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1.
Pathogens ; 11(3)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760795

ABSTRACT

In childhood tuberculosis (TB), with an estimated 69% of missed cases in children under 5 years of age, the case detection gap is larger than in other age groups, mainly due to its paucibacillary nature and children's difficulties in delivering sputum specimens. Accurate and accessible point-of-care tests (POCTs) are needed to detect TB disease in children and, in turn, reduce TB-related morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. In recent years, several POCTs for TB have been developed. These include new tools to improve the detection of TB in respiratory and gastric samples, such as molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and portable polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based GeneXpert. In addition, the urine-based detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM), as well as imaging modalities through point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS), are currently the POCTs in use. Further to this, artificial intelligence-based interpretation of ultrasound imaging and radiography is now integrated into computer-aided detection products. In the future, portable radiography may become more widely available, and robotics-supported ultrasound imaging is currently being trialed. Finally, novel blood-based tests evaluating the immune response using "omic-"techniques are underway. This approach, including transcriptomics, metabolomic, proteomics, lipidomics and genomics, is still distant from being translated into POCT formats, but the digital development may rapidly enhance innovation in this field. Despite these significant advances, TB-POCT development and implementation remains challenged by the lack of standard ways to access non-sputum-based samples, the need to differentiate TB infection from disease and to gain acceptance for novel testing strategies specific to the conditions and settings of use.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 798, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruption to healthcare services globally and has impacted on tuberculosis (TB) patients and TB diagnosis and treatment services both in low- and high-income countries. We therefore explored the perspectives of members of regional and international TB control and research networks to further understand TB service disruptions and compared the experiences of members from West African and European countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional, explorative descriptive study was conducted from May to July 2020 using an open online survey with target respondents from both West African and European countries. The survey comprised discrete questions exploring challenges faced with TB screening, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and changes implemented. Additionally, respondents were asked to provide recommendations for remedial actions. RESULTS: We analysed responses from 124 respondents based in 29 countries located in Europe and West Africa. About half of the respondents reported challenges in delivering routine TB services during the COVID-19 pandemic, with over one third reporting having some form of guidance issued regarding maintaining delivery of routine TB services. Respondents emphasised the need for strengthening TB services especially in light of COVID-19 pandemic. Considerable similarities were found between the challenges experienced by TB professionals in both West African and European settings. Responses also highlighted the hidden challenges faced in some countries prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in some West African settings where staff shortages and laboratory issues predated COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: TB control and research professionals in West African and European settings experienced similar challenges to the delivery of TB diagnosis and treatment services due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighted the need for clear communication of guidelines, prioritisation of routine TB service delivery, ongoing health education, and possible integration of TB and COVID-19 services to ensure that TB services are more resilient against the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e257-e260, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, although neonatal infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been described, none of these have been proven to be the result of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We describe the probable vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a neonate born to a mother with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Following cesarean section, the neonate was kept in strict isolation. Molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 on respiratory samples, blood, and meconium were initially negative, but positive on a nasopharyngeal aspirate on the third day of life. On day 5, the neonate developed fever and coryza, which spontaneously resolved. Viral genomic analysis from the mother and neonate showed identical sequences except for 1 nucleotide. CONCLUSION: This report has important implications for infection control and clinical management of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 653-661, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, few data on paediatric COVID-19 have been published, and most reports originate from China. This study aimed to capture key data on children and adolescents with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection across Europe to inform physicians and health-care service planning during the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study involved 82 participating health-care institutions across 25 European countries, using a well established research network-the Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet)-that mainly comprises paediatric infectious diseases specialists and paediatric pulmonologists. We included all individuals aged 18 years or younger with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, detected at any anatomical site by RT-PCR, between April 1 and April 24, 2020, during the initial peak of the European COVID-19 pandemic. We explored factors associated with need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and initiation of drug treatment for COVID-19 using univariable analysis, and applied multivariable logistic regression with backwards stepwise analysis to further explore those factors significantly associated with ICU admission. FINDINGS: 582 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, with a median age of 5·0 years (IQR 0·5-12·0) and a sex ratio of 1·15 males per female. 145 (25%) had pre-existing medical conditions. 363 (62%) individuals were admitted to hospital. 48 (8%) individuals required ICU admission, 25 (4%) mechanical ventilation (median duration 7 days, IQR 2-11, range 1-34), 19 (3%) inotropic support, and one (<1%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Significant risk factors for requiring ICU admission in multivariable analyses were being younger than 1 month (odds ratio 5·06, 95% CI 1·72-14·87; p=0·0035), male sex (2·12, 1·06-4·21; p=0·033), pre-existing medical conditions (3·27, 1·67-6·42; p=0·0015), and presence of lower respiratory tract infection signs or symptoms at presentation (10·46, 5·16-21·23; p<0·0001). The most frequently used drug with antiviral activity was hydroxychloroquine (40 [7%] patients), followed by remdesivir (17 [3%] patients), lopinavir-ritonavir (six [1%] patients), and oseltamivir (three [1%] patients). Immunomodulatory medication used included corticosteroids (22 [4%] patients), intravenous immunoglobulin (seven [1%] patients), tocilizumab (four [1%] patients), anakinra (three [1%] patients), and siltuximab (one [<1%] patient). Four children died (case-fatality rate 0·69%, 95% CI 0·20-1·82); at study end, the remaining 578 were alive and only 25 (4%) were still symptomatic or requiring respiratory support. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 is generally a mild disease in children, including infants. However, a small proportion develop severe disease requiring ICU admission and prolonged ventilation, although fatal outcome is overall rare. The data also reflect the current uncertainties regarding specific treatment options, highlighting that additional data on antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are urgently needed. FUNDING: ptbnet is supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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