Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 284
Filter
1.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100234

ABSTRACT

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has been understood as a consumptive coagulopathy. However, impaired hemostasis is a component of DIC that occurs in a progressive manner. The critical concept of DIC is systemic activation of coagulation with vascular endothelial damage. DIC is the dynamic coagulation/fibrinolysis disorder that can proceed from compensated to decompensated phases, and is not simply impaired hemostasis, a misunderstanding that continues to evoke confusion among clinicians. DIC is a critical step of disease progression that is important to monitor over time. Impaired microcirculation and subsequent organ failure due to pathologic microthrombi formation are the pathophysiologies in sepsis-associated DIC. Impaired hemostasis due to coagulation factor depletion from hemodilution, shock, and hyperfibrinolysis occurs in trauma-associated DIC. Overt-DIC diagnostic criteria have been used clinically for more than 20 years but may not be adequate to detect the compensated phase of DIC, and due to different underlying causes, there is no "one-size-fits-all criteria." Individualized criteria for heterogeneous conditions continue to be proposed to facilitate the diagnosis. We believe that future research will provide therapeutics using new diagnostic criteria. Finally, DIC is also classified as either acute or chronic, and acute DIC results from progressive coagulation activation over a short time and requires urgent management. In this review, we examine the advances in research for DIC.

2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(6): e12798, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090158

ABSTRACT

Background: Critically ill COVID-19 patients are in a hypercoagulable state with increased risk of thrombotic complications. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a viscoelastic test with the potential to reflect COVID-19-associated hypercoagulability and may therefore be useful to predict thrombotic complications. Objective: To investigate the potential of ROTEM profiles to predict thrombotic complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Patients/Methods: Retrospective multicenter cohort study in 113 adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of two large teaching hospitals in the United States and in the Netherlands. ROTEM profiles of the EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM tracings were measured within 72 h of ICU admission. Thrombotic complications encompass both arterial and venous thromboembolic complications, diagnosed with electrocardiogram, ultrasound, or computed tomography. ROTEM profiles were compared between patients with and without thrombosis. Univariable logistic regression followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis was performed to identify ROTEM parameters associated with thrombosis. Results and Conclusions: Of 113 patients, 27 (23.9%) developed a thrombotic event. In the univariable analysis, EXTEM clot amplitude at 10 min (CA10) and EXTEM maximum clot formation (MCF) were associated with thrombosis with a p < 0.2 (p = 0.07 and p = 0.05, respectively). In ROC curve analysis, EXTEM CA10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.58 (95% CI 0.47-0.70) and EXTEM MCF had an AUC of 0.60 (95% CI 0.49-0.71). Thereby, ROTEM profiles at ICU admission did not have the potential to differentiate between patients with a high and low risk for thrombotic complications.

3.
EJHaem ; 3(3): 584-595, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051064

ABSTRACT

Management of patients with severe bleeding disorders, particularly haemophilia A and B, and to a lesser extent, von Willebrand disease, has come on leaps and bounds over the past decade. Until recently, patients relied upon the administration of factor concentrates to prevent or treat bleeding episodes. Factor administration requires intravenous access and, in up to one-third of patients, leads to the development of neutralising antibodies, or inhibitors, which are associated with more frequent bleeding episodes and higher morbidity. Novel non-factor therapies may offer a solution to these unmet needs. In this review, we discuss the factor mimetics, particularly emicizumab, and the rebalancing agents, which inhibit antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and activated protein C, and novel treatments to enhance von Willebrand factor levels. We review the available trial data, unanswered questions and challenges associated with these new treatment modalities. Finally, we provide practical management algorithms to aid the general haematologist when faced with a patient receiving emicizumab who requires surgery or may develop bleeding.

4.
J Nephrol ; 2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Anticoagulants have not been studied in randomised controlled trials with CrCl < 30 ml/min. The objective of this review was to identify the impact of different anticoagulant strategies in patients with advanced CKD including dialysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, searching electronic databases from 1946 to 2022. Studies that evaluated both thrombotic and bleeding outcomes with anticoagulant use in CrCl < 50 ml/min were included. RESULTS: Our initial search yielded 14,503 papers with 53 suitable for inclusion. RCTs comparing direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus warfarin for patients with VTE and CrCl 30-50 ml/min found no difference in recurrent VTE events (RR 0.68(95% CI 0.42-1.11)) with reduced bleeding (RR 0.65 (95% CI 0.45-0.94)). Observational data in haemodialysis suggest lower risk of recurrent VTE and major bleeding with apixaban versus warfarin. Very few studies examining outcomes were available for therapeutic and prophylactic dose low molecular weight heparin for CrCl < 30 ml/min. Findings for patients with AF on dialysis were that warfarin or DOACs had a similar or higher risk of stroke compared to no anticoagulation. For patients with AF and CrCl < 30 ml/min not on dialysis, anticoagulation should be considered on an individual basis, with limited studies suggesting DOACs may have a preferable safety profile. CONCLUSION: Further studies are still required, some ongoing, in patients with advanced CKD (CrCl < 30 ml/min) to identify the safest and most effective treatment options for VTE and AF.

5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2237-2245, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948998

ABSTRACT

Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is internationally recognized as a significant patient safety issue. While cirrhosis was traditionally considered to predispose to bleeding, these patients are also at an increased risk of VTE, with an associated increase in mortality. Hospitalization rates of patients with cirrhosis are increasing, and decisions regarding thromboprophylaxis are complex due to the uncertain balance between thrombosis and bleeding risk. This is further accentuated by derangements of hemostasis in patients with cirrhosis that are often considered contraindications to pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. Due to the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria of seminal studies of VTE risk assessment and thromboprophylaxis, there is limited data to guide decision making in this patient group. This guidance document reviews the incidence and risk factors for HA-VTE in patients with cirrhosis, outlines evidence to inform the use of thromboprophylaxis, and provides pragmatic recommendations on VTE prevention for hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. In brief, in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis: We suggest inclusion of portal vein thrombosis as a distinct clinically important endpoint for future studies. We recommend against the use of thrombocytopenia and/or prolongation of prothrombin time/international normalized ratio as absolute contraindications to anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis. We suggest anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis in line with local protocols and suggest low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux over unfractionated heparin (UFH). In renal impairment, we suggest LMWH over UFH. For critically ill patients, we suggest case-by-case consideration of thromboprophylaxis. We recommend research to refine VTE risk stratification, and to establish the optimal dosing and duration of thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
6.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2214-2225, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906716

ABSTRACT

Antithrombotic agents reduce risk of thromboembolism in severely ill patients. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may realize additional benefits from heparins. Optimal dosing and timing of these treatments and benefits of other antithrombotic agents remain unclear. In October 2021, ISTH assembled an international panel of content experts, patient representatives, and a methodologist to develop recommendations on anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents for patients with COVID-19 in different clinical settings. We used the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association methodology to assess level of evidence (LOE) and class of recommendation (COR). Only recommendations with LOE A or B were included. Panelists agreed on 12 recommendations: three for non-hospitalized, five for non-critically ill hospitalized, three for critically ill hospitalized, and one for post-discharge patients. Two recommendations were based on high-quality evidence, the remainder on moderate-quality evidence. Among non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the panel gave a strong recommendation (a) for use of prophylactic dose of low molecular weight heparin or unfractionated heparin (LMWH/UFH) (COR 1); (b) for select patients in this group, use of therapeutic dose LMWH/UFH in preference to prophylactic dose (COR 1); but (c) against the addition of an antiplatelet agent (COR 3). Weak recommendations favored (a) sulodexide in non-hospitalized patients, (b) adding an antiplatelet agent to prophylactic LMWH/UFH in select critically ill, and (c) prophylactic rivaroxaban for select patients after discharge (all COR 2b). Recommendations in this guideline are based on high-/moderate-quality evidence available through March 2022. Focused updates will incorporate future evidence supporting changes to these recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Aftercare , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Patient Discharge , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062623, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was first described, it has been considered a serious disease of the coagulation system and a major challenge to clinicians. Currently, several important knowledge gaps remain. The DANish Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DANDIC) Cohort Study will aim to answer questions regarding the incidence and mortality of patients with DIC including time trends. The study will also identify prognostic factors that may guide personalised prevention and treatment. Furthermore, the study will describe treatment patterns and the safety and effectiveness of various treatment modalities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will establish the DANDIC Cohort using data collected in daily clinical practice from the Central Denmark Region, which covers approximately 1.3 million residents. The study period will encompass 1 January 2011 through 1 July 2021. Potential DIC cases will be identified from the hospital laboratory database, based on coagulation biomarkers, and diagnoses will be adjudicated by medical experts. The dataset will be enriched with detailed clinical data from electronic medical charts on aetiologies, bleeding, microthrombus formation, organ failure, thrombosis, treatments and comorbidities. The dataset will also take advantage of in-hospital data with longitudinal information on laboratory records, transfusions, microbiology and treatments. It will be possible to merge this dataset with other unique Danish health registries with more than 10 years of virtually complete follow-up. The project will use state-of-the-art epidemiological and biostatistical methods. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been approved by the Danish Patient Safety Authority (31-1521-452), the Central Denmark Region (1-45-70-83-21), the Danish Data Protection Agency (1-16-02-258-21) and all the hospital chairs. Register-based studies require no ethical approval in Denmark. The results will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals.


Subject(s)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation , Thrombosis , Cohort Studies , Dacarbazine , Denmark/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Humans
8.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803265

ABSTRACT

D-dimers reflect a breakdown product of fibrin. The current narrative review outlines how D-dimers can arise in normal individuals, as well as in patients suffering from a wide range of disease states. D-dimers in normal individuals without evident thrombosis can arise from background fibrinolytic activity in various tissues, including kidney, mammary and salivary glands, which ensures smooth flow of arising fluids where any blood contamination could be immediately lysed. In addition, healthy individuals can also regularly sustain minor injuries, often unbeknown to them, and wound healing follows clot formation in these situations. D-dimers can also arise in anxiety and following exercise, and are also markers of inflammation. Lung inflammation (triggered by microbes or foreign particles) is perhaps also particularly relevant, since the hemostasis system and fibrinolysis help to trap and remove such debris. Lung inflammation in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may contribute to D-dimer levels additive to thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Indeed, severe COVID-19 can lead to multiple activation events, including inflammation, primary and secondary hemostasis, and fibrinolysis, all of which may contribute to cumulative D-dimer development. Finally, D-dimer testing has also found a role in the diagnosis and triaging of the so-called (COVID-19) vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia.

9.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(10): 2171-2172, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733290

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy is inextricably linked to the field of hemostasis and thrombosis. In the same manner hemostasis and thrombosis may deal with bleeding and clot formation, coagulopathy also may be connected to bleeding or thrombosis, depending on the circumstances. However, when the same designation, "coagulopathy," may represent two clinically distinct presentations, it can create confusion. It is our obligation as hemostasis and thrombosis specialists to scotch this dubiety and direct the correct usage of coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Hemorrhage , Hemostasis , Humans , Thrombosis/diagnosis
10.
Br J Haematol ; 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35724983

ABSTRACT

Myeloproliferative neoplasms can be associated with bleeding manifestations which can cause significant morbidities. Although haematologists are aware of the likelihood of this complication in the setting of myeloproliferative neoplasms, it may often be overlooked especially in patients with no extreme elevation of blood counts and those with myelofibrosis. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome and platelet dysfunction are the two common diagnoses to be considered in this regard. In this review article, we discuss the mechanisms for the development of these rare bleeding disorders, their diagnosis and practical management.

11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(9): 1951-1956, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716055

ABSTRACT

One of the difficult clinical situations in the anticoagulation era is how to give these medications to patients with significantly reduced platelet counts. The concern is the heightened bleeding risk, and the current practice is to apply a certain platelet count threshold below which the use of anticoagulant is deemed unsafe. However, this is not an evidence-based approach especially because the thresholds arose from studies in patients with acute leukemia. In this forum article, we discuss the bleeding risk estimation in thrombocytopenic patients when the decreased counts may not be related to marrow underproduction and aim to identify possible markers which can help in this risk estimation beyond platelet counts. We exhort future studies to include a combination of these markers, which may then guide us to administer safe anticoagulation in patients with severe thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Thrombocytopenia , Anemia/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Platelet Count , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(7): 1015-1022, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301985

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cardiac catheter ablations are an established treatment for supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) involving prolonged cannulation of the common femoral vein with multiple catheters. This study aimed to identify the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) by studying the frequency of this complication after catheter ablation. METHODS: This was a prospective multi-centre cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac ablation for atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia or right-sided accessory atrioventricular connection. Those taking anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy prior to the procedure were excluded. Following the procedure, bilateral venous duplex ultrasonography from the popliteal vein to the inferior vena cava for DVT was undertaken at 24 hours and between 10 to 14 days. RESULTS: Eighty (80) patients (mean age 47.6 yrs [SD 13.4] with 67% female) underwent cardiac ablation (median duration 70 mins). Seven (7) patients developed acute DVT in either the femoral or external iliac vein of the intervention leg, giving a frequency of 8.8% (95% CI 3.6-17.2%). No thrombus was seen in the contralateral leg (p=0.023). An elevated D-dimer prior to the procedure was significantly more frequent in patients developing DVT (42.9% vs 4.1%, p=0.0081; OR 17.0). No other patient or procedural characteristics significantly influenced the risk of DVT. CONCLUSION: In patients without peri-procedural anticoagulation catheter ablation precipitated DVT in the catheterised femoral or iliac veins in 8.8% of patients. Peri-procedure prophylactic anticoagulation may be considered for all patients undergoing catheter ablation for SVT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03877770.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
14.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 171: 103599, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065219

ABSTRACT

Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is a leading cause of death amongst people with cancer. Treatment decisions have become increasingly complex with the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants and existing guidelines are limited to evidence from patients meeting stringent trial-entry criteria. To assist decision making for healthcare professionals managing CAT in challenging 'real-world' situations, an expert working group of clinicians from oncology, haematology and pharmacology convened over a series of virtual meetings between September 2020 and January 2021 to catalogue the most challenging clinical problems and define consensus recommendations. Clinical problems were divided amongst the group members according to their areas of expertise, with each reviewing the literature and writing their recommendations. Using a web-based file-sharing platform, each contribution was reviewed until consensus was reached. Each clinical problem is discussed; these include managing gastrointestinal impairment, renal impairment, liver impairment, increased risk of bleeding, extremes of body weight, drug interactions, anticoagulation beyond the initial six months and managing recurrent thrombosis. A user-friendly, practical, colour-coded algorithm was produced to help guide clinical decision-making in CAT. Red highlights decision steps where shared decision making, such as with the multi-disciplinary team, is recommended. Amber steps reflect uncertainty of existing evidence. Multiple amber steps per patient warrant increased caution. Making anticoagulation decisions in people with cancer is challenging; it is important that healthcare providers can discuss where there is a lack of evidence and ensure that patient preference is given priority. This algorithm and consensus recommendations are a useful tool to guide these complex discussions.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Clinical Decision-Making , Consensus , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/therapy
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(2): 538-539, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060302

Subject(s)
Embolism , Thrombosis , Humans
16.
J Blood Med ; 13: 21-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023983

ABSTRACT

Obstetrical hemorrhage and especially DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) is a leading cause for maternal mortality across the globe, often secondary to underlying maternal and/or fetal complications including placental abruption, amniotic fluid embolism, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets), retained stillbirth and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Various obstetrical disorders can present with DIC as a complication; thus, increased awareness is key to diagnosing the condition. DIC patients can present to clinicians who may not be experienced in a variety of aspects of thrombosis and hemostasis. Hence, DIC diagnosis is often only entertained when the patient already developed uncontrollable bleeding or multi-organ failure, all of which represent unsalvageable scenarios. Beyond the clinical presentations, the main issue with DIC diagnosis is in relation to coagulation test abnormalities. It is widely believed that in DIC, patients will have prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT), thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, and raised D-dimers. Diagnosis of DIC can be elusive during pregnancy and requires vigilance and knowledge of the physiologic changes during pregnancy. It can be facilitated by using a pregnancy specific DIC score including three components: 1) fibrinogen concentrations; 2) the PT difference - relating to the difference in PT result between the patient's plasma and the laboratory control; and 3) platelet count. At a cutoff of ≥26 points, the pregnancy specific DIC score has 88% sensitivity, 96% specificity, a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 22, and a negative LR of 0.125. Management of DIC during pregnancy requires a prompt attention to the underlying condition leading to this complication, including the delivery of the patient, and correction of the hemostatic problem that can be guided by point of care testing adjusted for pregnancy.

17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(1): 272-273, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954883

Subject(s)
Hemostasis , Humans
19.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 48(2): 240-243, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729729

ABSTRACT

Protamine is now well recognized as a key heparin neutralizing agent. However, protamine was discovered over a century ago, during experiments performed to uncover the secrets behind heritability. Although protamine was discovered as a highly charged protein, it did not receive the attention it deserved until the dawn of insulin era, when it was used to create the neutral protamine Hagedorn formulation. Based on the same principles, protamine was identified to neutralize heparin and has since been used successfully for many years in cardiothoracic surgery. More recently, its clinical applications have extended to gene therapy. In this historical sketch, the journey from the discovery of protamine, onwards to heparin neutralization, and up to its utilization in genetic modulatory treatments is detailed.


Subject(s)
Heparin , Protamines , DNA , Genetic Therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Protamines/therapeutic use
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(1): 39-47, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661370

ABSTRACT

Prolonged prothrombin time and thrombocytopenia are common in patients with cirrhosis. These parameters do not reflect the overall hemostatic rebalance or bleeding risk in the periprocedural setting; however, attempts to correct these parameters remain frequent. We review the literature on periprocedural bleeding risk, bleeding risk factors, and the risk and benefits of hemostatic interventions in patients with cirrhosis. We provide guidance recommendations on evaluating bleeding risk in this patient group and management of hemostatic abnormalities in the periprocedural setting.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Thrombocytopenia , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Hemostasis , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL