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1.
Qatar Med J ; 2022(2): 26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to pulmonary function testing (PFT), local and international recommendations advise pre-procedural screening. Pulmonary function tests generate aerosol droplets containing millions of viruses, significantly increasing the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission not only to the individuals in and around the PFT office, but also to subsequent patients who undergo the test later in the same room. METHODS: This clinical audit was carried out to establish the rate of positive pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing before a PFT. The data were obtained over a 6-week period from our ATS accredited pulmonary function laboratory at the Hamad General Hospital, Qatar (December 01, 2021, to January 10, 2022). The PFT laboratory was closed from January 10, 2022, till the date of this report (January 27, 2022) owing to an increase in COVID cases in the community in Qatar during the fourth wave. RESULTS: All the patients scheduled for PFT were asymptomatic of COVID-19. A total of 331 individuals were scheduled for PFT, and 221 PFTs were performed. There were 109 no-shows for both the PCR and the PFT. Between weeks 1 and 4, all the pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were negative. The weekly average number of COVID-19 cases in Qatar increased from 157 per 100,000 population in week 1 to 2,918 in week 6.2 There was a similar trend in the pre-procedural SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests that increased and resulted in identifying 9 cases with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test over weeks 5 and 6 (Figure 1). CONCLUSION: As the number of documented positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests in the community grew, so did the pre-procedural COVID-19 PCR positivity and the number of no-shows. The large number of no-shows may indicate greater worry or concern about contracting COVID-19 when visiting the hospital amid peak community cases. Our findings further call into question the utility of routinely performing pre-procedural PCR screening in asymptomatic cases when the prevalence of COVID-19 is low in the local population. Perhaps, it is time to consider replacing this with on-the-spot quick antigen testing for more effective use of resources.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14090, 2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303787

ABSTRACT

MAIT cells have been shown to be activated upon several viral infections in a TCR-independent manner by responding to inflammatory cytokines secreted by antigen-presenting cells. Recently, a few studies have shown a similar activation of MAIT cells in response to severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the frequency and phenotype of MAIT cells by flow cytometry, and we test in vitro stimulation conditions on the capacity to enhance or rescue the antiviral function of MAIT cells from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our study, in agreement with recently published studies, confirmed the decline in MAIT cell frequency of hospitalized donors in comparison to healthy donors. MAIT cells of COVID-19 patients also had lower expression levels of TNF-alpha, perforin and granzyme B upon stimulation with IL-12 + IL-18. 24 h' incubation with IL-7 successfully restored perforin expression levels in COVID-19 patients. Combined, our findings support the growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 is dysregulating MAIT cells and that IL-7 treatment might improve their function, rendering them more effective in protecting the body against the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Interleukin-7/pharmacology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/physiology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Cells, Cultured , Female , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Perforin/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Diabet Med ; 38(11): e14608, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273085

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Aim of this study is to report severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a possible cause for type 1 diabetes by providing an illustrative clinical case of a man aged 45 years presenting with antibody-negative diabetic ketoacidosis post-recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia and to explore the potential for SARS-CoV-2 to adhere to human islet cells. METHODS: Explanted human islet cells from three independent solid organ donors were incubated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor biding domain (RBD) fused to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or a control-GFP, with differential adherence established by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Flow cytometry revealed dose-dependent specific binding of RBD-GFP to islet cells when compared to control-GFP. CONCLUSIONS: Although a causal basis remains to be established, our case and in vitro data highlight a potential mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in antibody-negative type 1 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101269, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885431

ABSTRACT

Common radiological findings of COVID -19 infection include bilateral ground-glass opacities in lower lobes with a peripheral distribution. Pleural effusion is considered a rare manifestation of COVID -19 infection. We present a 52 years old patient with a three-week history of right-sided pleuritic chest pain, fever, and dyspnea. Laboratory investigations revealed high C-reactive protein and ferritin levels and a positive COVID-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. Chest X-ray and Computed tomography (CT) identified a moderate right-sided pleural effusion, which was exudative with mixed cellularity and high Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Histopathology of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy didn't reveal granulomas, malignancy, or any microbiological growth. We postulate that having ruled out any other cause the effusion was likely related to the Covid-19 infection. Our case highlights that COVID-19 can present with isolated pleural effusions, therefore it should be kept as an etiology of effusions especially if other possible causes have been ruled out.

5.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101265, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It mainly affects the lungs and common symptoms are fever, cough and shortness of breath. Pneumothorax has been noted to complicate Covid-19 cases requiring hospital admission, however the exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. DISCUSSION: We present a series of 3 cases of primary spontaneous pneumothorax with Covid-19 pneumonia. All cases in our series did not require positive pressure ventilation and none had any pre-existing lung disease. All were never smokers and had favourable outcomes despite having severe Covid-19 with a pneumothorax during the course of the disease. In our literature review we discuss several plausible mechanisms and risk factors resulting in a pneumothorax with Covid-19. CONCLUSION: Our cases are a reminder that an acute deterioration with hypoxia in a Covid-19 patient could indicate a pneumothorax. Pneumothorax is one of the reported complications in Covid-19 and clinician vigilance is required during assessment of patients, as both share the common symptom of breathlessness and therefore can mimic each other.

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