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1.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(10): 2234-2238, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450381

ABSTRACT

Background: Some studies have shown an attenuated immune response in haemodialysis patients after vaccination. The present study examines the humoral response after mRNA vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a large population of haemodialysis patients from different outpatient dialysis centres. Methods: We retrospectively assessed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid protein (chemiluminescence immunoassays, Roche diagnostics) 3-6 weeks after the second mRNA vaccine dose in 179 maintenance haemodialysis and 70 non-dialysis patients (control cohort). Differences in anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein titers were statistically analysed with respect to patient-relevant factors, including age, gender, previous coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, systemic immunosuppressive therapy and time on dialysis. Results: We found a favourable, but profoundly lower SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibody response in comparison with a non-dialysis cohort (median 253.5 versus 1756 U/mL, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, previous COVID-19 infection (P < 0.001) and female gender were associated with a significantly higher vaccine response (P = 0.006) in haemodialysis patients, while there was a significant inverse correlation with increasing patient age and systemic immunosuppression (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between the antibody titer and time on dialysis. Immune response in haemodialysis patients with a previous COVID-19 infection led to substantially higher antibody titers that were equal to those of vaccinated non-dialysis individuals with previous infection. Conclusion: We strongly argue in favour of regular antibody testing after COVID-19 vaccination in haemodialysis patients. Further studies should elucidate the utility of booster vaccinations to foster a stronger and persistent antibody response.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(8): e14167, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299730

ABSTRACT

A deeper understanding of COVID-19 on human molecular pathophysiology is urgently needed as a foundation for the discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Here we applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to measure serum proteomes of COVID-19 patients and symptomatic, but PCR-negative controls, in a time-resolved manner. In 262 controls and 458 longitudinal samples of 31 patients, hospitalized for COVID-19, a remarkable 26% of proteins changed significantly. Bioinformatics analyses revealed co-regulated groups and shared biological functions. Proteins of the innate immune system such as CRP, SAA1, CD14, LBP, and LGALS3BP decreased early in the time course. Regulators of coagulation (APOH, FN1, HRG, KNG1, PLG) and lipid homeostasis (APOA1, APOC1, APOC2, APOC3, PON1) increased over the course of the disease. A global correlation map provides a system-wide functional association between proteins, biological processes, and clinical chemistry parameters. Importantly, five SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays against antibodies revealed excellent correlations with an extensive range of immunoglobulin regions, which were quantified by MS-based proteomics. The high-resolution profile of all immunoglobulin regions showed individual-specific differences and commonalities of potential pathophysiological relevance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Proteome , Antibodies, Viral , Aryldialkylphosphatase , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has been suggested for (1) screening populations for disease prevalence, (2) diagnostics, and (3) guiding therapeutic applications. Here, we conducted a detailed clinical evaluation of four Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays in samples from acutely ill COVID-19 patients and in two negative cohorts. METHODS: 443 serum specimens from serial sampling of 29 COVID-19 patients were used to determine clinical sensitivities. Patients were stratified for the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Individual serum specimens from a pre-COVID-19 cohort of 238 healthy subjects and from a PCR-negative clinical cohort of 257 patients were used to determine clinical specificities. All samples were measured side-by-side with the Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgG), Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgA) and Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NCP-ELISA (IgG) (Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ECLIA (Roche Diagnostics International, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). RESULTS: Median seroconversion occurred earlier in ARDS patients (8-9 days) than in non-ARDS patients (11-17 days), except for EUR N-IgG. Rates of positivity and mean signal ratios in the ARDS group were significantly higher than in the non-ARDS group. Sensitivities between the four tested immunoassays were equivalent. In the set of negative samples, the specificity of the Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA (IgA) was lower (93.9%) compared to all other assays (≥98.8%) and the specificity of Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NCP-ELISA (IgG) was lower (98.8%) than that of Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Serial sampling in COVID-19 patients revealed earlier seroconversion and higher signal ratios of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as a potential risk marker for the development of ARDS, suggesting a utility for antibody testing in acutely diseased patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113935, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The present COVID-19 pandemic has prompted worldwide repurposing of drugs. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a two-dimensional isotope-dilution liquid chromatrography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of remdesivir and its active metabolite GS-441524, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in serum; drugs that have gained attention for repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: Following protein precipitation, samples were separated with a two-dimensional ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (2D-UHPLC) setup, consisting of an online solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to an analytical column. For quantification, stable isotope-labelled analogues were used as internal standards for all analytes. The method was validated on the basis of the European Medicines Agency bioanalytical method validation protocol. RESULTS: Detuning of lopinavir and ritonavir allowed simultaneous quantification of all analytes with different concentration ranges and sensitivity with a uniform injection volume of 5 µL. The method provided robust validation results with inaccuracy and imprecision values of ≤ 9.59 % and ≤ 11.1 % for all quality controls. CONCLUSION: The presented method is suitable for accurate and simultaneous quantification of remdesivir, its metabolite GS-441525, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, favipiravir and azithromycin in human serum. The quantitative assay may be an efficient tool for the therapeutic drug monitoring of these potential drug candidates in COVID-19 patients in order to increase treatment efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Isotopes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/blood , Amides/blood , Azithromycin/blood , Chloroquine/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Furans/blood , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/blood , Lopinavir/blood , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pyrazines/blood , Pyrroles/blood , Ritonavir/blood , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Triazines/blood
5.
Circulation ; 142(12): 1176-1189, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 infection causes severe pneumonia (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), but the mechanisms of subsequent respiratory failure and complicating renal and myocardial involvement are poorly understood. In addition, a systemic prothrombotic phenotype has been reported in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 62 subjects were included in our study (n=38 patients with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and n=24 non-COVID-19 controls). We performed histopathologic assessment of autopsy cases, surface marker-based phenotyping of neutrophils and platelets, and functional assays for platelet, neutrophil functions, and coagulation tests, as well. RESULTS: We provide evidence that organ involvement and prothrombotic features in COVID-19 are linked by immunothrombosis. We show that, in COVID-19, inflammatory microvascular thrombi are present in the lung, kidney, and heart, containing neutrophil extracellular traps associated with platelets and fibrin. Patients with COVID-19 also present with neutrophil-platelet aggregates and a distinct neutrophil and platelet activation pattern in blood, which changes with disease severity. Whereas cases of intermediate severity show an exhausted platelet and hyporeactive neutrophil phenotype, patients severely affected with COVID-19 are characterized by excessive platelet and neutrophil activation in comparison with healthy controls and non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Dysregulated immunothrombosis in severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 pneumonia is linked to both acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic hypercoagulability. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data point to immunothrombotic dysregulation as a key marker of disease severity in COVID-19. Further work is necessary to determine the role of immunothrombosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Platelets/cytology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Lung/pathology , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , Pandemics , Phenotype , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnosis
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