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Kidney International Reports ; 7(9):S471, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2041699


Introduction: Vaccination is a known trigger for the development of de-novo or flare of glomerular diseases. Here we present a case series of fourteen patients with COVID vaccine- associated glomerular diseases (CVAGD). Methods: Patients with new onset proteinuria, hematuria or renal failure after SARS- CoV2 vaccine were included in the study. Demographic and clinical details were collected and laboratory investigations including serum creatinine, albumin, urine microscopy and urine spot protein creatinine ratio were done. Renal biopsy specimens were subjected to light microscopy and immunofluorescence examination. Results: We cared for 14 patients with CVAGD. Of them, eight patients were males. The mean age was 25.7 years. Three patients had relapse of their previous disease while eleven patients had no previously detected renal diseases. Eleven patients had received COVISHIELD and three had received COVAXIN. All patients presented after the first vaccine dose. At presentation, seven patients had nephrotic syndrome, two patients had rapidly progressive renal failure and five patients had nephritic syndrome. The mean duration of symptom onset after vaccination was 18 days. Renal biopsy revealed IgA nephropathy in 3 patients, endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis in 2 patients, minimal change disease in 5 patients, pauci- immune glomerulonephritis (ANCA associated vasculitis) in one patient, lupus nephritis ISN/RPS class 3 in one and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two patients. There was no history of COVID infection in any of our patients. Three patients had renal failure at presentation but none required renal replacement therapy. The patients with MCD and FSGS were treated with steroids, patients with ANCA vasculitis and lupus nephritis were managed with the appropriate Cyclophosphamide and steroid regimens while the others were managed conservatively with anti-proteinuric medications. On follow up, five patients (One IgAN, three MCD, one endocapillary proliferative GN) achieved complete remission of proteinuria and resolution of renal failure, while the remaining eight patients achieved partial remission. One patient with MCD had a relapse of proteinuria 3 weeks after achieving partial remission, he responded well to steroid therapy. All 14 patients remain on close follow up. Conclusions: Although causality cannot be definitively established, there is a definite temporal association between the presentation of glomerular diseases and COVID vaccination, in the absence of other inciting factors. Hence, new-onset or relapse of glomerular diseases presenting post vaccination, although rare, should be observed as a possible adverse event. Intriguing questions such as how to proceed with the vaccination schedule in patients with CVAGD and would changing the vaccine type reduce the risk of relapse remain unanswered. No conflict of interest