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Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 24(4): 289-300, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213002


OBJECTIVES: To investigate neurocognitive, psychosocial, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes in children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) seen 3-6 months after PICU admission. DESIGN: National prospective cohort study March 2020 to November 2021. SETTING: Seven PICUs in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Children with MIS-C (0-17 yr) admitted to a PICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Children and/or parents were seen median (interquartile range [IQR] 4 mo [3-5 mo]) after PICU admission. Testing included assessment of neurocognitive, psychosocial, and QoL outcomes with reference to Dutch pre-COVID-19 general population norms. Effect sizes (Hedges' g ) were used to indicate the strengths and clinical relevance of differences: 0.2 small, 0.5 medium, and 0.8 and above large. Of 69 children with MIS-C, 49 (median age 11.6 yr [IQR 9.3-15.6 yr]) attended follow-up. General intelligence and verbal memory scores were normal compared with population norms. Twenty-nine of the 49 followed-up (59%) underwent extensive testing with worse function in domains such as visual memory, g = 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.4), sustained attention, g = 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.4), and planning, g = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). The children also had more emotional and behavioral problems, g = 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-0.7), and had lower QoL scores in domains such as physical functioning g = 1.3 (95% CI 0.9-1.6), school functioning g = 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.4), and increased fatigue g = 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-0.9) compared with population norms. Elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was seen in 10 of 30 children (33%) with MIS-C. Last, in the 32 parents, no elevated risk for PTSD was found. CONCLUSIONS: Children with MIS-C requiring PICU admission had normal overall intelligence 4 months after PICU discharge. Nevertheless, these children reported more emotional and behavioral problems, more PTSD, and worse QoL compared with general population norms. In a subset undergoing more extensive testing, we also identified irregularities in neurocognitive functions. Whether these impairments are caused by the viral or inflammatory response, the PICU admission, or COVID-19 restrictions remains to be investigated.

COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(8): 2495-2502, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260566


BACKGROUND: Long-COVID is a well-documented multisystem disease in adults. Far less is known about long-term sequelae of COVID in children. Here, we report on the occurrence of long-COVID in Dutch children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a national survey asking Dutch pediatricians to share their experiences on long-COVID in children. We furthermore describe a case series of six children with long-COVID to explore the clinical features in greater detail. RESULTS: With a response rate of 78% of Dutch pediatric departments, we identified 89 children, aged 2-18 years, suspected of long-COVID with various complaints. Of these children, 36% experienced severe limitations in daily function. The most common complaints were fatigue, dyspnea, and concentration difficulties with 87%, 55%, and 45% respectively. Our case series emphasizes the nonspecific and broad clinical manifestations seen in post-COVID complaints. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that long-COVID is also present in the pediatric population. The main symptoms resemble those previously described in adults. This novel condition demands a multidisciplinary approach with international awareness and consensus to aid early detection and effective management.

COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Dyspnea , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome