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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7222, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565718

ABSTRACT

Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesize that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. We show that protein signatures demonstrate overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is an important marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We find that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Proteome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CXCL9 , Child , Group II Phospholipases A2 , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Proteomics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Vascular Diseases
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021428, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348207

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiac dysfunction is a prominent feature of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), yet the etiology is poorly understood. We determined whether dysfunction is global or regional, and whether it is associated with the cytokine milieu, microangiopathy, or severity of shock. Methods and Results We analyzed echocardiographic parameters of myocardial deformation and compared global and segmental left ventricular strain between 43 cases with MIS-C ≤18 years old and 40 controls. Primary outcomes included left ventricular global longitudinal strain, right ventricular free wall strain), and left atrial strain. We evaluated relationships between strain and profiles of 10 proinflammatory cytokines, microangiopathic features (soluble C5b9), and vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Compared with controls, cases with MIS-C had significant impairments in all parameters of systolic and diastolic function. 65% of cases with MIS-C had abnormal left ventricular function (|global longitudinal strain|<17%), although elevations of cytokines were modest. All left ventricular segments were involved, without apical or basal dominance to suggest acute stress cardiomyopathy. Worse global longitudinal strain correlated with higher ratios of interleukin-6 (ρ -0.43) and interleukin-8 (ρ -0.43) to total hypercytokinemia, but not absolute levels of interleukin-6 or interleukin-8, or total hypercytokinemia. Similarly, worse right ventricular free wall strain correlated with higher relative interleukin-8 expression (ρ -0.59). There were no significant associations between function and microangiopathy or vasoactive-inotropic requirements. Conclusions Myocardial function is globally decreased in MIS-C and not explained by acute stress cardiomyopathy. Cardiac dysfunction may be driven by the relative skew of the immune response toward interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 pathways, more so than degree of hyperinflammation, refining the current paradigm of myocardial involvement in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/blood , Heart Diseases/etiology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Adolescent , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/immunology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
4.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):28-29, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338970

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 3 distinct phenotypes have emerged in children. The majority of children have mild or no symptoms. Similar to adults, a minority of children can be severely affected with respiratory distress requiring intensive care. Finally, they may develop a phenomenon presumed unique to children termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). MIS-C is a hyperinflammatory syndrome characterized by fever and organ dysfunction (particularly cardiac) in the setting of recent COVID-19 infection. Reports from the adult literature have invoked thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and complement activation as a potential cause for severe manifestations of COVID-19 (Zhang et al. NEJM. 2020;Campbell et al. Circulation 2020). Soluble C5b9 (sC5b-9), the terminal complement complex, has been implicated as a marker of hematopoietic stem cell transplant associated TMA (HSCT-TMA;Jodele et al. Blood 2014). We sought to elucidate the role of terminal complement activation and TMA in the different pediatric disease phenotypes.Methods: We enrolled children admitted to the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia during the COVID-19 pandemic who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from mucosa, or met clinical criteria for MIS-C. Patients (pts) were classified in to 3 categories: minimal COVID-19 symptoms or incidental finding of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 requiring ventilatory support, or MIS-C. To investigate the role of TMA in children with COVID-19 we measured sC5b-9 in plasma of pts with the 3 manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, and in healthy controls. sC5b9 was measured in triplicate at two dilutions by ELISA. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured using V-Plex Pro-inflammatory Panel 1 Human Kits and analyzed on a QuickPlex SQ120. P-values were computed using Dunn's multiple comparisons test after Kruskal-Wallis testing. Blood smears were examined by a hematologist and hematopathologist for schistocytes.Results: 50 pts were enrolled on whom complete sC5b9 data were available: minimal COVID-19 (N=18), severe COVID-19 (N=11), and MIS-C (N=21). Plasma was obtained on healthy controls (N=26). The median sC5b9 level in healthy controls (57 ng/mL) differed significantly (p<0.001 in each case;Figure 1A) from that in pts with minimal disease (392 ng/mL), severe disease (646 ng/mL), and MIS-C (630 ng/mL);differences between MIS-C, minimal, and severe were not statistically significant. Elevations in sC5b9 correlated in a statistically significant manner with the maximum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measured during hospitalization (Figure 1B&C), but not age (p=0.512). sC5b9 did not correlate with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), nor with the lowest levels of fibrinogen, hemoglobin or platelet counts. Of pts with available data, 19/26 (73.1%) had elevated LDH, 2/31 (6.4%) had hypofibrinogenemia, 35/47 (74.5%) were anemic, and 28/47 (59.6%) were thrombocytopenic.Pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured. Of particular interest to TMA is the neutrophil chemotactic factor IL-8, because of its role as a marker of endothelial damage (Dvorak et al. Front Pediatr 2019). Levels of IL-8 differed significantly between pts with MIS-C (p=0.0166) or pts with severe COVID-19 (p=0.0079), when compared to minimal COVID-19 pts;but not between pts with MIS-C and severe disease (p = 0.99).Blood smears were available on 34 patients. Schistocytes were present in 13/15 (87%) patients with MIS-C, 7/8 (87%) patients with severe COVID-19 and 5/11 (45%) patients with minimal COVID-19 (χ2=6.59, p=0.037).Conclusions: We demonstrate derangements of the final common pathway of complement activation in children with the 3 presentations of SARS-CoV-2. Strikingly, sC5b9s were abnormal even in children with minimal disease or incidental infection. Renal dysfunction correlated with elevations in sC5b9, strengthening the evidence that TMA plays a role in the pa hophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Future work is aimed at further characterizing the role of the complement cascade in the pathogenesis of MIS-C and COVID-19 in children. The long-term complications of endothelial damage and complement activation are unknown and extended follow-up is warranted.Figure 1

5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(5): 669-673, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262143

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses in children remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) possess higher SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers compared with those with severe coronavirus disease 2019, likely reflecting a longer time since the onset of infection in MIS-C patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115087

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukopenia/immunology , Male , Young Adult
8.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 36(11): 554-558, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990957

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare presenting clinical and laboratory features among children meeting the surveillance definition for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) across a range of illness severities. METHODS: This is a retrospective single-center study of patients younger than 21 years presenting between March 1 and May 15, 2020. Included patients met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for MIS-C (inflammation, fever, involvement of 2 organ systems, lack of alternative diagnoses). We defined 3 subgroups by clinical outcomes: (1) critical illness requiring intensive care interventions; (2) patients meeting Kawasaki disease (KD) criteria but not requiring critical care; and (3) mild illness not meeting either criteria. A comparator cohort included patients with KD at our institution during the same time frame in 2019. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients were included (5, critical; 8, 2020 KD; 20, mild). The median age for the critical group was 10.9 years (2.7 for 2020 KD; 6.0 for mild, P = 0.033). The critical group had lower median absolute lymphocyte count (850 vs 3005 vs 2940/uL, P = 0.005), platelets (150 vs 361 vs 252 k/uL, P = 0.005), and sodium (129 vs 136 vs 136 mmol/L, P = 0.002), and higher creatinine (0.7 vs 0.2 vs 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002). In the critical group, 60% required vasoactive medications, and 40% required mechanical ventilation. Clinical and laboratories features were similar between the 2020 and 2019 KD groups. CONCLUSIONS: We describe 3 groups with inflammatory syndromes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The initial profile of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and abnormal creatinine may help distinguish critically ill MIS-C patients from classic/atypical KD or more benign acute inflammation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Critical Care/methods , Disease Management , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6051-6063, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962802

ABSTRACT

Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P < .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications
10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900749

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in children remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that pediatric patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) possess higher SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers compared to those with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), likely reflecting a longer time since onset of infection in MIS-C patients.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807631

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells that correlated with use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct and implicate CD8 T cells in clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.

12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28693, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743696

ABSTRACT

There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 705-714, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714776

ABSTRACT

Immune-based therapies such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy have revolutionized the landscape of cancer treatment in recent years. Although this class of therapy has demonstrated impressive clinical efficacy against cancers that were once thought to be incurable, its success is in part limited by unique toxicities which can be severe or even fatal. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is the most commonly observed toxicity and occurs as a result of non-antigen specific immune activation. Similar to macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)/hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), CRS is associated with elevated levels of several cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) that serve as a driver for host immune dysregulation. As a direct anti-cytokine drug, tocilizumab has been a cornerstone in the treatment of CAR-T-associated CRS through its ability to dampen CRS without compromising CAR-T-cell function. However, optimal timing of administration is yet unknown. Here, we review the use of tocilizumab in the management of CAR-T-associated CRS, emphasizing on the clinical efficacy across various CAR constructs and its role in current CRS management algorithms. We also discuss alternative therapies that may be considered for refractory CRS therapy and the use of tocilizumab in the current COVID-19 global pandemic.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5967-5975, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDInitial reports from the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic described children as being less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. Subsequently, a severe and novel pediatric disorder termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. We report on unique hematologic and immunologic parameters that distinguish between COVID-19 and MIS-C and provide insight into pathophysiology.METHODSWe prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and classified them as having MIS-C or COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were classified as having either minimal or severe disease. Cytokine profiles, viral cycle thresholds (Cts), blood smears, and soluble C5b-9 values were analyzed with clinical data.RESULTSTwenty patients were enrolled (9 severe COVID-19, 5 minimal COVID-19, and 6 MIS-C). Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19. The presence of burr cells on blood smears, as well as Cts, differentiated between patients with severe COVID-19 and those with MIS-C.CONCLUSIONPediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those with severe COVID-19.FUNDINGFinancial support for this project was provided by CHOP Frontiers Program Immune Dysregulation Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Cancer Institute; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; Cookies for Kids Cancer; Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer; Children's Oncology Group; Stand UP 2 Cancer; Team Connor; the Kate Amato Foundations; Burroughs Wellcome Fund CAMS; the Clinical Immunology Society; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
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