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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327477

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination of healthy individuals is highly immunogenic and protective against severe COVID-19. However, there are limited data on how disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) alter SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine immunogenicity in patients with autoimmune diseases. Here we investigated the induction and stability of vaccine-specific antibodies, B cells, and T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on different DMTs in a prospective cohort study up to 6 months after homologous prime-boost mRNA vaccination. We analysed 103 MS patients of which 86 received anti-CD20-based B cell depletion (aCD20-BCD), fingolimod, interferon-β, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide or natalizumab, and compared them to 17 untreated MS patients. In contrast to all other DMTs and untreated patients, treatment with aCD20-BCD or fingolimod significantly reduced anti-S1 IgG, serum neutralizing activity, and RBD- and S2-specific B cells. MS patients receiving fingolimod additionally lacked S1- and S2-reactive CD4 + T cell responses. The duration of fingolimod treatment, rather than peripheral blood B and T cell counts prior to vaccination, determined whether patients successfully developed humoral immune responses. Fingolimod blocks the ability of immune cells to recirculate and migrate within secondary lymphoid organs demonstrating that functional immune responses require not only immune cells themselves but also access of these cells to the site of inoculation and their unimpeded movement. The absence of humoral and T cell responses in fingolimod-treated MS patients suggests that these patients are at risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infections despite vaccination, which is highly relevant for clinical decision-making and adapted protective measures, particularly in light of additional recently approved S1P receptor antagonists for MS treatment.

2.
J Immunol ; 208(5): 1001-1005, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674946

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a main risk factor for severe COVID-19. However, low vaccination efficacy and accelerated waning immunity have been reported in this age group. To elucidate age-related differences in immunogenicity, we analyzed human cellular, serological, and salivary SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein-specific immune responses to the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine in old (69-92 y) and middle-aged (24-57 y) vaccinees compared with natural infection (COVID-19 convalescents, 21-55 y of age). Serological humoral responses to vaccination excee-ded those of convalescents, but salivary anti-spike subunit 1 (S1) IgA and neutralizing capacity were less durable in vaccinees. In old vaccinees, we observed that pre-existing spike-specific CD4+ T cells are associated with efficient induction of anti-S1 IgG and neutralizing capacity in serum but not saliva. Our results suggest pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells as a predictor of an efficient COVID-19 vaccine-induced humoral immune response in old individuals.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Science ; 374(6564): eabh1823, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381146

ABSTRACT

The functional relevance of preexisting cross-immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a subject of intense debate. Here, we show that human endemic coronavirus (HCoV)­reactive and SARS-CoV-2­cross-reactive CD4+ T cells are ubiquitous but decrease with age. We identified a universal immunodominant coronavirus-specific spike peptide (S816-830) and demonstrate that preexisting spike- and S816-830­reactive T cells were recruited into immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their frequency correlated with anti­SARS-CoV-2-S1-IgG antibodies. Spike­cross-reactive T cells were also activated after primary BNT162b2 COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccination and displayed kinetics similar to those of secondary immune responses. Our results highlight the functional contribution of preexisting spike­cross-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. Cross-reactive immunity may account for the unexpectedly rapid induction of immunity after primary SARS-CoV-2 immunization and the high rate of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 disease courses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , CD3 Complex/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Open Reading Frames , Peptide Fragments/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
4.
Nature ; 587(7833): 270-274, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684778

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the rapidly unfolding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1,2. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary, ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory failure. The mechanisms that determine such variable outcomes remain unresolved. Here we investigated CD4+ T cells that are reactive against the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in the peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed healthy donors. We detected spike-reactive CD4+ T cells not only in 83% of patients with COVID-19 but also in 35% of healthy donors. Spike-reactive CD4+ T cells in healthy donors were primarily active against C-terminal epitopes in the spike protein, which show a higher homology to spike glycoproteins of human endemic coronaviruses, compared with N-terminal epitopes. Spike-protein-reactive T cell lines generated from SARS-CoV-2-naive healthy donors responded similarly to the C-terminal region of the spike proteins of the human endemic coronaviruses 229E and OC43, as well as that of SARS-CoV-2. This results indicate that spike-protein cross-reactive T cells are present, which were probably generated during previous encounters with endemic coronaviruses. The effect of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells on clinical outcomes remains to be determined in larger cohorts. However, the presence of spike-protein cross-reactive T cells in a considerable fraction of the general population may affect the dynamics of the current pandemic, and has important implications for the design and analysis of upcoming trials investigating COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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