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International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(9):4828, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1809943


Patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) commonly show abnormalities of liver tests (LTs) of undetermined cause. Considering drugs as tentative culprits, the current systematic review searched for published COVID-19 cases with suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and established diagnosis using the diagnostic algorithm of RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method). Data worldwide on DILI cases assessed by RUCAM in COVID-19 patients were sparse. A total of 6/200 reports with initially suspected 996 DILI cases in COVID-19 patients and using all RUCAM-based DILI cases allowed for a clear description of clinical features of RUCAM-based DILI cases among COVID-19 patients: (1) The updated RUCAM published in 2016 was equally often used as the original RUCAM of 1993, with both identifying DILI and other liver diseases as confounders;(2) RUCAM also worked well in patients treated with up to 18 drugs and provided for most DILI cases a probable or highly probable causality level for drugs;(3) DILI was preferentially caused by antiviral drugs given empirically due to their known therapeutic efficacy in other virus infections;(4) hepatocellular injury was more often reported than cholestatic or mixed injury;(5) maximum LT values were found for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 1.541 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 1.076 U/L;(6) the ALT/AST ratio was variable and ranged from 0.4 to 1.4;(7) the mean or median age of the COVID-19 patients with DILI ranged from 54.3 to 56 years;(8) the ratio of males to females was 1.8–3.4:1;(9) outcome was favorable for most patients, likely due to careful selection of the drugs and quick cessation of drug treatment with emerging DILI, but it was fatal in 19 patients;(10) countries reporting RUCAM-based DILI cases in COVID-19 patients included China, India, Japan, Montenegro, and Spain;(11) robust estimation of the percentage contribution of RUCAM-based DILI for the increased LTs in COVID-19 patients is outside of the current scope. In conclusion, RUCAM-based DILI with its clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients and its classification as a confounding variable is now well defined, requiring a new correct description of COVID-19 features by removing DILI characteristics as confounders.

Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458401


Causality assessment in liver injury induced by drugs and herbs remains a debated issue, requiring innovation and thorough understanding based on detailed information. Artificial intelligence (AI) principles recommend the use of algorithms for solving complex processes and are included in the diagnostic algorithm of Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) to help assess causality in suspected cases of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI). From 1993 until the middle of 2020, a total of 95,865 DILI and HILI cases were assessed by RUCAM, outperforming by case numbers any other causality assessment method. The success of RUCAM can be traced back to its quantitative features with specific data elements that are individually scored leading to a final causality grading. RUCAM is objective, user friendly, transparent, and liver injury specific, with an updated version that should be used in future DILI and HILI cases. Support of RUCAM was also provided by scientists from China, not affiliated to any network, in the results of a scientometric evaluation of the global knowledge base of DILI. They highlighted the original RUCAM of 1993 and their authors as a publication quoted the greatest number of times and ranked first in the category of the top 10 references related to DILI. In conclusion, for stakeholders involved in DILI and HILI, RUCAM seems to be an effective diagnostic algorithm in line with AI principles.

Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 621-637, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671930


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing. Except for lung injury, it is possible that COVID-19 patients develop liver injury. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of abnormal liver biochemical tests in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched. The incidence of abnormal liver biochemical tests, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), and albumin (ALB), was pooled. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated to explore the association of abnormal liver biochemical tests with severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Forty-five studies were included. The pooled incidence of any abnormal liver biochemical indicator at admission and during hospitalization was 27.2% and 36%, respectively. Among the abnormal liver biochemical indicators observed at admission, abnormal ALB was the most common, followed by GGT, AST, ALT, TBIL, and ALP (39.8%, 35.8%, 21.8%, 20.4%, 8.8%, and 4.7%). Among the abnormal liver biochemical indicators observed during hospitalization, abnormal ALT was more common than AST and TBIL (38.4%, 28.1%, and 23.2%). Severe and/or critical patients had a significantly higher pooled incidence of abnormal liver biochemical indicators at admission than mild and/or moderate patients. Non-survivors had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal liver biochemical indicators than survivors (RR = 1.34, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal liver biochemical tests are common in COVID-19 patients. Liver biochemical indicators are closely related to the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients.

Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Hepatic Insufficiency , Liver Function Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hepatic Insufficiency/diagnosis , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Humans , Incidence , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods