with clinically relevant adenoviruses, an important step in unraveling the mechanisms underlying TTS.

14.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 848-854, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure (Covidien) devices are commonly used in head and neck surgery. Parotidectomy is a complex and intricate surgery that requires careful dissection of the facial nerve. This study aimed to compare surgical outcomes in parotidectomy using these haemostatic devices with traditional scalpel and cautery. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was performed with subsequent meta-analysis of seven studies that compared the use of haemostatic devices to traditional scalpel and cautery in parotidectomy. Outcome measures included: temporary facial paresis, operating time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drain output and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies representing 675 patients were identified: 372 patients were treated with haemostatic devices, and 303 patients were treated with scalpel and cautery. Statistically significant outcomes favouring the use of haemostatic devices included operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output. Outcome measures that did not favour either treatment included facial nerve paresis and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Overall, haemostatic devices were found to reduce operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output.


Subject(s)
Dissection/adverse effects , Facial Nerve/surgery , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Parotid Gland/surgery , Blood Loss, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Drainage/trends , Electrocoagulation/adverse effects , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Postoperative Period , Surgical Instruments/adverse effects
15.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-6, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434273

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID pandemic has significantly impacted educational development and delivery, yet there is little quantitative research on this topic. The primary objective of this study was to compare the total number of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Refresher (ER) course completions during 2020 versus prior years. Secondary outcomes examined in person versus on-line/distributive learning during the study period. Methods: The Commission on Accreditation for Prehospital Continuing Education (CAPCE) is the only national organization that accredits continuing education (CE) for paramedics and EMTs and currently has a database with over 14 million CE records. The total number of ER course completions each month in 2020 were compared to 2019 and 2018. We also compared the different educational format types: live in-person (LIP), asynchronous on-line distributive learning (DL), and virtual instructor lead training (VILT) synchronous DL courses. Data was analyzed using descriptive and two-way ANOVA statistics. Results: There were 1,922,783 ER course completions in 2020 versus 1,166,335 in 2019 and 1,074,636 in 2018, representing a 179% increase during the study period. Asynchronous DL course completions in 2020 were 1,830,513 EMS versus 1,078,580 in 2019 and 987,749 in 2018 a 185% increase over the three-year study period. Asynchronous DL monthly means by year was statistically significant, F(2, 99) = 95.632, p < .001. Mean monthly LIP and VLIT educational deliveries by year were not significantly different, p = .802, p = .754, respectively. Total LIP course completions in 2020 were 20,045 versus 51,552 in 2019 and 63,058 in 2018. In 2020 LIP courses made up only 1.0% (20,045/1,922,783) of all ER completions. This study was limited to only EMS professionals taking ER course completions in the CAPCE database. However EMS is not unique, since previous research has suggested that DL has flourished in other health care disciplines while LIP courses have continued to decrease. Conclusion: This large nationwide study of EMS profession has shown the trend toward DL education and a trend away from LIP courses. Future studies should examine the advantages and disadvantages of DL education.

16.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(12): 1231-1235, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434191

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Preventing the first cesarean delivery (CD) is important as CD rates continue to rise. During the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quality improvement metrics at our hospital identified lower rates of CD. We sought to investigate this change and identify factors that may have contributed to the decrease. STUDY DESIGN: We compared nulliparous singleton deliveries at a large academic hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic (April through July 2020 during a statewide "stay-at-home" order) to those in the same months 1 year prior to the pandemic (April through July 2019). The primary outcome, mode of delivery, was obtained from the electronic medical record system, along with indication for CD. RESULTS: The cohort included 1,913 deliveries: 892 in 2019 and 1,021 in 2020. Patient characteristics (age, body mass index, race, ethnicity, and insurance type) did not differ between the groups. Median gestational age at delivery was the same in both groups. The CD rate decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with prior (28.9 vs. 33.6%; p = 0.03). There was a significant increase in the rate of labor induction (45.7 vs. 40.6%; p = 0.02), but no difference in the proportion of inductions that were elective (19.5 vs. 20.7%; p = 0.66). The rate of CD in labor was unchanged (15.9 vs. 16.3%; p = 0.82); however, more women attempted a trial of labor (87.0 vs. 82.6%; p = 0.01). Thus, the proportion of CD without a trial of labor decreased (25.1 vs. 33.0%; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant decrease in CD during the COVID-19 pandemic at our hospital, driven by a decrease in CD without a trial of labor. The increased rate of attempted trial of labor suggests the presence of patient-level factors that warrant further investigation as potential targets for decreasing CD rates. Additionally, in a diverse and medically complex population, increased rates of labor induction were not associated with increased rates of CD. KEY POINTS: · Primary CD rate fell during COVID-19 pandemic.. · Decrease was driven by more women attempting labor.. · Higher rate of induction without rise in CD rate was found..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Parity , Adult , Boston , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Labor, Induced/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Trial of Labor
17.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407346
18.
New Zealand Medical Journal ; 134(1540):7-12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1371141
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4314, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310804

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lung disease (CLD) have an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and poor outcomes. Here, we analyze the transcriptomes of 611,398 single cells isolated from healthy and CLD lungs to identify molecular characteristics of lung cells that may account for worse COVID-19 outcomes in patients with chronic lung diseases. We observe a similar cellular distribution and relative expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in control and CLD lungs. CLD AT2 cells express higher levels of genes linked directly to the efficiency of viral replication and the innate immune response. Additionally, we identify basal differences in inflammatory gene expression programs that highlight how CLD alters the inflammatory microenvironment encountered upon viral exposure to the peripheral lung. Our study indicates that CLD is accompanied by changes in cell-type-specific gene expression programs that prime the lung epithelium for and influence the innate and adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , Virus Internalization , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chronic Disease , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/genetics
20.
Reflective Practice ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1281813

ABSTRACT

The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights calls for accessible higher education (HE), stating that it is necessary for the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity. Education is therefore at the heart of global development goals transforming internationalisation into a core strategic pillar for universities. Amidst pressure on academics to prepare students for real world employment including working in cross-boundary teams, global research trends indicate an indifference to diversity. For post Global Financial Crisis (1987) and Coronavirus Disease (2019) domestic graduates seeking employment in contracting economic markets, indifference intensified to hostility. Addressing these issues using an original customisable model for teaching and assessing reflective learning across HE, a three-stage targeted intervention was prepared and actioned (2008–2020). With research suggesting that high level and complex learning is best developed when assessment, involves students as partners, the intervention included an iterative process of peer review. With 6000 participating Business students, the feedback indicates that scaffolded reflective processes have a powerful effect on students’ understanding of assessment tasks and their willingness to work in diverse teams with significant benefits for student outcomes and staff development. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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