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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical differences between critical illness from influenza infection versus coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been well characterized in pediatric patients. METHODS: We compared U.S. children (8 months to 17 years) admitted to the intensive care or high acuity unit with influenza (17 hospitals, 12/19/2019-3/9/2020) or COVID-19 (52 hospitals, 3/15/2020-12/31/2020). We compared demographics, underlying conditions, clinical presentation, severity, and outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we assessed the odds of death or requiring life-support for influenza versus COVID-19 after adjustment for age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and underlying conditions including obesity. RESULTS: Children with influenza (n = 179) were younger than those with COVID-19 (n = 381; median 5.2 vs. 13.8 years), less likely to be non-Hispanic black (14.5% vs. 27.6%) or Hispanic (24.0% vs. 36.2%), and less likely to have ≥1 underlying condition (66.4% vs. 78.5%) or be obese (21.4% vs. 42.2%). They were similarly likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation (both 30.2%), vasopressor support (19.6% and 19.9%), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.2% and 2.9%). Four children with influenza (2.2%) and 11 children with COVID-19 (2.9%) died. The odds of death or requiring life-support in children with influenza vs. COVID-19 were similar (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI: 0.78-2.15; P = 0.32]). Median duration of hospital stay was shorter for influenza than COVID-19 (5 versus 7 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in demographics and clinical characteristics of children with influenza or COVID-19, the frequency of life-threatening complications was similar. Our findings highlight the importance of implementing prevention measures to reduce transmission and disease severity of influenza and COVID-19.

2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in millions of deaths worldwide and is considered a significant mass-casualty disaster (MCD). The surge of patients and scarcity of resources negatively impacted hospitals, patients and medical practice. We hypothesized ICUs during this MCD had a higher acuity of illness, and subsequently had increased lengths of stay (LOS), complication rates, death rates and costs of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate those outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective study that compared intensive care admissions in 2020 to those in 2019 to evaluate patient outcomes and cost of care. Data were obtained from the Vizient Clinical Data Base/Resource Manager (Vizient Inc., Irvine, Texas, USA). RESULTS: Data included the number of ICU admissions, patient outcomes, case mix index and summary of cost reports. Quality outcomes were also collected, and a total of 1304981 patients from 333 hospitals were included. For all medical centers, there was a significant increase in LOS index, ICU LOS, complication rate, case mix index, total cost, and direct cost index. CONCLUSION: The MCD caused by COVID-19 was associated with increased adverse outcomes and cost-of-care for ICU patients.

3.
Respir Med Res ; 81: 100909, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mitigation strategies were implemented during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that slowed the spread of this virus and other respiratory viruses. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on the medical services that children less than 1 year of age with acute bronchiolitis required (emergency department services, hospitalization, critical care services, and mechanical ventilation). METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study utilizing TriNetX ® electronic health record (EHR) data. We included subjects less than 1 year of age with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. After the query, the study population was divided into two groups [pre-COVID-19 (March 1st, 2019 until February 29th, 2020) and COVID-19 (March 1st, 2020 until February 1th, 2021)]. We analyzed the following data: age, sex, race, diagnostic codes, common terminology procedures (CPT), and antimicrobials administered. RESULTS: A total of 5063 subjects (n,%) were included [4378 (86.5%) pre-COVID-19 and 685 (13.5%) during the COVID-19 pandemic]. More subjects were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID time frame (4378, 1.8% of all hospitalizations) when compared to the COVID-19 pandemic time frame (685, 0.5%). When diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, the frequency of emergency department services, critical care services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilationwere similar between the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, less infants were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis but the frequency of emergency department services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation, reportedly required was similar. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on common viruses that require critical care.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis, Viral , Bronchiolitis , COVID-19 , Viruses , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis, Viral/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Pandemics
4.
J Child Neurol ; 37(5): 410-415, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be associated with febrile seizures, but the overall frequency and outcomes are unknown. The objectives of this study are to (1) determine the frequency of pediatric subjects diagnosed with febrile seizures and COVID-19, (2) evaluate patient characteristics, and (3) describe the treatments (medications and need for invasive mechanical ventilation) applied. METHODS: This was a retrospective study utilizing TriNetX electronic health record data. We included subjects ranging from 0 to 5 years of age with a diagnosis of febrile seizures (R56.00, R56.01) and COVID-19 (U07.1). We extracted the following data: age, race, ethnicity, diagnostic codes, medications, laboratory results, and procedures. RESULTS: During this study period, 8854 pediatric subjects aged 0-5 years were diagnosed with COVID-19 among 34 health care organizations and 44 (0.5%) were also diagnosed with febrile seizures (simple, 30 [68.2%]; complex, 14 [31.8%]). The median age was 1.5 years (1, 2), there were no reported epilepsy diagnoses, and a proportion required hospitalization (11; 25.0%) and critical care services (4; 9.1%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infections in children can be associated with febrile seizures. In our study, 0.5% of COVID-19 subjects were diagnosed with febrile seizures and approximately 9% of subjects were reported to require critical care services. Febrile seizures, although serious, are not a commonly diagnosed neurologic manifestation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Seizures, Febrile , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures, Febrile/diagnosis , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(5): 191-198, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear how acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-directed therapies are used in children with life-threatening COVID-19 in US hospitals. We described characteristics of children hospitalized in the intensive care unit or step-down unit (ICU/SDU) who received COVID-19-directed therapies and the specific therapies administered. METHODS: Between March 15, 2020 and December 27, 2020, children <18 years of age in the ICU/SDU with acute COVID-19 at 48 pediatric hospitals in the United States were identified. Demographics, laboratory values, and clinical course were compared in children who did and did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies. Trends in COVID-19-directed therapies over time were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 424 children in the ICU/SDU, 235 (55%) received COVID-19-directed therapies. Children who received COVID-19-directed therapies were older than those who did not receive COVID-19-directed therapies (13.3 [5.6-16.2] vs 9.8 [0.65-15.9] years), more had underlying medical conditions (188 [80%] vs 104 [55%]; difference = 25% [95% CI: 16% to 34%]), more received respiratory support (206 [88%] vs 71 [38%]; difference = 50% [95% CI: 34% to 56%]), and more died (8 [3.4%] vs 0). Of the 235 children receiving COVID-19-directed therapies, 172 (73%) received systemic steroids and 150 (64%) received remdesivir, with rising remdesivir use over the study period (14% in March/April to 57% November/December). CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of pediatric data evaluating treatments for COVID-19 in critically ill children, more than half of children requiring intensive or high acuity care received COVID-19-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units , United States
6.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(6): e90-e94, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with pulmonary embolism in adults, but the clinical circumstances surrounding its presence are unknown in children. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in pediatric subjects with COVID-19, evaluate patient characteristics, and describe treatments applied. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using TriNetX electronic health record data of subjects aged <18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code U07.1). Pulmonary embolism was identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, code I26. We additionally collected data on age, sex, race, ethnicity, all diagnostic codes, medications, procedures, laboratory results, comorbidities, and outcomes. RESULTS: During the study period, 24 723 pediatric subjects were reported to have a COVID-19 infection diagnosis among 41 health care organizations, of which 693 (2.8%) were hospitalized. Eight subjects (0.03% overall and 1.2% of hospitalized patients) were diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. The median age (25th to 75th percentile) of patients diagnosed with pulmonary embolism was 16.5 years, and median (25th to 75th percentile) BMI was 22.1 (19.6-47.9). Three (37.5%) received critical care services, and 1 (12.5%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Five (62.5%) subjects had potentially significant risk factors (obesity, malignancy, recent surgery, and oral contraceptive use). All patients received anticoagulation, but none underwent thrombolysis. There were no reported deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Although pulmonary embolism is diagnosed less commonly in children than in adults, its occurrence appears to be more frequent in children hospitalized with COVID-19, as compared with previous reports in hospitalized children in general. All patients survived, with only 1 requiring mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Causality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(5): 536-547, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118065

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the nervous system in adult patients. The spectrum of neurologic involvement in children and adolescents is unclear. Objective: To understand the range and severity of neurologic involvement among children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of patients (age <21 years) hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and December 15, 2020, with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test result (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) at 61 US hospitals in the Overcoming COVID-19 public health registry, including 616 (36%) meeting criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiologic features. Exposures: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, and outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits) at hospital discharge. Results: Of 1695 patients (909 [54%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 9.1 [2.4-15.3] years), 365 (22%) from 52 sites had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement were more likely to have underlying neurologic disorders (81 of 365 [22%]) compared with those without (113 of 1330 [8%]), but a similar number were previously healthy (195 [53%] vs 723 [54%]) and met criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (126 [35%] vs 490 [37%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 322 (88%) had transient symptoms and survived, and 43 (12%) developed life-threatening conditions clinically adjudicated to be associated with COVID-19, including severe encephalopathy (n = 15; 5 with splenial lesions), stroke (n = 12), central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 8), Guillain-Barré syndrome/variants (n = 4), and acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 4). Compared with those without life-threatening conditions (n = 322), those with life-threatening neurologic conditions had higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (median, 12.2 vs 4.4) and higher reported frequency of D-dimer greater than 3 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units (21 [49%] vs 72 [22%]). Of 43 patients who developed COVID-19-related life-threatening neurologic involvement, 17 survivors (40%) had new neurologic deficits at hospital discharge, and 11 patients (26%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, many children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children had neurologic involvement, mostly transient symptoms. A range of life-threatening and fatal neurologic conditions associated with COVID-19 infrequently occurred. Effects on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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