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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580642

ABSTRACT

Although previous studies have revealed that elevated D-dimer in the early stage of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) indicates pulmonary intravascular coagulation, the state of coagulation/fibrinolysis disorder with normal D-dimer is unknown. The study aimed to investigate how coagulation/fibrinolysis markers affect severe respiratory failure in the early stage of COVID-19. Among 1043 patients with COVID-19, 797 patients were included in our single-center retrospective study. These 797 patients were divided into two groups, the normal D-dimer and elevated D-dimer groups and analyzed for each group. A logistic regression model was fitted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, fibrinogen ≥ 617 mg/dL, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) ≥ 4.0 ng/mL, and plasmin-alpha2-plasmin inhibitor-complex (PIC) > 0.8 µg/mL. A multivariate analysis of the normal D-dimer group demonstrated that being male and TAT ≥ 4.0 ng/mL significantly affected severe respiratory failure. In a multivariate analysis of the elevated D-dimer group, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and fibrinogen ≥ 617 mg/dL significantly affected severe respiratory failure. The elevated PIC did not affect severe respiratory failure in any group. Our study demonstrated that hypercoagulation due to SARS-CoV-2 infection may occur even during a normal D-dimer level, causing severe respiratory failure in COVID-19.

2.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 72: 102108, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The RECOVERY clinical trial reported that 6 mg of dexamethasone once daily for up to 10 days reduces the 28-day mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) receiving respiratory support. In our clinical setting, a fixed dose of dexamethasone has prompted the question of whether inflammatory modulation effects sufficiently reduce lung injury. Therefore, preliminary verification on the possibility of predicted body weight (PBW)-based dexamethasone therapy was conducted in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study was conducted in a Japanese University Hospital to compare the treatment strategies/management in different periods. Consecutive patients (n = 90) with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy and were treated with dexamethasone between June 2020 and May 2021 were analyzed. Initially, 60 patients administered a fixed dexamethasone dose of 6.6 mg/day were defined as the conventional group, and then, 30 patients were changed to PBW-based therapy. The 30-day discharged alive rate and duration of oxygen therapy were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. The multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate the effects of PBW-based dexamethasone therapy on high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), noninvasive ventilation (NIV), or mechanical ventilation (MV). RESULTS: In the PBW-based group, 9, 13, and 8 patients were administered 6.6, 9.9, and 13.2 mg/day of dexamethasone, respectively. Additional respiratory support including HFNC, NIV, or MV was significantly less frequently used in the PBW-based group (P = 0.0046), with significantly greater cumulative incidence of being discharged alive and shorter oxygen demand within 30 days (92 vs. 89%, log-rank P = 0.0094, 90 vs. 92%, log-rank P = 0.0002, respectively). Patients treated with PBW-based therapy significantly decreased the use of additional respiratory support after adjusting for baseline imbalances (adjusted odds ratio, 0.224; 95% confidence interval, 0.062-0.813, P = 0.023). Infection occurred in 13 (21%) and 2 (7%) patients in the conventional and PBW-based groups, respectively (P = 0.082). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy, PBW-based dexamethasone therapy may potentially shorten the length of hospital stay and duration of oxygen therapy and risk of using HFNC, NPPV, or MV without increasing serious adverse events or 30-day mortality.

3.
Respir Investig ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen treatment has been frequently used in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure after the 3rd wave of the pandemic in Japan, the usefulness of the indicators of ventilator avoidance, including respiratory rate-oxygenation (ROX) index and other parameters, namely oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio and respiratory rate (RR), remain unclear. METHODS: Between January and May 2021, our institution treated 189 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring oxygen, among which 39 patients requiring HFNC treatment were retrospectively analyzed. The group that switched from HFNC treatment to conventional oxygen therapy (COT) was defined as the HFNC success group, and the group that switched from HFNC treatment to a ventilator was defined as the HFNC failure group. We followed the patients' oxygenation parameters for a maximum of 30 days. RESULTS: HFNC treatment success occurred in 24 of 39 patients (62%) treated with HFNC therapy. Compared with the HFNC failure group, the HFNC success group had a significantly higher degree of RR improvement in the univariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis of HFNC treatment success adjusting for age, respiratory improvement, and a ROX index ≥5.55 demonstrated that an improved RR was associated with HFNC treatment success. The total COT duration was significantly shorter in the HFNC success group than in the HFNC failure group. CONCLUSIONS: HFNC treatment can be useful for ventilator avoidance and allow the quick withdrawal of oxygen administration. RR improvement may be a convenient, useful, and simple indicator of HFNC treatment success.

4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315812

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported an association between atherosclerosis-related diseases and COVID-19, the relationship between COVID-19 severity and atherosclerosis progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) prognostic value in patients with COVID-19 using indices such as deterioration in oxygenation and CT images of the chest. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study of 53 consecutive patients with COVID-19 in Narita who were admitted to our hospital between March 2020 and August 2020. CACS was calculated based on non-gated CT scans of the chest performed on admission day. The patients were divided into the following two groups based on CACS: group 1 (CACS ≥180, n=11) and group 2 (CACS <180, n=42). Following univariate analysis of the main variables, multivariate analysis of variables that may be associated with COVID-19 progression was performed. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of age, sex, smoking history, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, number of days from symptom onset to hospitalisation and CACS of ≥180 was performed. It revealed that unlike CACS of <180, CACS of ≥180 is associated with exacerbation of oxygenation or CT images of the chest during hospitalisation (OR: 12.879, 95% CI: 1.399 to 380.401). Furthermore, this model of eight variables showed good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.119). CONCLUSION: CACS may be a prognosis marker of COVID-19 severity. Although coronary artery calcification is not typically assessed in pneumonia cases, it may provide a valuable clinical indicator for predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
6.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 666-669, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267906

ABSTRACT

An online questionnaire survey was used to assess the application of noninvasive strategies in the management of COVID-19 patients. We found a marked increase in the proportion of facilities using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy successfully in the 3rd epidemic wave as compared to the 1st wave (49% vs. 12%) and rare reports of associated nosocomial infection in the medical personnel. Furthermore, the proportion of facilities using HFNC as first-line therapy for half or more than half of their patients who did not respond to conventional oxygen therapy increased from 9% in the first to 33% in the second survey. Conversely, the rate of mechanical ventilation with intubation usage following conventional oxygen therapy failure decreased from 62% to 54%. These changes could be due to the limited medical resources available during the larger 3rd wave coupled with increased internal reports on the success of HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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