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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057463

ABSTRACT

Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. Methodology A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66;SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported. Results Parental worries on all those concerns when the pandemic started were significantly higher than before the pandemic, p < 0.050. Parental-perceived general anxiety had risen significantly across time, p < 0.001, and their perceived anxiety when the pandemic started exceeded their anxiety before the pandemic, p < 0.001. The general anxiety of children with SEND had risen significantly across time (from before the pandemic to when it had started to during the pandemic), p < 0.001. The children's general worries at the start of the pandemic had correlated significantly and positively with their anxiety, adaptive, maladaptive, and coping efficacies, and parental anxiety scores, p < 0.010 each. Conclusion Anxiety levels were high in SEND and their caregivers before and during COVID-19. At the start of the pandemic, the anxiety, adaptive, maladaptive, coping efficacies, and parental anxiety scores of children with SEND were significantly and favorably correlated. These findings support the notion of SEND-specific anxiety and patterns of coping in SEND and their caregivers. The notion also attests to the institutional support required for this specifically vulnerable population during epidemics.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16019, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042336

ABSTRACT

Cytokines are major players in orchestrating inflammation, disease pathogenesis and severity during COVID-19 disease. However, the role of IL-19 in COVID-19 pathogenesis remains elusive. Herein, through the analysis of transcriptomic datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected lung cells, nasopharyngeal swabs, and lung autopsies of COVID-19 patients, we report that expression levels of IL-19 and its receptor, IL-20R2, were upregulated following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of 202 adult COVID-19 patients, IL-19 protein level was significantly higher in blood and saliva of asymptomatic patients compared to healthy controls when adjusted for patients' demographics (P < 0.001). Interestingly, high saliva IL-19 level was also associated with COVID-19 severity (P < 0.0001), need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.002), and/or death (P = 0.010) within 29 days of admission, after adjusting for patients' demographics, diabetes mellitus comorbidity, and COVID-19 serum markers of severity such as D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. Moreover, patients who received interferon beta during their hospital stay had lower plasma IL-19 concentrations (24 pg mL-1) than those who received tocilizumab (39.2 pg mL-1) or corticosteroids (42.5 pg mL-1). Our findings indicate that high saliva IL-19 level was associated with COVID-19 infectivity and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Cytokines , Ferritins , Humans , Interferon-beta , Interleukins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Up-Regulation
3.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: T-helper 17 cell-mediated response and their effector IL-17 cytokine induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major cause of COVID-19 disease severity and death. Therefore, the study aimed to determine if IL-17 level in saliva mirrors its circulatory level and hence can be used as a non-invasive biomarker for disease severity. METHODS: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) level was evaluated by ELISA in saliva and blood of 201 adult COVID-19 patients with different levels of severity. The IL-17 saliva level was also associated with COVID-19 disease severity, and need for mechanical ventilation and/or death within 29 days after admission of severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We found that IL-17 level in saliva of COVID-19 patients reflected its circulatory level. High IL-17 level in saliva was associated with COVID-19 severity (P<0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (P = 0.002), and/or death by 29 days (P = 0.002), after adjusting for patients' demographics, comorbidity, and COVID-19 serum severity markers such as D-Dimer, C-reactive protein, and ferritin. CONCLUSION: We propose that saliva IL-17 level could be used as a biomarker to identify patients at risk of developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cytokines , Ferritins , Humans , Interleukin-17 , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 944165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009892

ABSTRACT

Background: With the rapid surge of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we aimed to assess parents' perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccines and the psychological antecedents of vaccinations during the first month of the Omicron spread. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey in Saudi Arabia was conducted (December 20, 2021-January 7, 2022). Convenience sampling was used to invite participants through several social media platforms, including WhatsApp, Twitter, and email lists. We utilized the validated 5C Scale, which evaluates five psychological factors influencing vaccination intention and behavior: confidence, complacency, constraints, calculation, and collective responsibility. Results: Of the 1,340 respondents, 61.3% received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 35% received an additional booster dose. Fify four percentage were unwilling to vaccinate their children aged 5-11, and 57.2% were unwilling to give the additional booster vaccine to children aged 12-18. Respondents had higher scores on the construct of collective responsibility, followed by calculation, confidence, complacency, and finally constraints. Confidence in vaccines was associated with willingness to vaccinate children and positively correlated with collective responsibility (p < 0.010). Complacency about COVID-19 was associated with unwillingness to vaccinate older children (12-18 years) and with increased constraints and calculation scores (p < 0.010). While increasing constraints scores did not correlate with decreased willingness to vaccinate children (p = 0.140), they did correlate negatively with confidence and collective responsibility (p < 0.010). Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the relationship between the five antecedents of vaccination, the importance of confidence in vaccines, and a sense of collective responsibility in parents' intention to vaccinate their children. Campaigns addressing constraints and collective responsibility could help influence the public's vaccination behavior.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006251

ABSTRACT

Background: Monkeypox virus re-surged in May 2022 as a new potential global health threat, with outbreaks bursting in multiple countries across different continents. This study was conducted in Saudi Arabia during the first month following the WHO announcement of the Monkeypox outbreak, to assess healthcare workers (HCWs) perceptions of, worries concerning, and vaccine acceptance for, Monkeypox, in light of the resolving COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A national cross-sectional survey was conducted between 27 May and 10 June 2022, in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected on: HCWs' sociodemographic and job-related characteristics; COVID-19 infection status; and worries concerning Monkeypox, compared to COVID-19 and its sources; as well as their perceptions and awareness of, and advocacy for, supporting Monkeypox vaccination. Results: A total of 1130 HCWs completed the survey, of which 41.6% have already developed COVID-19. However, 56.5% were more concerned about COVID-19 compared to Monkeypox, while the rest were more worried about Monkeypox disease. The main cause for concern among 68.8% of the participants was the development of another worldwide pandemic, post-COVID-19, followed by their concern of either themselves or their families contracting the infection (49.6%). Most HCWs (60%) rated their level of self-awareness of Monkeypox disease as moderate to high. Males, and those who had previously developed COVID-19, were significantly less likely to worry about Monkeypox. The worry about Monkeypox developing into a pandemic, and the perception of Monkeypox being a severe disease, correlated significantly positively with the odds of high worry concerning the disease. The major predictors of participants' advocacy for vaccination against Monkeypox disease were: those who had developed COVID-19 previously; and those who supported tighter infection control measures (than those currently used) to combat the disease. A total of 74.2% of the surveyed HCWs perceived that they needed to read more about Monkeypox disease. Conclusions: Approximately half of the HCWs in this study were more concerned about Monkeypox disease than COVID-19, particularly regarding its possible progression into a new pandemic, during the first month following the WHO's Monkeypox international alert. In addition, the majority of participants were in favor of applying tighter infection prevention measures to combat the disease. The current study highlights areas requiring attention for healthcare administrators regarding HCWs' perceptions and preparedness for Monkeypox, especially in the event of a local or international pandemic.

6.
Life Sci ; 307: 120909, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996410

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The ability of vitamin D (VitD) to modulate immune responses in the clinical setting of COVID-19 infection is not well investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of VitD to attenuate inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients with severe COVID-19 who had been treated (20 patients), or not (25 patients), with VitD, during their stay in the intensive care unit. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expressions of STAT3, JNK and AKT signaling pathways and ELISA was used to measure levels of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-1ß in blood of these patients. KEY FINDINGS: Reduced levels of STAT3, JNK and AKT pathways and lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-17, and IL-1ß were observed in VitD treated patients (50,000 IU of cholecalciferol weekly for 3 weeks), and in vitro following treatment of poly I:C stimulated PBMCs with VitD (50 nM of calcitriol). Moreover, lower circulatory levels of these proinflammatory cytokines following treatment with VitD were associated with lower serum levels of COVID-19-related severity markers such as D-dimer and C-reactive proteins (P < 0.001) which in overall resulted in shorter length of ICU stay for VitD treated compared to untreated patients (18 days for VitD treated vs. 28 days for VitD untreated; P = 0.01). SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals that VitD plays immunomodulatory role during COVID-19 infection, which further emphasizes the importance of maintaining a normal level of this vitamin for the prevention of hyperinflammatory conditions associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Calcitriol , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Poly I , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy , Vitamins/pharmacology , Vitamins/therapeutic use
7.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monkeypox re-emerged in May 2022 as another global health threat. This study assessed the public's perception, worries, and vaccine acceptance for Monkeypox and COVID-19 during the first month of WHO announcement. METHODS: A large-scale, cross-sectional survey was conducted between May 27 and June 5, 2022, in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, previous infection with COVID-19, worry levels regarding Monkeypox compared to COVID-19, awareness, and perceptions of Monkeypox, and vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: Among the 1546 participants, most respondents (62%) were more worried about COVID-19 than Monkeypox. Respondents aged 45 years and above and those with a university degree or higher had lower odds of agreement with Monkeypox vaccination (OR 0.871, p-value 0.006, OR 0.719, p-value <0.001), respectively. Respondents with moderate to a high level of self and family commitment to infection control precautionary measures and those who expressed self and family worry of Monkeypox infection had significantly higher odds of vaccination agreement (OR 1.089 p-value = 0.047, OR1.395 p-value = 0.003) respectively. On the other hand, respondents who previously developed COVID-19 were significantly more worried about the Monkeypox disease (1.30 times more, p-value = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Worry levels amongst the public are higher from COVID-19 than Monkeypox. Perception of Monkeypox as a dangerous and virulent disease, worry from contracting the disease, and high commitment to infection precautionary measures were predictors of agreement with Monkeypox vaccination. While advanced age and high education level are predictors of low agreement with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , World Health Organization
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964123

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020-2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

9.
Infection ; 2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920273

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has caused a significant impact on healthcare workers (HCWs) across the globe. A few of these challenges include high workload, lack of coordination and direction, changing information, shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), managing isolation, fear, and increased anxiety, adapting to changes in healthcare practice and policy, coping strategies, and emotional and physical needs. Here, we shed light on some aspects of these challenges among healthcare workers.

10.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(7): 773-780, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herd immunity for COVID-19 is the ultimate goal to end the pandemic. Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has been a subject of considerable debate regarding vaccines effectiveness. This ongoing discussion and other evolving variables contribute to the hesitancy toward vaccines and levels of vaccination acceptance among both the healthcare workers and the public. This study was conducted to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake and hesitancy among the Saudi Arabian population during the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. METHODS: A national cross-sectional survey conducted between June 28 and July 5, 2021. The survey collected sociodemographic information, personal and family history of previous COVID-19 infection, adherence to precautionary measures, COVID-19 vaccination status, parental willingness to vaccinate their teenage children, and address variable associated with hesitancy to receive vaccination. RESULTS: Among the 4071 participants, 67 % were women, 86 % of the participants received COVID-19 vaccine, 70 % had very high or high commitment with COVID-19 precautionary measures. On multivariate analysis, vaccine hesitancy was less likely in men (OR 0.652, p-value < 0.001), those who had direct family members infected with COVID-19 (OR 0.455, p-value < 0.001), and those who reported using the Ministry of Health official channels as information sources (OR 0.522, p-value < 0.001), while those younger than 44 years had higher hesitancy to receive the vaccine (1.5-2.1 times). Of the participants, only 42 % showed willingness to vaccinate their teenage (12-18 years old) children. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in this study had high COVID-19 vaccination rate; however, hesitancy was reported more commonly among women. Their willingness to vaccinate their teenage children was much lower. Participants relying on social media platforms were highly hesitant to receive vaccination. Public health officials should scale up their efforts targeting females, young population, and parents by vaccination awareness campaigns, and refute misinformation spread on social media, especially with the emergence of variants and the news burst that coincide with them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
11.
Vaccines ; 10(7):985, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is one of the longest viral pandemics in the history of mankind, which have caused millions of deaths globally and induced severe deformities in the survivals. For instance, fibrosis and cavities in the infected lungs of COVID-19 are some of the complications observed in infected patients post COVID-19 recovery. These health abnormalities, including is multiple organ failure-the most striking pathological features of COVID-19-have been linked with diverse distribution of ACE2 receptor. Additionally, several health complications reports were reported after administration of COVID-19 vaccines in healthy individuals, but clinical or molecular pathways causing such complications are not yet studied in detail. Thus, the present systematic review established the comparison of health complication noted in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals (COVID-19 infected patients) to identify the association between vaccination and the multiorgan failure based on the data obtained from case studies, research articles, clinical trials/Cohort based studies and review articles published between 2020–2022. This review also includes the biological rationale behind the COVID-19 infection and its subsequent symptoms and effects including multiorgan failure. In addition, multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) has been informed in individuals post vaccination that resulted in multiorgan failure but, no direct correlation of vaccination with MIS has been established. Similarly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) also noted to cause multiorgan failure in some individuals following full vaccination. Furthermore, severe complications were recorded in elderly patients (+40 years of age), indicates that older age individuals are higher risk by COVID-19 and post vaccination, but available literature is not sufficient to comply with any conclusive statements on relationship between vaccination and multiorgan failure.

12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875702

ABSTRACT

Measles is an RNA virus infectious disease mainly seen in children. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine against measles, it remains a health issue in children. Although it is a self-limiting disease, it becomes severe in undernourished and immune-compromised individuals. Measles infection is associated with secondary infections by opportunistic bacteria due to the immunosuppressive effects of the measles virus. Recent reports highlight that measles infection erases the already existing immune memory of various pathogens. This review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, measles variants, clinical presentations, secondary infections, elimination of measles virus on a global scale, and especially the immune responses related to measles infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Measles , Child , Humans , Incidence , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control
13.
Infection ; 50(3): 583-596, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccines have been developed to compact the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and have been administered to people all over the world. These vaccines have been quite effective in reducing the possibility of severe illness, hospitalization and death. However, the recent emergence of Variants of Concern specifically the delta variant, B.1.617.2, had resulted in additional waves of the pandemic. METHODS: We aim to review the literature to understand the transmission and disease severity, and determine the efficacy of the current COVID-19 vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase till August 4th 2021, and used the search terms "delta variant", "vaccinations"," breakthrough infections", and "neutralizing antibody". For the meta-analysis, 21 studies were screened in particular and five articles (148,071 cases) were included in the study, and only four were analyzed in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies showed significant reductions in neutralization rates against delta variants for vaccinated individuals and convalescent patients with prior history of COVID-19. However, There was a lower incidence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 due to Delta variant was found after the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech, Oxford-AstraZeneca and Moderna vaccines. CONCLUSION: In fully vaccinated individuals, symptomatic infection with the delta variant was significantly reduced, and therefore, vaccinations play an important role to assist the fight against delta variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccine Efficacy
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855847

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron spread fast globally and became the predominant variant in many countries. Resumption of public regular life activities, including in-person schooling, presented parents with new sources of worry. Thus, it is important to study parental worry about the Omicron variant, willingness to vaccinate their children, and knowledge about school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Methods: A national, cross-sectional, pilot-validated online questionnaire targeting parents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed between 31 December 2021, and 7 January 2022. The survey included sociodemographic, COVID-19 infection data, parental and children vaccination status, attitudes towards booster vaccine, parents' Omicron-related perceptions and worries, and attitude towards in-person schooling. Results: A total of 1340 participants completed the survey, most (65.3%) of whom were mothers. Of the parents, 96.3% either received two or three doses of the COVID-19 vaccine. Only 32.1% of the parents were willing to vaccinate their young children (5-11 years of age). In relation to their children 12-18 years of age, 48% had already had them vaccinated, 31% were planning to vaccinate them, and 42.8% were willing to administer a booster dose. Only 16% were more worried about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. Residents of western KSA were more worried about Omicron compared to Delta. Parents worried about the Omicron variant and male participants were significantly less aware of school-based COVID-19 precautionary measures. Parents with post-graduate degrees and those having more children were significantly more inclined to send their children to school even if COVID-19 outbreaks could occur in schools, while parents who were more worried about the Omicron variant and were more committed to infection prevention measures were significantly less inclined to do so. Conclusions: Overall, parents had lower worry levels about the Omicron variant compared to the Delta variant. They had a higher willingness to vaccinate their older children compared to the younger ones. In addition, our cohort of parents showed high willingness to send their children to schools and trusted the school-based preventative measures. These findings can inform policy makers when considering school related decisions during the current or future public health crises.

15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 878159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785459

ABSTRACT

Background: As the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant spreads in several countries, healthcare workers' (HCWs) perceptions and worries regarding vaccine effectiveness and boosters warrant reassessment. Methods: An online questionnaire among HCWs in Saudi Arabia (KSA) was distributed from Dec 1st-6th 2021 to assess their perceptions, vaccine advocacy to the Omicron variant, and their perception of the effectiveness of infection prevention measures and vaccination to prevent its spread, their Omicron variant related worries in comparison to the other variants, and their agreement with mandatory vaccination in general for adults. Results: Among the 1,285 HCW participants, two-thirds were female, 49.8 % were nurses, 46.4% were physicians, and 50.0% worked in tertiary care hospitals. 66.9% considered vaccination to be the most effective way to prevent the spread of the Omicron variant and future variants. The respondents however perceived social distancing (78.0%), universal masking (77.8%), and avoiding unnecessary travel (71.4%) as slightly superior to vaccination to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants. HCWs aging 55 or older agreed significantly with vaccine ineffectiveness to control Omicron spread, while those who believed in non-pharmacological infection prevention measures agreed significantly with vaccination for that purpose. Male HCWs had a significant agreement with mandatory vaccination of all eligible adult populations. On the other hand, unwilling HCWs to receive the vaccine had strong disagreements with mandatory vaccination. Conclusions: The current study in the first week of Omicron showed that only two-thirds of HCWs felt that vaccination was the best option to prevent the spread of the Omicron variant, indicating the need for further motivation campaigns for vaccination and booster dose. HCWs had a strong belief in infection prevention measures to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants that should be encouraged and augmented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731999

ABSTRACT

Background: Medical education has been rapidly growing and transforming due to the enormous evolution of medicine. There have been many proficient ways to learn in medicine, but academic lectures, attending wards, and ambulatory care clinics (ACC) remain the three main ways of gaining clinical knowledge and experience for medical students. Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic shift in care by focusing on ambulatory care rather than inpatient settings, which provides a golden opportunity to reinforce medical education. Purpose: Most of the published studies that have focused on the teaching barriers in ACC were descriptive rather than analytic studies. Herein, we aim to detect and determine the barriers to teaching in ACC settings using qualitative analysis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational study, involving medical students in their clerkship years (i.e., fourth and fifth) from two different medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Faculty who are involved in undergraduate medical education in both colleges were also included. Main Results: A total of 387 medical students studying at the two universities were enrolled in the study. Most of the participants preferred attending outpatient clinics with consultants (44.2%) and the majority preferred attending internal medicine (IM) and IM subspecialties clinics (40.4%). Regarding the challenges, students believe the top three barriers are related to: faculty (39%), environment (34.8%), and patients (14.8%). Faculty on the other hand see that the top three barriers are related to environment (55.6%), patients (24.4%), and faculty (20%). Conclusion: Undergraduate medical education in outpatient settings has many challenges. In our study, the most significant challenges were COVID-19-related restrictions, patient refusal, and insufficient time for teaching. Future studies are needed to investigate these barriers and explore potential solutions that can decrease their burden on undergraduate medical education.

17.
Children (Basel) ; 9(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725527

ABSTRACT

Child maltreatment, especially during health crises, is a major public health issue transcending cultural, social, and racial contexts. We assessed the sociodemographic and related risk factors associated with the types and rates of child maltreatment. We also assessed the economic, social, and environmental characteristics of child maltreatment victims and their perpetrators, as they were reported to the Saudi National Family Safety Program (NFSP), with consideration of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact. A secondary data analysis of a retrospective review was conducted to compare types and rates before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, utilizing descriptive and multivariate analyses on anonymized data from the NFSP. According to a predetermined list of relevant risk factors for child maltreatment outlined by the NFSP, these anonymized data were obtained and analyzed with no exclusion criteria (n = 1304). The findings showed that a child's age correlated significantly and positively with their odds of being physically maltreated; as a child's age increased by one year, on average, their corresponding predicted odds of being physically maltreatment tended to rise by a factor equal to 7.6% (p < 0.001). Neglected children, compared to those who had not been previously neglected, were predicted to be almost twice (2.23 times more) as likely to be victims of physical maltreatment on average (p < 0.001). Children were notably more likely to experience sexual abuse during the COVID-19 pandemic than those exposed to abuse during the period before (1.69 times). The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significantly lower odds of physical child maltreatment (47.7% less). This study found no statistically significant effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's odds of being emotionally maltreated (p = 0.169). These findings support the existence of specific risk factors for child maltreatment for both child victims and perpetrators. They also attest to the significant differences between different types of maltreatment. A systematic, proactive system is needed to screen and document child maltreatment with a higher degree of integration with community reporting systems.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged and spread globally at an alarming speed, healthcare workers' (HCWs) uncertainties, worries, resilience, and coping strategies warranted assessment. The COVID-19 pandemic had a severe psychological impact on HCWs, including the development of Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Specific subgroups of HCWs, such as front-line and female workers, were more prone to poor mental health outcomes and difficulties facing stress. METHODS: The responses to an online questionnaire among HCWs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were collected from 1 December 2021 to 6 December 2021, aiming to assess their uncertainties, worries, resilience, and coping strategies regarding the Omicron variant. Three validated instruments were used to achieve the study's goals: the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), the Standard Stress Scale (SSS), and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS)-Short Form. RESULTS: The online survey was completed by 1285 HCWs. Females made up the majority of the participants (64%). A total of 1285 HCW's completed the online survey from all regions in KSA. Resilient coping scored by the BRCS was negatively and significantly correlated with stress as scored by the SSS (r = -0.313, p < 0.010). Moreover, intolerance of uncertainty scored by the IUS positively and significantly correlated with stress (r = 0.326, p < 0.010). Increased stress levels were linked to a considerable drop in resilient coping scores. Furthermore, being a Saudi HCW or a nurse was linked to a significant reduction in resilient coping ratings. Coping by following healthcare authorities' preventative instructions and using the WHO website as a source of information was linked to a considerable rise in resilient coping. CONCLUSIONS: The negative association between resilient coping and stress was clearly shown, as well as how underlying intolerance of uncertainty is linked to higher stress among HCWs quickly following the development of a new infectious threat. The study provides early insights into developing and promoting coping strategies for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Uncertainty , World Health Organization
19.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 23(6): 639-642, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700460
20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322625

ABSTRACT

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, structured medical training is challenging because the necessary travel for on-site interviews could increase the spread of the disease. Aim: This study was conducted to describe an urgently implemented, web-based interview process for selecting medical residents for the National Residency Matching in Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional, nationwide survey (appendix 1) was sent to 4,153 residency-nominated applicants in Saudi Arabia to the matching interview for 2020. Results: Among the 510 candidates who responded, 62.2% applied for medical specialties, 20.2% applied for surgical specialties, and 17.6% applied for critical care and emergency specialties. Most respondents (61.2%) never had video conferences. Besides, most respondents (80.2%) had used Zoom to conduct E-interviews, whereas only 15.9% used FaceTime. Among the respondents, 75.7% agreed that their questions regarding the residency programs were adequately answered during the virtual interviews. The top perceived factors that enhanced the experience were the free application, the clarification emails they received from the organizers, and the organizers’ effective communication. Conversely, what negatively impacted the interviews were the slow and interrupted Internet, the absence of clear instructions, and the lack of previous experience with teleconferencing. Conclusion: Videoconferencing was successfully implemented on an urgent basis during the COVID-19 pandemic in the medical residency application process in Saudi Arabia. The residency applicants preferred video interviews, along with the cost savings and easier logistics to conduct the interviews from various locations. Future studies to enhance this experience are warranted.

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