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1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101025, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397307

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunosuppression and comorbidities increase the risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The outcomes of COVID-19 in liver transplant (LT) recipients remain unclear. We aimed to analyse the outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in LT recipients. Methods: The electronic databases were searched for articles published from 1 December 2019 to 20 May 2021 with MeSH terms COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and liver transplantation. Studies reporting outcomes in more than 10 LT recipients were included for analysis. LT vs non-LT patients with COVID-19 infection were compared for all-cause mortality, which was the primary outcome studied. We also evaluated the relation between the timing of COVID-19 infection post-LT (< one year vs > one year) and mortality. Findings: Eighteen articles reporting 1,522 COVID-19 infected LT recipients were included for the systematic review. The mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 60·38 (5·24) years, and 68·5% were men. The mean time (SD) to COVID-19 infection was 5·72 (1·75) years. Based on 17 studies (I2 = 7·34) among 1,481 LT recipients, the cumulative incidence of mortality was 17·4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15·4-19·6). Mortality was comparable between LT (n = 610) and non-LT (n = 239,704) patients, based on four studies (odds ratio [OR], 0·8 [0·6-1·08]; P = 0·14). Additionally, there was no significant difference in mortality between those infected within one year vs after one year of LT (OR, 1·5 [0·63-3·56]; P = 0·35). The cumulative incidence of graft dysfunction was 2·3% (1·3-4·1). Nearly 23% (20·71-25) of the LT patients developed severe COVID-19 infection. Before infection, 71% and 49% of patients were on tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, respectively. Immunosuppression was modified in 55·9% (38·1-72·2) patients after COVID-19 infection. Interpretation: LT and non-LT patients with COVID-19 have a similar risk of adverse outcomes.

2.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(4): 410-419, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has been estimated that approximately 10% of health care professionals (HCPs) have been diagnosed contacting  COVID-19. Aerosol-generating procedures have led to change in safety practices among HCPs. We thus evaluated the efficacy of the endoscopic safety measures among HCPs posted in the endoscopy unit. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all endoscopic procedures performed over a period of 4 months, from 1 April to 31 July 2020 were included. We noted indications and number of COVID-positive procedures as well as comprehensive screening of HCPs posted in our endoscopy unit. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and outcome of COVID-19 among HCPs. RESULTS: Three thousand four hundred and sixty procedures were included in the analysis. Indications were divided as urgent (n = 190, 5.49%), semi-urgent (n = 553, 16%) and non-urgent group (n = 2717, 78.52%). Thirty-four procedures (0.98%) were done on diagnosed COVID-19 patients. The most common indications were gastrointestinal bleed (n = 12/34, 35.30%) followed by biliary sepsis (n = 9/34, 26.5%). Among the HCPs, the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 6.58% (n = 5/76). All HCPs recovered with excellent outcomes. A comprehensive screening showed 7.90% (n = 6/76) HCPs having Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in their sera. CONCLUSION: Addition of safety measures in endoscopy leads to low risk of transmission among HCPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endoscopy/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Occupational Health , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Incidence , India , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/standards , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Health/standards , Personal Protective Equipment , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 101025, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313062

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunosuppression and comorbidities increase the risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The outcomes of COVID-19 in liver transplant (LT) recipients remain unclear. We aimed to analyse the outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in LT recipients. Methods: The electronic databases were searched for articles published from 1 December 2019 to 20 May 2021 with MeSH terms COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and liver transplantation. Studies reporting outcomes in more than 10 LT recipients were included for analysis. LT vs non-LT patients with COVID-19 infection were compared for all-cause mortality, which was the primary outcome studied. We also evaluated the relation between the timing of COVID-19 infection post-LT (< one year vs > one year) and mortality. Findings: Eighteen articles reporting 1,522 COVID-19 infected LT recipients were included for the systematic review. The mean age (standard deviation [SD]) was 60·38 (5·24) years, and 68·5% were men. The mean time (SD) to COVID-19 infection was 5·72 (1·75) years. Based on 17 studies (I2 = 7·34) among 1,481 LT recipients, the cumulative incidence of mortality was 17·4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15·4-19·6). Mortality was comparable between LT (n = 610) and non-LT (n = 239,704) patients, based on four studies (odds ratio [OR], 0·8 [0·6-1·08]; P = 0·14). Additionally, there was no significant difference in mortality between those infected within one year vs after one year of LT (OR, 1·5 [0·63-3·56]; P = 0·35). The cumulative incidence of graft dysfunction was 2·3% (1·3-4·1). Nearly 23% (20·71-25) of the LT patients developed severe COVID-19 infection. Before infection, 71% and 49% of patients were on tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, respectively. Immunosuppression was modified in 55·9% (38·1-72·2) patients after COVID-19 infection. Interpretation: LT and non-LT patients with COVID-19 have a similar risk of adverse outcomes.

4.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1329

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of liver dysfunction and the presence of the pre-existing liver disease has been variably reported in COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-20

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 584-599, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of elevated liver chemistries and the presence of pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) have been variably reported in COVID-19. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of CLD, the incidence of elevated liver chemistries and the outcomes of patients with and without underlying CLD/elevated liver chemistries in COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive search of electronic databases from 1 December 2019 to 24 April 2020 was done. We included studies reporting underlying CLD or elevated liver chemistries and patient outcomes in COVID-19. RESULTS: 107 articles (n = 20 874 patients) were included for the systematic review. The pooled prevalence of underlying CLD was 3.6% (95% CI, 2.5-5.1) among the 15 407 COVID-19 patients. The pooled incidence of elevated liver chemistries in COVID-19 was 23.1% (19.3-27.3) at initial presentation. Additionally, 24.4% (13.5-40) developed elevated liver chemistries during the illness. The pooled incidence of drug-induced liver injury was 25.4% (14.2-41.4). The pooled prevalence of CLD among 1587 severely infected patients was 3.9% (3%-5.2%). The odds of developing severe COVID-19 in CLD patients was 0.81 (0.31-2.09; P = 0.67) compared to non-CLD patients. COVID-19 patients with elevated liver chemistries had increased risk of mortality (OR-3.46 [2.42-4.95, P < 0.001]) and severe disease (OR-2.87 [95% CI, 2.29-3.6, P < 0.001]) compared to patients without elevated liver chemistries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated liver chemistries are common at presentation and during COVID-19. The severity of elevated liver chemistries correlates with the outcome of COVID-19. The presence of CLD does not alter the outcome of COVID-19. Further studies are needed to analyse the outcomes of compensated and decompensated liver disease.


Subject(s)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Prevalence
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