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1.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255105

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to analyze the role of automatic assessment of COVID-19 pneumonia severity in high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images by artificial intelligence (AI) technology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied the medical records of consecutive patients admitted to the Krakow University Hospital due to COVID-19. Of the 1,729 patients, 804 had HRCT with automatically analyzed radiological parameters: absolute inflammation volume (AIV), absolute ground glass volume (AGV), absolute consolidation volume (ACV), percentage inflammation volume (PIV), percentage ground glass volume (PGV), percentage consolidation volume (PCV) and severity of pneumonia classified as none, mild, moderate, or critical. RESULTS: The automatically assessed radiological parameters correlated with the clinical parameters that reflected the severity of pneumonia (p < 0.05). Patients with critical pneumonia, compared to mild or moderate, were more frequently men, had significantly lower oxygen saturation, higher respiratory rate, higher levels of inflammatory markers, more common need for mechanical ventilation, and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU); moreover, they were more likely to die during hospitalization. Notably, as determined by the receiving operating characteristic curve, radiological parameters above or equal the cut-off points were independently associated with in-hospital mortality (ACV odds ratio (OR) 4.08, 95% confidence limits (CI) 2.62 - 6.35; PCV OR 4.05, CI 2.60 - 6.30). CONCLUSIONS: Using AI to analyze HRCT images is a simple and valuable approach to predict the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia.

2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 10: 1133373, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283820

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia with increasing prevalence with respect to age and comorbidities. AF may influence the prognosis in patients hospitalized with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to assess the prevalence of AF among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 and the association of AF and in-hospital anticoagulation treatment with prognosis. Methods and results: We assessed the prevalence of AF among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 and the association of AF and in-hospital anticoagulation treatment with prognosis. Data of all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, between March 2020 and April 2021, were analyzed. The following outcomes: short-term (30-days since hospital admission) and long-term (180-days after hospital discharge) mortality, major cardiovascular events (MACEs), pulmonary embolism, and need for red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion, as a surrogate for major bleeding events during hospital stay were assessed. Out of 4,998 hospitalized patients, 609 had AF (535 pre-existing and 74 de novo). Compared to those without AF, patients with AF were older and had more cardiovascular disorders. In adjusted analysis, AF was independently associated with an increased risk of short-term {p = 0.019, Hazard Ratio [(HR)] 1.236; 95% CI: 1.035-1.476} and long-term mortality (Log-rank p < 0.001) as compared to patients without AF. The use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in AF patients was associated with reduced short-term mortality (HR 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06-0.33, p < 0.001). Moreover, in AF patients, NOAC use was associated with a lower probability of MACEs (Odds Ratio 0.3; 95% CI: 0.10-0.89, p = 0.030) without increase of RBCs transfusion. Conclusions: AF increases short- and long-term risk of death in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. However, the use of NOACs in this group may profoundly improve prognosis.

3.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275139

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to analyze the influence of cardiovascular risk factors, established cardiovascular diseases and its treatment with cardiovascular drugs on short term and long term survival in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients hospitalized in thirteen COVID - 19 hospitals in Poland (between March 2020 and October 2020). Individual deaths were recorded during follow-up until March 2021. RESULTS: Overall 2346 COVID-19 patients were included (mean age 61 years, 50.2% women). 341 patients (14.5%) died during hospitalization and 95 (4.7%) died during follow-up. Independent predictors for in-hospital death were: older age, history of established cardiovascular disease, heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), while treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers and statins were related with lower risk of death during hospitalization. The independent predictors of death during follow-up were older age, history of established cardiovascular disease, CKD and history of cancer. Presence of cardiovascular risk factors did not increase odds of death either in hospital or during follow-up. Of note, higher systolic blood pressure and oxygen blood saturation on admission were assessed with better short and long term prognosis. CONCLUSION: Established cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease are the main predictors of mortality during hospitalization and during follow-up in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, while the use of cardiovascular drugs during hospitalization is associated with better prognosis. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors did not increase odds of in-hospital and follow-up death.

4.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2023: 8700302, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265435

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for a severe course of COVID-19. We evaluated the characteristics and risk factors associated with undesirable outcomes in diabetic patients (DPs) hospitalized due to COVID-19. Materials and Methods: The data analysis of patients admitted between March 6, 2020, and May 31, 2021, to the University Hospital in Krakow (Poland), a reference center for COVID-19, was performed. The data were gathered from their medical records. Results: A total number of 5191 patients were included, of which 2348 (45.2%) were women. The patients were at the median age of 64 (IQR: 51-74) years, and 1364 (26.3%) were DPs. DPs, compared to nondiabetics, were older (median age: 70 years, IQR: 62-77 vs. 62, IQR: 47-72, and p < 0.001) and had a similar gender distribution. The DP group had a higher mortality rate (26.2% vs. 15.7%, p < 0.001) and longer hospital stays (median: 15 days, IQR: 10-24 vs. 13, IQR: 9-20, and p < 0.001). DPs were admitted to the ICU more frequently (15.7% vs. 11.0%, p < 0.001) and required mechanical ventilation more often (15.5% vs. 11.3%, p < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression, factors associated with a higher risk of death were age >65 years, glycaemia >10 mmol/L, CRP and D-dimer level, prehospital insulin and loop diuretic use, presence of heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Factors contributing to lower mortality were in-hospital use of statin, thiazide diuretic, and calcium channel blocker. Conclusion: In this large COVID-19 cohort, DPs constituted more than a quarter of hospitalized patients. The risk of death and other outcomes compared to nondiabetics was higher in this group. We identified a number of clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic variables associated with the risk of hospital death in DPs.

5.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(10)2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The course of consecutive COVID­19 waves was influenced by medical and organizational factors. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID­19 during the first 3 waves of the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of all COVID­19 patients admitted to the University Hospital in Kraków, Poland, a designated COVID­19 hospital in Malopolska province, between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021. The waves were defined as 1, 2, and 3, and covered the periods of March 2020 to July 2020, August 2020 to January 2021, and February 2021 to May 2021, respectively. Patients' characteristics and outcomes for waves 1 through 3 were compared. RESULTS: Data analyses included 5191 patients with COVID­19. We found differences in age (mean [SD], 60.2 [17.3] years vs 62.4 [16.8] years vs 61.9 [16.1] years, respectively, for waves 1, 2, and 3; P = 0.003), sex distribution (proportion of women, 51.4% vs 44.2% vs 43.6%; P = 0.003), as well as concentrations of inflammatory markers and oxygen saturation (the lowest and the highest for wave 1, respectively; P <0.001). Hospital death rates in subsequent waves were 10.4%, 19.8%, and 20.3% (P <0.001). Despite similarities in patients' characteristics, the length of hospital and intensive care unit stay was shorter for wave 3 than for wave 2. The risk factors for in­hospital death were: advanced age, male sex, cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease, higher C­reactive protein level, and hospitalization during the second or third wave. CONCLUSIONS: We identified differences in patients' clinical characteristics and outcomes between consecutive pandemic waves, which probably reflect changes in terms of COVID­19 isolation policy, hospitalization and treatment indications, and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Male , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Poland/epidemiology , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged
6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 917250, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065490

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of COVID-19 on the outcome of patients with MI has not been studied widely. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between concomitant COVID-19 and the clinical course of patients admitted due to acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: There was a comparison of retrospective data between patients with MI who were qualified for coronary angiography with concomitant COVID-19 and control group of patients treated for MI in the preceding year before the onset of the pandemic. In-hospital clinical data and the incidence of death from any cause on 30 days were obtained. Results: Data of 39 MI patients with concomitant COVID-19 (COVID-19 MI) and 196 MI patients without COVID-19 in pre-pandemic era (non-COVID-19 MI) were assessed. Compared with non-COVID-19 MI, COVID-19 MI was in a more severe clinical state on admission (lower systolic blood pressure: 128.51 ± 19.76 vs. 141.11 ± 32.47 mmHg, p = 0.024), higher: respiratory rate [median (interquartile range), 16 (14-18) vs. 12 (12-14)/min, p < 0.001], GRACE score (178.50 ± 46.46 vs. 161.23 ± 49.74, p = 0.041), percentage of prolonged (>24 h) time since MI symptoms onset to coronary intervention (35.9 vs. 15.3%; p = 0.004), and cardiovascular drugs were prescribed less frequently (beta-blockers: 64.1 vs. 92.8%, p = 0.009), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers: 61.5 vs. 81.1%, p < 0.001, statins: 71.8 vs. 94.4%, p < 0.001). Concomitant COVID-19 was associated with seven-fold increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR 7.117; 95% CI: 2.79-18.14; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients admitted due to MI with COVID-19 have an increased 30-day mortality. Efforts should be focused on infection prevention and implementation of optimal management to improve the outcomes in those patients.

7.
Hypertension ; 79(11): 2601-2610, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
9.
Diabetes ; 71, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1923969

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes is a risk factor for severe COVID-course. In this one-center report, we assessed clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with unfavorable outcomes in diabetic patients (DP) hospitalized due to COVID-19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from a cohort of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow (Poland) , a regional reference center for COVID-19, between March 6th 2020 and May 15th 2021. The data was collected from electronic medical records. Results: We included 5191 patients, mean age 61.98±16.66 years, 2348 (45.2%) women, 1364 (26.3%) DP. DP were older as compared to non-diabetics (median age 70 vs. 62 years, IQR 62-77 and 47-72, p<0.001) with similar gender distribution. DP were characterized by higher mortality (26.4% vs. 15.6%, p<0.001) , longer hospital stay (median 15 vs. 13 days, IQR 10-24 and 9-20, p<0.001) , more frequent ICU admission (15.7% vs. 11%, p<0.001) and more frequent requirement for mechanical ventilation (15.5% vs. 11.3%, p<0.001) . When adjusted for sex and age, the relative risk for in-hospital death, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation was 1.32 (95%CI 1.13-1.54) , 1.4 (95%CI 1.17-1.69) and 1.3 (95%CI 1.08-1.57) , respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed age, CRP and D-dimer level, history of heart failure, and loop diuretic use were associated with higher risk of death, whereas anticoagulation therapy, ACEI/sartan/mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist use and thiazide use were associated with lower risk. Conclusions: In this large COVID-cohort, DP constituted more than one fourth of hospitalized patients. Their risk of death was ca. 30% higher as compared to non-diabetics, as was the risk of other important clinical outcomes. We identified a number of clinical, laboratory and therapeutical variables associated with risk of hospital death in DP with COVID-19.

10.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(7-8)2022 08 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836208

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High­sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT­ proBNP) are known markers of cardiac injury. However, their role in predicting the severity of COVID­19 remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the association between hs­cTnT and NT-proBNP levels and in hospital mortality in patients with COVID­19, with emphasis on those with concomitant chronic heart failure (CHF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1729 consecutive patients with COVID­19 were enrolled. Demographic data, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes (discharge or death) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between hs­cTnT and NT-proBNP values and the risk of death. RESULTS: Evaluation of hs­cTnT was performed in 1041 patients, while NT-proBNP was assessed in 715 individuals. CHF was present in 179 cases (10.4% of the cohort). Median values of hs­cTnT and NT-proBNP and in­hospital mortality were higher in CHF patients than in those without CHF. Among patients without CHF, mortality was the highest in those with hs­cTnT or NT-proBNP values in the fourth quartile. In ROC analysis, hs­cTnT equal to or above 142 ng/l and NT-proBNP equal to or above 969 pg/ml predicted in­hospital death. In patients without CHF, each 10-ng/l increase in hs-cTnT or 100-pg/ml increase in NT­proBNP was associated with a higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 1.01 and OR, 1.02, respectively; P <0.01 for both). CONCLUSION: The level of hs­cTnT or NT-proBNP predicts in hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Both hs­cTnT and NT-proBNP should be routinely measured on admission in all patients hospitalized due to COVID­19 for early detection of individuals with an increased risk of in hospital death, even if they do not have concomitant heart failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Biomarkers , Chronic Disease , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , ROC Curve
11.
Hypertension ; 79(2): 325-334, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476907

ABSTRACT

In a cross-sectional analysis of a case-control study in 2015, we revealed the association between increased arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity) and aircraft noise exposure. In June 2020, we evaluated the long-term effects, and the impact of a sudden decline in noise exposure during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown, on blood pressure and pulse wave velocity, comparing 74 participants exposed to long-term day-evening-night aircraft noise level >60 dB and 75 unexposed individuals. During the 5-year follow-up, the prevalence of hypertension increased in the exposed (42% versus 59%, P=0.048) but not in the unexposed group. The decline in noise exposure since April 2020 was accompanied with a significant decrease of noise annoyance, 24-hour systolic (121.2 versus 117.9 mm Hg; P=0.034) and diastolic (75.1 versus 72.0 mm Hg; P=0.003) blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (10.2 versus 8.8 m/s; P=0.001) in the exposed group. Less profound decreases of these parameters were noticed in the unexposed group. Significant between group differences were observed for declines in office and night-time diastolic blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. Importantly, the difference in the reduction of pulse wave velocity between exposed and unexposed participants remained significant after adjustment for covariates (-1.49 versus -0.35 m/s; P=0.017). The observed difference in insomnia prevalence between exposed and unexposed individuals at baseline was no more significant at follow-up. Thus, long-term aircraft noise exposure may increase the prevalence of hypertension and accelerate arterial stiffening. However, even short-term noise reduction, as experienced during the COVID-19 lockdown, may reverse those unfavorable effects.


Subject(s)
Aircraft , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19 , Environmental Exposure , Noise, Transportation/adverse effects , Noise/adverse effects , Quarantine , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Aged , Arteriosclerosis/epidemiology , Arteriosclerosis/etiology , Female , Harm Reduction , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/etiology , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Pulse Wave Analysis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Urban Health
12.
Kardiol Pol ; 79(7-8): 773-780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) recently became one of the leading causes of death worldwide, similar to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Coexisting CVD may influence the prognosis of patients with COVID-19. AIMS: We analyzed the impact of CVD and the use of cardiovascular drugs on the in-hospital course and mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively studied data for consecutive patients admitted to our hospital, with COVID-19 between March 6th and October 15th, 2020. RESULTS: 1729 patients (median interquartile range age 63 [50-75] years; women 48.8%) were included. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 12.9%. The most prevalent CVD was arterial hypertension (56.1%), followed by hyperlipidemia (27.4%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (25.7%), coronary artery disease (16.8%), heart failure (HF) (10.3%), atrial fibrillation (13.5%), and stroke (8%). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) were used in 25.0% of patients, ß-blockers in 40.7%, statins in 15.6%, and antiplatelet therapy in 19.9%. Age over 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 6.4; 95% CI, 4.3-9.6), male sex (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0), pre-existing DM (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), and HF (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5) were independent predictors of in-hospital death, whereas treatment with ACEIs/ARBs (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), ß-blockers (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), statins (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8), or antiplatelet therapy (OR, 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.9) was associated with lower risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, HF and DM appeared to increase in-hospital COVID-19 mortality, whereas the use of cardiovascular drugs was associated with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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