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J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(8)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023765


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most-common cause of cardiovascular death, after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We aimed to evaluate the attributes and outcomes of PE specifically in women and explore sex-based differences. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using electronic databases PubMed and Embase up to 1 April 2022 to identify studies investigating PE in women. Of the studies found, 93 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The risk of PE in older women (especially >40 years of age) superseded that of age-matched men, although the overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of PE was found to be lower in women. Risk factors for PE in women included age, rheumatologic disorders, hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy and postpartum period, recent surgery, immobilization, trauma, increased body mass index, obesity, and heart failure. Regarding pregnancy, a relatively higher incidence of PE has been observed in the immediate postpartum period compared to the antenatal period. Women with PE tended to be older, presented more often with dyspnea, and were found to have higher NT-proBNP levels compared to men. No sex-based differences in in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause mortality were found. However, PE-related mortality was higher in women, particularly in hemodynamically stable patients. These differences form the basis of future research and outlets for reducing the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of PE in women.

Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 317-325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582749


OBJECTIVES: Data on the health burden of COVID-19 among Asian American people of various ethnic subgroups remain limited. We examined COVID-19 outcomes of people of various Asian ethnic subgroups and other racial and ethnic groups in an urban safety net hospital system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 85 328 adults aged ≥18 tested for COVID-19 at New York City's public hospital system from March 1 through May 31, 2020. We examined COVID-19 positivity, hospitalization, and mortality, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbidities known to worsen COVID-19 outcomes. We conducted adjusted multivariable regression analyses examining racial and ethnic disparities in mortality. RESULTS: Of 9971 Asian patients (11.7% of patients overall), 48.2% were South Asian, 22.2% were Chinese, and 29.6% were in other Asian ethnic groups. South Asian patients had the highest rates of COVID-19 positivity (30.8%) and hospitalization (51.6%) among Asian patients, second overall only to Hispanic (32.1% and 45.8%, respectively) and non-Hispanic Black (27.5% and 57.5%, respectively) patients. Chinese patients had a mortality rate of 35.7%, highest of all racial and ethnic groups. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbidities, only Chinese patients had significantly higher odds of mortality than non-Hispanic White patients (odds ratio = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.04-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Asian American people, particularly those of South Asian and Chinese descent, bear a substantial and disproportionate health burden of COVID-19. These findings underscore the need for improved data collection and reporting and public health efforts to mitigate disparities in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among these groups.

Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Social Determinants of Health/ethnology , Adult , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety-net Providers , Young Adult