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1.
Hemato ; 3(1):111, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818069

ABSTRACT

Background. Hypercoagulable state and endothelial cell activation are common alterations in patients with COVID-19. Nevertheless, the hypothesis of persistent hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation following recovery from COVID-19 remains an unresolved issue. Objectives. To investigate the persistence of endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability after recovery from COVID-19. Patients/Methods. COVID-19 survivors (n = 208) and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. The following biomarkers were measured: procoagulant phospholipid-dependent clotting time (PPL-ct), D-Dimer, fibrin monomers (FM), free Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (free-TFP)I, heparinase, and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM). Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (IgG and IgA) were also measured. Results. The median interval between symptom onset and screening for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 62 days (IQR = 22 days). Survivors showed significantly higher levels of D-Dimers, FM, TFPI, and heparanase as compared to that of the control group. Survivors had significantly shorter PPL-ct. Elevated D-dimer was associated with older age. Elevated FM was associated with female gender. Elevated heparanase was independently associated with male gender. Decreased Procoag-PPL clotting time was associated with female gender. One out of four of COVID-19 survivors showed increase at least one biomarker of endothelial cell activation or hypercoagulability. Conclusions. Two months after onset of COVID-19, a significant activation of endothelial cells and in vivo thrombin generation persists in at least one out of four survivors of COVID-19. The clinical relevance of these biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with long COVID-19 merits to be evaluated in a prospective clinical study.

2.
Trends in Molecular Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799776

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a major tool for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic and mRNA vaccines are central to the ongoing vaccination campaign that is undoubtedly saving thousands of lives. However, adverse effects (AEs) following vaccination have been noted which may relate to a pro-inflammatory action of the employed lipid nanoparticles or the delivered mRNA (i.e., vaccines formulation) as well as to the herein discussed unique nature, expression pattern, binding profile and pro-inflammatory effects of the produced antigens (S protein and/or its subunits-peptide fragments) in human tissues/organs. Current knowledge on this topic mostly originates from cell-based assays or from model organisms, therefore further research on the cellular-molecular basis of the mRNA vaccines induced AEs, will guarantee safety, maintain trust, and direct health policies.

3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 840668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793031

ABSTRACT

Background: This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods: The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results: Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions: This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/immunology , Adult , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , /genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thyroid Gland/metabolism , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/metabolism , Vaccination
4.
Viruses ; 14(4):758, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776360

ABSTRACT

In-depth understanding of the immune response provoked by SARS-CoV-2 infection is necessary, as there is a great risk of reinfection and a difficulty in achieving herd immunity due to a decline in both antibody concentration and avidity. Avidity testing, however, could overcome variability in the immune response associated with sex or clinical symptoms, and thus differentiate between recent and past infections. In this context, here, we analyzed SARS-CoV-2 antibody kinetics and avidity in Greek hospitalized (26%) and non-hospitalized (74%) COVID-19 patients (N = 71) in the course of up to 15 months after their infection to improve the accuracy of the serological diagnosis in dating the onset of the infection. The results showed that IgG-S1 levels decline significantly at four months (p = 0.0239) in both groups of patients and are higher in hospitalized ones (up to 2.1-fold, p < 0.001). Additionally, hospitalized patients' titers drop greatly and are equalized to non-hospitalized ones only at a time-point of twelve to fifteen months. Antibody levels of women in total remain more stable months after infection, compared to men. Furthermore, we examined the differential maturation of IgG avidity after SARS-CoV-2 infection, showing an incomplete maturation of avidity that results in a plateau at four months after infection. We also defined 38.2% avidity (sensitivity: 58.9%, specificity: 90.91%) as an appropriate 'cut-off';that could be used to determine the stage of infection before avidity reaches a plateau.

5.
Cells ; 11(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776140

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is currently the most effective strategy for the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic. mRNA vaccines trigger the immune system to produce neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. However, the underlying molecular processes affecting immune response after vaccination remain poorly understood, while there is significant heterogeneity in the immune response among individuals. Metabolomics have often been used to provide a deeper understanding of immune cell responses, but in the context of COVID-19 vaccination such data are scarce. Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics were used to provide insights based on the baseline metabolic profile and metabolic alterations induced after mRNA vaccination in paired blood plasma samples collected and analysed before the first and second vaccination and at 3 months post first dose. Based on the level of NAbs just before the second dose, two groups, "low" and "high" responders, were defined. Distinct plasma metabolic profiles were observed in relation to the level of immune response, highlighting the role of amino acid metabolism and the lipid profile as predictive markers of response to vaccination. Furthermore, levels of plasma ceramides along with certain amino acids could emerge as predictive biomarkers of response and severity of inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity , Metabolomics , Pandemics , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1868(6): 166393, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748209

ABSTRACT

Immune senescence in the elderly has been associated with chronic oxidative stress and DNA damage accumulation. Herein we tested the hypothesis that increased endogenous DNA damage and oxidative stress in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of older adults associate with diminished humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Increased oxidative stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were detected in 9 non-immunocompromised individuals aged 80-96 years compared to 11 adults aged 27-44 years, before, as well as on days 1 and 14 after the first dose, and on day 14 after the second dose of the BNT162B2-mRNA vaccine (all p < 0.05). SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induced a resolvable increase in oxidative stress and DNA damage, but individual DSB-repair efficiency was unaffected by vaccination irrespective of age, confirming vaccination safety. Individual titers of anti-Spike-Receptor Binding Domain (S-RBD)-IgG antibodies, and the neutralizing capacity of circulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, measured on day 14 after the second dose in all participants, correlated inversely with the corresponding pre-vaccination endogenous oxidative stress and DSB levels (all p < 0.05). In particular, a strong inverse correlation of individual pre-vaccination DSB levels with both the respective anti-S-RBD-IgG antibodies titers (r = -0.867) and neutralizing capacity of circulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (r = -0.983) among the 9 older adults was evident. These findings suggest that humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be weaker when immune cells are under oxidative and/or genomic stress. Whether such measurements may serve as biomarkers of vaccine efficacy in older adults warrants further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , DNA Damage , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741343

ABSTRACT

Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT) are considered an at increased-risk population for severe and/or morbid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Timely vaccination is the main preventive method for severe COVID-19. Different adverse events and reactions after vaccination have been reported, with severe ones being extremely rare. Patients with TDT may have altered immunity due to chronic transfusions, iron overload and chelation therapy, and splenic dysfunction. Here, we show that adult patients with TDT following vaccination with the novel messenger RNA vaccines have mild adverse events and can produce protective antibodies comparable to the healthy population.

8.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1733325

ABSTRACT

Background This is the first study, that aimed: a) to compare immune response, namely the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) between patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls, and b) to investigate changes in thyroid function in healthy subjects with no history of thyroid dysfunction before and after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech). Methods The entire study consisted of two sub-studies. In the first sub-study, NAbs levels after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination were compared between 56 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and 56 age and gender-matched healthy controls from the day of the first dose until a period of up to three months after the second dose. In the second sub-study, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and thyroid auto-antibodies levels (anti-TG, anti-TPO) of 72 healthy subjects with no history of thyroid disease were examined before (D1) and one month after completion of the second dose (D50). Results Among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, the median neutralizing inhibition on D22, immediately before second dose, was 62.5%. One month later (D50), values increased to 96.7%, while three months after the second dose NAbs titers remained almost the same (94.5%). In the healthy group, median NAbs levels at D22 were 53.6%. On D50 the median inhibition values increased to 95.1%, while after three months they were 89.2%. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between two groups (p-values 0.164, 0.390, 0.105 for D22, D50 and three months). Regarding changes in thyroid function, the mean value for T4 before vaccination was 89.797 nmol/L and one month after the second dose was 89.11 nmol/L (p-value=0.649). On D1 the mean T3 value was 1.464 nmol/L, which dropped to 1.389 nmol/L on D50 (p-value = 0.004). For TSH, mean levels were 2.064 mIU/ml on D1 and fell to 1.840 mIU/ml one month after the second dose (p-value=0.037). Despite decrease, all thyroid hormone levels remained within the normal range. No changes were found for anti-TPO or anti-TG. Conclusions This study provided evidence that patients with autoimmune thyroiditis present similar immunological response to COVID-19 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer/BioNTech) with healthy subjects, while vaccination may affect thyroid function.

9.
Hemato ; 3(1):204-219, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1732001

ABSTRACT

In some patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine storm, hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation leading to worsening of COVID-19, intubation and death. Prompt identification of patients at risk of intubation is an urgent need. Objectives. To derive a prognostic score for the risk of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), by assessing biomarkers of hypercoagulability, endothelial cell activation and inflammation and a large panel of clinical analytes. Design, Setting and Participants. A prospective, observational study enrolled 118 patients with COVID-19 admitted in the ICU. On the first day of ICU admission, all patients were assessed for biomarkers (protein C, protein S, antithrombin, D-Dimer, fibrin monomers, FVIIa, FV, FXII, FXII, FVIII, FvW antigen, fibrinogen, procoagulant phospholipid dependent clotting time, TFPI, thrombomodulin, P-selectin, heparinase, microparticles exposing TF, IL-6, complement C3a, C5a, thrombin generation, PT, aPTT, hemogram, platelet count) and clinical predictors. Main Outcomes and Measures. The clinical outcomes were intubation and mortality during hospitalization in ICU. Results: The intubation and mortality rates were 70% and 18%, respectively. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score composed of P-Selectin, D-Dimer, free TFPI, TF activity, IL-6 and FXII, age and duration of hospitalization predicted the risk of intubation or death with high sensitivity and specificity (0.90 and 0.92, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 is related to severe endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability orchestrated in the context of inflammation. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU risk assessment model is accurate for the evaluation of the risk of mechanical ventilation and death in patients with critical COVID-19. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score is feasible in tertiary hospitals and could be placed in the diagnostic procedure of personalized medical management and prompt therapeutic intervention.

10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009701, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701737

ABSTRACT

The speed of development, versatility and efficacy of mRNA-based vaccines have been amply demonstrated in the case of SARS-CoV-2. DNA vaccines represent an important alternative since they induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models and in human trials. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA-based vaccine regimens expressing different prefusion-stabilized Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigens upon intramuscular injection followed by electroporation in rhesus macaques. Different Spike DNA vaccine regimens induced antibodies that potently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and elicited robust T cell responses. The antibodies recognized and potently neutralized a panel of different Spike variants including Alpha, Delta, Epsilon, Eta and A.23.1, but to a lesser extent Beta and Gamma. The DNA-only vaccine regimens were compared to a regimen that included co-immunization of Spike DNA and protein in the same anatomical site, the latter of which showed significant higher antibody responses. All vaccine regimens led to control of SARS-CoV-2 intranasal/intratracheal challenge and absence of virus dissemination to the lower respiratory tract. Vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody titers and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis inversely correlated with transient virus levels in the nasal mucosa. Importantly, the Spike DNA+Protein co-immunization regimen induced the highest binding and neutralizing antibodies and showed the strongest control against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in rhesus macaques.


Subject(s)
Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Immunization, Passive , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Mice , RNA, Messenger/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/immunology
11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318682

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no effective treatments for novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we report the preliminary results on the efficacy and safety of convalescent plasma (CP) infusion, as monotherapy in 9 patients with severe COVID-19 disease. The median time from symptom onset to CP transfusion was 6 days. All symptoms improved significantly after a median of 8 days. In 6/9 patients, symptomatic improvement was observed already after the 1 st dose of CP transfusion. Laboratory parameters associated with disease severity tended to significantly decrease over time and lymphocyte counts significantly increased on day 14. All patients exhibited significant increases in SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG antibodies starting on day 7 through day 21 after CP infusion with concurrent reduction of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on days 7 and 14 with 44.4% % of the patients having undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA on day 14. After a median follow-up of 66 days, all patients remain alive. Eight patients recovered completely and were discharged from hospital after a median duration of hospitalization of 21 days. No severe adverse events were observed. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests that CP infusion monotherapy administered early in the disease course may be a safe and effective strategy for patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Trial registration: NCT04408209. Registered 05 May 2020- Retrospectively registered, (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ NCT04408209 ?term=NCT04408209&draw=2&rank=1).

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306707

ABSTRACT

Early responses to vaccination are important in shaping both humoral and cellular protective immunity. Dissecting innate vaccine signatures may predict immunogenicity and help optimizing efficacy of mRNA and other vaccine strategies. We characterized the cytokine and chemokine responses to the 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer/BioNtech) vaccine in antigen-naïve vaccine recipients and individuals previously infected by COVID-19 (NCT04743388). Transient increases in IL-15 and IFN-γ levels early after boost correlated with Spike-RBD antibody levels, supporting their possible use as biomarkers of successful vaccination. We identified a systemic signature including IL-15, IFN-γ and IP-10/CXCL10 increase after the 1st vaccination, which was enriched by TNF-α and IL-6 after the 2nd vaccination. In vaccine recipients with history of COVID-19 infection, a single vaccine dose resulted in both strong cytokine induction and antibody titers similar to the ones observed upon booster vaccination in antigen-naïve individuals, a result with potential implication for future public health recommendations.Funding Information: Funding: This research was supported [in part] by the IntramuralResearch Program of the NIH, NCI to G.N.P. and B.K.F.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: All study procedures were carried out in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki (18th World Medical Association Assembly), its subsequent amendments, the Greek regulations and guidelines, as well as the good clinical practice guidelines (GCP) as defined by the International Conference of Harmonization. The study was also approved by the local ethic committee of Alexandra General Hospital (no 15/23 December 2020).

13.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-325784

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunocompromised individuals including patients with hematological malignancies constitute a population at high risk of developing severe disease upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Protection afforded by vaccination is frequently low. Methods: A patient cohort who had received bone marrow transplantation or CAR-T cells was studied following a 2-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination and compared to healthy vaccine recipients. Anti-Spike antibody and systemic innate responses were compared in the two vaccine cohorts. Findings: The patients had significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibodies to the Wuhan strain, with proportional lower cross-recognition of Beta, Delta, and Omicron Spike-RBD proteins. Both cohorts neutralized WA1 and Delta but not Omicron. Vaccination elicited an innate cytokine signature featuring IFN-γ, IL-15 and IP-10/CXCL10, but most patients showed a diminished systemic cytokine response. In patients who failed to develop antibodies, the innate systemic was dominated by IL-8 and MIP-1a with significant attenuation in the IFN-γ, IL-15 and IP-10/CXCL10 signature response. Changes in IFN-γ and and IP-10/CXCL10 at priming vaccination and IFN-γ, IL-15, IL-7 and IL-10 upon booster vaccination correlated with the Spike antibody magnitude and were predictive of successful antibody development. Interpretation: These data identified a cytokine hub featuring IFN-γ, IL-15 and IP-10/CXCL10 characterizing a response to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. These data identify a cytokine signature as correlating with successful antibody development in patients with hematological disease treated with cell therapies. These approaches provide a tool to connect innate signatures associated with protective adaptive responses to vaccines. Funding Information: Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research (GNP, BKF). The funders had no role in the experimental design, collection of data or writing the paper. Declaration of Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Ethics Approval Statement: The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Alexandra General Hospital (Ref No. 15/23 December 2020) and Evangelismos General Hospital (Ref No is 26/01-20-2021). The ethics committee of the Alexandra General Hospital approved the study protocol (Ref No. 15/23 December 2020). The study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the International Conference on Harmonization for Good Clinical Practice standards of care. All participants provided written informed consent at study entry. Keywords: humoral response, cytokine, SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, IFN-gamma, CXCL10, IL-15

14.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667045

ABSTRACT

Along with their level of protection against COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies decline over time following vaccination with BNT162b2. However, relevant data on AZD1222 are scarce. In this context, the aim of this study was to compare SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels at one, three and six months after second vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and the ChAdOx1 (AZD1222) viral vector vaccine (NCT04743388). The measurements were performed with the GenScript's cPassTM SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Detection Kit (GenScript, Inc.; Piscataway, NJ, USA). Overall, data from 282 individuals were included (BNT162b2 n = 83, AZD1222 n = 199). Both vaccines induced strong NAbs responses at 1 month following vaccination. Interestingly, NAb activity seemed superior with BNT162b2 compared with AZD1222. A gradual decline in NAbs titers was evident at 3 and 6 months post vaccination with both vaccines. However, the superiority of NAb response with BNT162b2 over AZD1222 remained consistent at all time points examined. Furthermore, the elimination rate of the NAb titer was higher throughout during the study period for those vaccinated with AZD1222 compared with BNT162b2. Age, gender, body mass index or comorbidities did not have a significant impact on NAbs levels over time. Our results may inform public health policies regarding the timing of booster COVID-19 vaccine shots.

15.
Biomedicines ; 10(2)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625623

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine plays a critical role in COVID-19 prevention. Although BNT162b2 is highly effective against COVID-19, a time-dependent decrease in neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is observed. The aim of this study was to identify the individual features that may predict NAbs levels after vaccination. Machine learning techniques were applied to data from 302 subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis of mixed data (FAMD), k-means clustering, and random forest were used. PCA and FAMD showed that younger subjects had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than older subjects. The effect of age is strongest near the vaccination date and appears to decrease with time. Obesity was associated with lower antibody response. Gender had no effect on NAbs at nine months, but there was a modest association at earlier time points. Participants with autoimmune disease had lower inhibitory levels than participants without autoimmune disease. K-Means clustering showed the natural grouping of subjects into five categories in which the characteristics of some individuals predominated. Random forest allowed the characteristics to be ordered by importance. Older age, higher body mass index, and the presence of autoimmune diseases had negative effects on the development of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2, nine months after full vaccination.

18.
Hemasphere ; 6(1): e677, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598646

ABSTRACT

The sustainability of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) vaccine-induced immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to be determined to inform public health decisions on vaccination programs and prevention measures against COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-S-receptor binding domain (RBD IgGs) against SARS-CoV-2 after full vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for up to 9 months in healthy individuals (NCT04743388). The assessments were performed at the following time points after the second vaccination: 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The measurements were performed with the GenScript's cPassTM SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Detection Kit (GenScript, Inc.; Piscataway, NJ) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH; Mannheim, Germany). Three hundred nine participants with a median age of 48 years were included. A gradual decline in both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs became evident from 2 weeks to 9 months postvaccination. Both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs levels were significantly lower at 9 months compared with the previous timepoints. Interestingly, age was found to exert a statistically significant effect on NAbs elimination only during the first-trimester postvaccination, as older age was associated with a more rapid clearance of NAbs. Furthermore, simulation studies predicted that the median NAb value would fall from 66% at 9 months to 59% and 45% at 12 and 18 months postvaccination, respectively. This finding may reflect a declining degree of immune protection against COVID-19 and advocates for the administration of booster vaccine shots especially in areas with emerging outbreaks.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 793953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572289

ABSTRACT

Durability of SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody responses after infection provides information relevant to understanding protection against COVID-19 in humans. We report the results of a sequential evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in convalescent patients with a median follow-up of 14 months (range 12.4-15.4) post first symptom onset. We report persistence of antibodies for all four specificities tested [Spike, Spike Receptor Binding Domain (Spike-RBD), Nucleocapsid, Nucleocapsid RNA Binding Domain (N-RBD)]. Anti-Spike antibodies persist better than anti-Nucleocapsid antibodies. The durability analysis supports a bi-phasic antibody decay with longer half-lives of antibodies after 6 months and antibody persistence for up to 14 months. Patients infected with the Wuhan (WA1) strain maintained strong cross-reactive recognition of Alpha and Delta Spike-RBD but significantly reduced binding to Beta and Mu Spike-RBD. Sixty percent of convalescent patients with detectable WA1-specific NAb also showed strong neutralization of the Delta variant, the prevalent strain of the present pandemic. These data show that convalescent patients maintain functional antibody responses for more than one year after infection, suggesting a strong long-lasting response after symptomatic disease that may offer a prolonged protection against re-infection. One patient from this cohort showed strong increase of both Spike and Nucleocapsid antibodies at 14 months post-infection indicating SARS-CoV-2 re-exposure. These antibodies showed stronger cross-reactivity to a panel of Spike-RBD including Beta, Delta and Mu and neutralization of a panel of Spike variants including Beta and Gamma. This patient provides an example of strong anti-Spike recall immunity able to control infection at an asymptomatic level. Together, the antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients persist over 14 months and continue to maintain cross-reactivity to the current variants of concern and show strong functional properties.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
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